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In this paper, we use finite element analysis (FEA) to study the linear viscoelastic response of polyurea, a type of hard–soft block copolymer. A Niblack's algorithm-based technique employed on atomic force microscopy images provides geometry inputs for the FEA model, while the viscoelastic master curves of the soft matrix are obtained via a combination of dynamic mechanical analysis data and molecular dynamic (MD) estimations. In this microstructural image-based FEA framework, we introduce an interphase area of altered properties between the hard and soft domains. Both spatial and property distributions of this interphase area affect the viscoelastic response of the copolymer system. To quantitatively investigate the impact of structural and property features of the interphase on the energy storage and dissipation of a system during linear perturbation, we develop a statistical descriptor representation of the interphase region related to physical parameters. Utilizing decision-tree and random forest concepts from machine learning, we apply a ranking algorithm to identify the most significant features for four different mechanical response descriptors. Results show that the total interphase volume fraction and shifting factor distributions in the interphase area dominate the magnitude of the tan δ peak, whereas the magnitudes of the shifting factors primarily affect the tan δ peak location in frequency space. This method allows us to readily identify the dominant features impacting individual properties and paves the way for material design of hard–soft block copolymer systems.
Cognitive decline in advanced age is closely related to dementia. The trajectory of cognitive function in older Chinese is yet to be fully investigated. We aimed to investigate the trajectories of cognitive function in a nationally representative sample of older people living in China and to explore the potential determinants of these trajectories.
This study included 2,038 cognitively healthy persons aged 65–104 years at their first observation in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2002 to 2014. Cognitive function was measured using the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify potential heterogeneity of longitudinal changes over the 12 years and to investigate associations between baseline predictors of group membership and these trajectories.
Three trajectories were identified according to the following types of changes in MMSE scores: slow decline (14.0%), rapid decline (4.5%), and stable function (81.5%). Older age, female gender, having no schooling, a low frequency of leisure activity, and a low baseline MMSE score were associated with the slow decline trajectory. Older age, body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m2, and having more than one cardiovascular disease (CVD) were associated with the rapid decline trajectory.
Three trajectories of cognitive function were identified in the older Chinese population. The identified determinants of these trajectories could be targeted for developing prevention and intervention strategies for dementia.
In the process of composing a double-differenced positioning model, it is difficult to separate different frequency signals between code division multiple access (CDMA) systems, the single-difference ambiguity of the pivot satellite and phase differential inter-system biases (PDISBs). Hence it is difficult to calibrate in advance the bias between systems in order to build an inter-system model which only needs one pivot satellite. Based on analysis of the stability of PDISB parameters for non-overlapping frequency CDMA systems, this study adopts a particle filter to estimate the fractional part of the PDISBs (F-PDISBs) between the systems and proposes a particle filter-based inter-system positioning model. Results show that the F-PDISBs and code DISBs for the baselines with the same receiver types and some with different receiver types are rather stable over time and for these baselines it is feasible to use a particle filter to estimate the F-PDISB parameters in the initial stage. Having attained the F-PDISBs, the inter-system model can be constructed to improve positioning accuracy in complex operational environments.
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently the most common ectoparasite affecting egg-laying hens. Since continuous culture of D. gallinae on birds is a biologically and economically costly endeavour, storage techniques for mites are urgently needed. Effects of temperature on adult and nymph survival were first studied to optimize storage conditions. Then, fecundity of D. gallinae was studied after mites were stored at optimal storage conditions. Results showed the survival rates of protonymphs (42.11%), deutonymphs (8.19%) and females (19.78%) at 5°C after 84 days were higher than those at 0, 25 and 30°C. Thereafter the fecundity and the capability of re-establishing colonies of D. gallinae were evaluated after they were stored for 40 and 80 days at 5°C. After storage, the mean number of eggs showed no statistical difference between treated (5°C for 40 or 80 days) and control groups (25°C for 7 days), while the hatching rates of eggs were in all cases above 97%. The dynamic changes of mite populations and egg numbers showed similar trends to the control group after the stored adult or nymph mites were fed on chicks. Dermanyssus gallinae can be successfully stored at 5°C for 80 days with no interference with the fecundity of mites, and the stored mites could re-establish colonies successfully. Adults and nymphs were two main stages with capability for low temperature storage. These results suggest that low temperature storage is a viable option for colony maintenance of D. gallinae under laboratory conditions.
Inter-system code double differencing is an effective method for improving the positioning accuracy of low-cost receivers in complex environments. Due to the adoption of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) code observations are affected by the Inter-Frequency Code Biases (IFCBs), which makes it difficult to calculate the Differential Inter-System Code Biases (DISCBs) between GLONASS and the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems directly. In this contribution, the focus is on the performance of tightly combined Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLONASS code Double Difference (DD) positioning. After analysing the relationship between IFCBs and GLONASS channel numbers, an IFCB correction model and an inter-system code differencing model between GLONASS and GPS are proposed. Results show that even if there is no obvious relationship between IFCBs and channel numbers, the long-term stable IFCB values of each satellite can be obtained by using the proposed model. In addition, the GPS + GLONASS DISCB is also stable. Therefore, compared with the intra-system model, the inter-system model can benefit from prior IFCBs and DISCBs parameters and thus can significantly improve the positioning accuracy in obstructed environments.
Computerized cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) is generally effective for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. However, there is much uncertainty about what factors mediate or moderate effectiveness and are therefore important to personalize treatment and boost its effects.
In total, 311 Chinese inpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV schizophrenia were randomized to receive CCRT or Active control for 12 weeks with four to five sessions per week. All participants were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. The outcomes were cognition, clinical symptoms and functional outcomes.
There was a significant benefit in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) total score for CCRT (F1,258 = 5.62; p = 0.02; effect size was 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.49). There were no specific moderators of CCRT improvements. However, across both groups, Wisconsin Card Sort Test improvement mediated a positive effect on functional capacity and Digit Span benefit mediated decreases in positive symptoms. In exploratory analyses younger and older participants showed cognitive improvements but on different tests (younger on Symbol Coding Test, while older on the Spatial Span Test). Only the older age group showed MSCEIT benefits at post-treatment. In addition, cognition at baseline negatively correlated with cognitive improvement and those whose MCCB baseline total score was around 31 seem to derive the most benefit.
CCRT can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia. Changes in cognitive outcomes also contributed to improvements in functional outcomes either directly or solely in the context of CCRT. Age and the basic cognitive level of the participants seem to affect the cognitive benefits from CCRT.
Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) have been researched extensively for solving traffic issues and for realising the concept of an intelligent transport system. A well-developed positioning system is critical for CAVs to achieve these aims. The system should provide high accuracy, mobility, continuity, flexibility and scalability. However, high-performance equipment is too expensive for the commercial use of CAVs; therefore, the use of a low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver to achieve real-time, high-accuracy and ubiquitous positioning performance will be a future trend. This research used RTKLIB software to develop a low-cost GNSS receiver positioning system and assessed the developed positioning system according to the requirements of CAV applications. Kinematic tests were conducted to evaluate the positioning performance of the low-cost receiver in a CAV driving environment based on the accuracy requirements of CAVs. The results showed that the low-cost receiver satisfied the “Where in Lane” accuracy level (0·5 m) and achieved a similar positioning performance in rural, interurban, urban and motorway areas.
High-power orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams have distinct advantages in improving capacity and data receiving for free-space optical communication systems at long distances. Utilizing the coherent combination of a beam array technique and helical phase approximation by a piston phase array, we have proposed a generating system for a novel high-power beam carrying OAM, which could overcome the power limitations of a common vortex phase modulator and a single beam. The characteristics of this generating method and the orthogonality of the generated OAM beams with different eigenstates have been theoretically analyzed and verified. Also a high-power OAM beam produced by coherent beam combination (CBC) of a six-element hexagonal fiber amplifier array has been experimentally implemented. Results show that the CBC technique utilized to control the piston phase differences among the array beams has a high efficiency of 96.3%. On the premise of CBC, we have obtained novel vortex beams carrying OAM of
by applying an additional piston phase array modulation on the corresponding beam array. The experimental results agree approximately with the theoretical analysis. This work could be beneficial to areas that need high-power OAM beams, such as ultra-long distance free-space optical communications, biomedical treatments, and powerful trapping and manipulation under deep potential wells.
High-peak-power transform-limited narrow-linewidth nanosecond all-fiber lasers are desired in a range of applications. However, their linewidths will be broadened by self-phase modulation (SPM). We propose a novel concept that generates transform-limited laser pulses by temporally shaping the pulse seed. The impact of the pulse shape on SPM-induced spectral broadening was studied numerically and experimentally. It was found theoretically that the square-shape pulsed laser is immune to SPM-induced spectral broadening. Based on this principle, we built a high-peak-power, linearly polarized, square-shape nanosecond all-fiber laser in a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) limited peak powers of 4.02 kW, 5.06 kW, 6.52 kW and 9.30 kW were obtained at pulse widths of 8 ns, 7 ns, 6 ns and 5 ns. Thanks to the square-shape pulsed seed, the linewidths at maximum peak power remained at 129.5 MHz, 137.6 MHz, 156.2 MHz and 200.1 MHz, respectively, close to the transform-limited values of 110.8 MHz, 126.6 MHz, 147.7 MHz and 177.3 MHz.
X-ray powder diffraction data for (S)-methyl-2-hexanamido-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate, C16H23NO4, are reported [a = 17.795(4) Å, b = 15.101(1) Å, c = 12.746(3) Å, unit-cell volume V = 3425.51 Å3, Z = 8, and space group P212121]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group. No detectable impurities were observed. The single crystallographic data of the compound are also reported [a = 12.5998(3) Å, b = 17.6856(5) Å, c = 14.6711(5) Å, unit-cell volume V = 3269.25(16) Å3, Z = 8, and space group P212121]. Because of the single-crystal diffraction data were measured at low temperature (110 K), the cell parameters, volume, and calculated density of single-crystal experiment have slight differences with powder diffraction results.
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect is considered to be one of the main obstacles for power scaling in general-type fiber lasers. Different from previous techniques that aim at suppressing SRS, nonlinear fiber amplifier (NFA), which manipulates and employs the SRS for power scaling in rare-earth-doped fiber, is under intensive research in recent years. In this paper, the authors will present an all-round study on this new kind of high-power fiber amplifier. A theoretical model is proposed based on the rate equation and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), with random noise taken into account. By numerical solving of the theoretical model, the power scaling potential, heat analysis and advantages in suppressing the undesired backscattering light are quantificationally analyzed for the first time. Then two different types of high-power NFAs are demonstrated individually. Firstly, a laser diode pumped NFA has reached kilowatt output power, and the results agree well with theoretical predictions. Secondly, a tandem-pumped NFA is proposed for the first time and validated experimentally, in which 1.5 kW output power has been achieved. The authors also briefly discuss several new issues relating to the complex nonlinear dynamics that occur in high-power NFAs, which might be interesting topics for future endeavors.
Compared with traditional uniform fibers, tapered fiber has numerous unique advantages, such as larger mode area, higher pump absorption, suppression to nonlinear effects, and maintaining good beam quality. In this manuscript, we have constructed an all-fiberized fiber amplifier which is based on a piece of ytterbium-doped tapered double-clad fiber (T-DCF). The fiber amplifier is operated under continuous wave (CW) regime at 1080 nm wavelength. The
factor of the amplifier at 1.39 kW output power is
. The maximum output power of the system reached 1.47 kW, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest output power of long tapered fiber based fiber laser system. Our result successfully verifies the potential of power scalability and all-fiberized capability of long tapered fiber, and the performance of our system can be further enhanced by fiber design optimization.
Several epidemiological studies have been performed to evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the results remain controversial. Thus, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to assess the associations of fruit or/and vegetable consumption with risk of MetS, separately.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases up to July 2017 for relevant available articles. Pooled OR with 95 % CI were calculated with the fixed- or random-effects model.
A total of nine studies for fruit consumption, nine studies for vegetable consumption and seven studies for fruit and vegetable consumption were identified as eligible for the present meta-analysis. The pooled OR (95 % CI) of MetS for the highest v. lowest category were 0·87 (0·82, 0·92; I2=46·7 %) for fruit consumption, 0·85 (0·80, 0·91; I2=0·0 %) for vegetable consumption and 0·76 (0·62, 0·93; I2=83·5 %) for fruit and vegetable consumption. In subgroup analyses stratified by continent where the study was conducted, the inverse association of fruit consumption (0·86 (0·77, 0·96)) and vegetable consumption (0·86 (0·80, 0·92)) with risk of MetS remained significant in Asia. There was no evidence of small-study effect.
Our meta-analysis indicates that fruit or/and vegetable consumption may be inversely associated with risk of MetS. It suggests that people should consume more fruits and vegetables to decrease the risk of MetS.
We evaluate the relative importance of climate change, fluvial dynamics, and anthropogenic environmental modification in forming the Holocene sedimentary record of the Luoyang Basin, a tributary drainage basin of the Yellow River, located in western Henan Province, China. Our 2011 fieldwork south of the Erlitou site in the Luoyang Basin indicates that an unconformity dating to ca. AD 1100 is roughly coincident with a major southward shift in the lower course of the Yellow River. In AD 1128, the governor of Kaifeng breached the dikes of the Yellow River to impede an advancing army, causing the Yellow River to flow south out to the Yellow Sea. We argue that the dike breach not only changed the fluvial dynamics of the Yellow River but also switched the rivers in the Luoyang Basin from an aggrading to an incising system. The resumption of sedimentation in the Luoyang Basin is roughly coincident with the next major shift of the Yellow River’s main course northward to the Bohai Sea in AD 1855. The unconformity found in the Luoyang Basin may be a legacy of historically contingent human agency rather than climatic shifts or gradual environmental modification.
2-[((3R)-5-oxo-4-phenyltetrahydrofuran-3-yl)methyl]isoindoline-1,3-dione, C19H15NO4, was synthesized for the first time. Its structure was characterized by element analysis, ultraviolet spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and single X-ray diffraction (SXRD). X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data of title compound were collected and calculated. The result of SXRD shows that its crystal system is orthorhombic, space group is Pbca, and unit-cell parameters are a = 8.861 57(7), b = 14.6666(10), c = 24.4247(19) Å, α =β =γ =90°, unit-cell volume V = 3174.4 Å3, and Z = 8. All XRPD measured lines were indexed and consistent with the Pbca space group [a = 14.639(7), b = 24.378(3), c = 8.918(1) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 3182.7(9) Å3, Z = 8]. No detectable impurities were observed.
The performance of Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) integrated navigation is reduced when GPS is blocked. This paper proposes an algorithm to overcome the condition where GPS is unavailable. Together with a parameter-optimised Genetic Algorithm (GA), a Support Vector Regression (SVR) algorithm is used to construct the mapping function between the specific force, angular rate increments of INS measurements and the increments of the GPS position. During GPS outages, the real-time pseudo-GPS position is predicted with the mapping function, and the corresponding covariance matrix is estimated by an improved adaptive filtering algorithm. A GPS/INS integration scheme is demonstrated where the vehicle travels along a straight line and around a curve, with respect to both low-speed-stable and high-speed-unstable navigation platforms. The results show that the proposed algorithm provides a better performance when GPS is unavailable.
We have clarified the performance of two tungsten–helium analytical interatomic potentials, one of which, developed by Li et al., is a bond-order potential, and another, developed by Juslin et al., is a combination of embedded atom method potential and pair potential. Using these two potentials, we have simulated and made a full comparison of formation energy and migration energy of different defects including helium and vacancy, binding energies of helium and vacancy with helium-vacancy cluster, surface energy, as well as melting point, with reference to the corresponding results from the first-principles and experiments.
A new nonlinear robust filter is proposed in this paper to deal with the outliers of an integrated Global Positioning System/Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (GPS/SINS) navigation system. The influence of different design parameters for an H∞ cubature Kalman filter is analysed. It is found that when the design parameter is small, the robustness of the filter is stronger. However, the design parameter is easily out of step in the Riccati equation and the filter easily diverges. In this respect, a singular value decomposition algorithm is employed to replace the Cholesky decomposition in the robust cubature Kalman filter. With large conditions for the design parameter, the new filter is more robust. The test results demonstrate that the proposed filter algorithm is more reliable and effective in dealing with the outliers in the data sets produced by the integrated GPS/SINS system.
Two Cloisonné enamel architectural components from Fuwangge in the Forbidden City that were produced from Yangzhou (one production center) in Qing Dynasty (1616-1911 A.D.) were chosen and analyzed. A combination of Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy was successfully used to analyze eight colors in enamel glazes (yellow, white, pink, turquoise, yellow green, deep blue, red and deep green). Chemical composition results reveal that the enamel glaze matrix belongs to lead-potash-lime glass (PbO-K2O-CaO-SiO2). Based on Raman spectroscopy, lead-tin yellow types II, cassiterite, lead arsenate, fluorite and hematite were found as opacifiers and/or colorants. In addition, a detailed discussion of raw materials, such as fluorite and borax, might provide valuable information to trace manufacturing technology and provenance.
Maintaining good positioning performance has always been a challenging task for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications in partially obstructed environments. A method that can optimise positioning performance in harsh environments is proposed. Using a carrier double-difference (DD) model, the influence of the satellite-pair geometry on the correlation among different equations has been researched. This addresses the critical relationship between DD equations and its ill-posedness. From analysing the collected multi-constellation observations, a strong correlation between the condition number and the positioning standard deviation is detected as the correlation coefficient is larger than 0·92. Based on this finding, a new method for determining the reference satellites by using the minimum condition number rather than the maximum elevation is proposed. This reduces the ill-posedness of the co-factor matrix, which improves the single-epoch positioning solution with a fixed DD ambiguity. Finally, evaluation trials are carried out by masking some satellites to simulate common satellite obstruction scenarios including azimuth shielding, elevation shielding and strip shielding. Results indicate the proposed approach improves the positioning stability with multi-constellation satellites notably in harsh environments.