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Data on average iodine requirements for the Chinese population are limited following implementation of long-term universal salt iodisation. We explored the minimum iodine requirements of young adults in China using a balance experiment and the ‘iodine overflow’ hypothesis proposed by our team. Sixty healthy young adults were enrolled to consume a sequential experimental diet containing low, medium and high levels of iodine (about 20, 40 and 60 μg/d, respectively). Each dose was consumed for 4 d, and daily iodine intake, excretion and retention were assessed. All participants were in negative iodine balance throughout the study. Iodine intake, excretion and retention differed among the three iodine levels (P < 0·01 for all groups). The zero-iodine balance derived from a random effect model indicated a mean iodine intake of 102 μg/d, but poor correlation coefficients between observed and predicted iodine excretion (r 0·538 for μg/d data) and retention (r 0·304 for μg/d data). As iodine intake increased from medium to high, all of the increased iodine was excreted (‘overflow’) through urine and faeces by males, and 89·5 % was excreted by females. Although the high iodine level (63·4 μg/d) might be adequate in males, the corresponding level of 61·6 μg/d in females did not meet optimal requirements. Our findings indicate that a daily iodine intake of approximately half the current recommended nutrient intake (120 μg/d) may satisfy the minimum iodine requirements of young male adults in China, while a similar level is insufficient for females based on the ‘iodine overflow’ hypothesis.
Let φ : ℝn × [0, ∞) → [0, ∞) satisfy that φ(x, · ), for any given x ∈ ℝn, is an Orlicz function and φ( · , t) is a Muckenhoupt A∞ weight uniformly in t ∈ (0, ∞). The (weak) Musielak–Orlicz Hardy space Hφ(ℝn) (WHφ(ℝn)) generalizes both the weighted (weak) Hardy space and the (weak) Orlicz Hardy space and hence has wide generality. In this paper, two boundedness criteria for both linear operators and positive sublinear operators from Hφ(ℝn) to Hφ(ℝn) or from Hφ(ℝn) to WHφ(ℝn) are obtained. As applications, we establish the boundedness of Bochner–Riesz means from Hφ(ℝn) to Hφ(ℝn), or from Hφ(ℝn) to WHφ(ℝn) in the critical case. These results are new even when φ(x, t): = Φ(t) for all (x, t) ∈ ℝn × [0, ∞), where Φ is an Orlicz function.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological disorder, which could be caused by traumatic events. The prevalence of PTSD among survivors after a typhoon or hurricane varied widely. Therefore, this study aimed to determine a combined prevalence of PTSD among survivors after a typhoon or hurricane. A systematic search of literature was performed in the 3 English databases: PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, New York, NY), and Embase (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands). Also, a similar search was performed in the 2 Chinese databases such as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and WanFang. Loney et al.’s criteria were used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles for this study. The combined prevalence of PTSD among the study population was estimated using the Freeman–Tukey double arcsine transformation method. Subgroup analyses and a meta-regression analysis were carried out to explore the origin of heterogeneity. Thirty-nine eligible articles were included in this study. They comprised 43 123 typhoon and hurricane survivors of which 9373 were diagnosed with PTSD. The combined prevalence of PTSD among this population was 17.81%. Subgroup analyses revealed that the combined prevalence of PTSD related to typhoon and hurricane Categories 5, 4, and 2 showing a corresponding decreasing tendency. About 18% of people who experienced a severe typhoon or hurricane develop PTSD with the prevalence decreasing with reduced severity of the typhoon or hurricane.
In this work, the nitrogen-doped carbon materials (NCM) and nitrogen/sulfur codoped carbon materials (NSCM) were prepared using conventional benzoxazine (BOZ) and sulfur-containing benzoxazine as precursor and SBA-15 as template. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical performance of carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, the X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge–discharge. The results show that the as-prepared carbon materials have ordered mesoporous structure, large specific surface area, and excellent electrochemical properties. The NSCM treated at 800 °C exhibit an extremely high specific capacitance of 550 F/g at the current density of 0.5 A/g in 0.5 mol H2SO4 electrolyte, which shows great improvement compared with NCM. The nitrogen/sulfur codoping is suggested to be a very effective method to improve the performance of carbon materials, and the NSCM should be a promising candidate as electrode materials for supercapacitors.
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is an evidence-based treatment program for people with severe mental illness developed in high-income countries. We report the first randomized controlled trial of ACT in mainland China.
Sixty outpatients with schizophrenia with severe functional impairments or frequent hospitalizations were randomly assigned to ACT (n = 30) or standard community treatment (n = 30). The severity of symptoms and level of social functioning were assessed at baseline and every 3 months during the 1-year study. The primary outcome was the duration of hospital readmission. Secondary outcomes included a pre-post change in symptom severity, the rates of symptom relapse and gainful employment, social and occupational functioning, and quality of life of family caregivers.
Based on a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the outcomes for ACT were significantly better than those of standard community treatment. ACT patients were less likely to be readmitted [3.3% (1/30) v. 25.0% (7/28), Fisher's exact test p = 0.023], had a shorter mean readmission time [2.4 (13.3) v. 30.7 (66.9) days], were less likely to relapse [6.7% (2/30) v. 28.6% (8/28), Fisher's exact test p = 0.038], and had shorter mean time in relapse [3.5 (14.6) v. 34.4 (70.6) days]. The ACT group also had significantly longer times re-employed and greater symptomatic improvement and their caregivers experienced a greater improvement in their quality of life.
Our results show that culturally adapted ACT is both feasible and effective for individuals with severe schizophrenia in urban China. Replication studies with larger samples and longer duration of follow up are warranted.
Magnetic hyperthermia is a non-invasive cancer treatment method which is used
synergistically with the current cancer treatments. Improved biocompatibility
and enhanced heating characteristics are the pressing challenges to be addressed
in magnetic hyperthermia. Through a novel combinatorial approach, we have
attempted to address both the challenges. Ferrimagneticmagnetite nanoparticles
(FMNPs)of size 50 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition method and were
converted to hydrophilic phase by 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Serum
Albumin (SA) from rat was conjugated over the APTMS-FMNPs to convert to
biocompatible phase. The preliminary haemolysis experiments show that SA-FMNPs
are non-haemolytic (1.2 % haemolysis). It is observed from the magnetic heating
experiments that due to better colloidal stability, the Specific Absorption Rate
value of the SA-FMNPs are higher (2100 W/g) than the FMNPs without SA (1400
W/g). Thus we report here that SA conjugation over FMNPs (with a high saturation
magnetization of 75 emu/g) provides a novel combinatorial approach to enhance
both the biocompatibility and the SAR value for magnetic hyperthermia.
Routine early integration of palliative care with advanced cancer management is not yet a part of standard practice in many countries, including mainland China. Whether patients in China suffering from advanced cancer are referred to palliative care services in a timely manner remains unclear. We sought to investigate the timing of palliative care referral of Chinese cancer patients at our center and its predictors.
Retrospective medical data including demographic characteristics and referral information were collected for analysis. A total of 759 patients referred to our palliative care unit (PCU) from January of 2007 to December of 2013 were included in the final analysis.
The mean age of the 759 patients included in the study was 62.89 years (range 61.95–63.82). Some 369 patients (48.6%) were male and 559 (73.6%) Shanghainese (indigenous). Lung cancer (17.9%) was the most common diagnosis. The time interval since enrollment into the PCU until a patient's death (length of stay, LOS) was calculated. A longer LOS indicated earlier referral to inpatient PC services. The median LOS was 21 days (CI95% = 19.79–22.21). Multivariate analysis showed that whether or not the patient was indigenous (p = 0.002) and younger than 65 (p = 0.031) were independent factors for a longer LOS. Such other characteristics as gender and primary cancer type bore no relationship to LOS.
Significance of results:
Our findings demonstrate that Chinese cancer patients are referred relatively late in the course of their disease to inpatient palliative care services. To overcome the barriers to early integration of palliative care into a patient's treatment plan, accurate information about palliative care must be provided to both oncologists and patients via comprehensive and systematic educational programs.
In this paper, the Ni-decorated ZnO photocatalysts with magnetic separable characteristics were prepared by a simple replacing-hydrothermal process for the first time. The as-synthesized composites were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and so on. It is found that the introduction of Ni (as Ni0 and Ni2+ forms) turned the morphologies of ZnO photocatalysts, enhanced photoabsorption in a visible light region, and increased amount of surface adsorbed oxygen. The photodegradation test of anthraquinone dye (reactive brilliant blue KN-R) indicated that the Ni-decorated ZnO photocatalysts have better activities as compared to the ZnO reference. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of Ni-decorated ZnO photocatalysts can be attributed to the existence of Ni2+ doping, Ni0/ZnO heterostructure, and abundant-adsorbed oxygen (as the electronic scavenges), which caused efficient separation of electron–hole pairs in Ni-decorated ZnO photocatalysts. Furthermore, the introduction of metallic Ni also endued ZnO with good magnetic recoverability. The re-collected experiments by external magnetic field indicated that Ni-decorated ZnO as a magnetically recoverable photocatalyst is acceptable.
Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) plays an important role in restraining the growth of intracellular pathogens within macrophages. In this study, Nramp1 cDNA was cloned from Qinchuan cattle and its anti-bacterial activity was demonstrated as being able to significantly inhibit the growth of Salmonella abortusovis and Brucella abortus in macrophages. Calf fibroblasts stably transfected with pSP–NRAMP1–HA vector were used to reconstruct bovine embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Reconstructed embryos were maturated in vitro and the blastocyst formation rate (14.0%) was similar to that of control embryos (14.5%). Transgenic blastocysts were transplanted into 43 recipient cattle, of which 14 recipients became pregnant as evidenced by non-return estrus and by rectal palpation. One fetus was aborted after 6½ months of pregnancy and transgene integration was confirmed by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Together, this study showed that bovine Nramp1 retains biological function against the growth of intracellular bacteria and can be used to reconstruct embryos and produce Nramp1 transgenic cattle, which may benefit the animal and enhance their ability to prevent attack by intracellular pathogens.
In this work, we investigated the influence of N-polar wet etching on the properties of nitride-based hexagonal pyramids array (HPA) vertical-injection light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). The cathodeluminescence images showed the randomly distribution of hexagonal pyramids with isolated active regions. The transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated the reduced density of threading dislocations. The IQE was estimated by temperature dependence of photoluminescence, which showed 30% increase for HPA V-LEDs compared with broad area (BA) V-LEDs. The improved extraction efficiency was verified by finite difference time domain simulation, which was 20% higher than that of roughened BA V-LEDs. The electrical properties of HPA V-LEDs were measured by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) measurements. HPA V-LEDs exhibited much lower leakage current due to the improved crystal quality.
Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al measurements from bedrock exposures in East Antarctica provide indications of how long the rock surface has been free from glacial cover. Samples from the crests of Zakharoff Ridge and Mount Harding, two typical nunataks in the Grove Mountains, show minimum 10Be ages of 2.00 ± 0.22 and 2.30 ± 0.26 Ma, respectively. These ages suggest that the crests were above the ice sheet at least since the Plio–Pleistocene boundary. Adopting a ‘reasonable’ erosion rate of 5–10 cm Ma-1 increases the exposure ages of these two samples to extend into the mid-Pliocene. The bedrock exposure ages steadily decrease with decreasing elevation on the two nunataks, which indicates ~200 m decrease of the ice sheet in the Grove Mountains since mid-Pliocene time. Seven higher elevation samples exhibit a simple exposure history, which indicates that the ice sheet in the Grove Mountains decreased only ~100 m over a period as long as 1–2 Ma. This suggests that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) was relatively stable during the Pliocene warm interval. Five lower elevation samples suggest a complex exposure history, and indicate that the maximum subsequent increase of the EAIS was only 100 m higher than the present ice surface. Considering the uncertainties, their total initial exposure and subsequent burial time could be later than mid-Pliocene, which may not conflict with the stable mid-Pliocene scenario.
During fieldwork of the 1998–99 and 1999–2000 Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE), three different kinds of Cenozoic sedimentary record were found in the Grove Mountains, which are in East Antarctica about 450km inland of Prydz Bay. These consist of (1) glaciogenic sedimentary erratics found in the moraine banks in the central area of Grove Mountains, which can be subdivided into four types according to different degrees of lithification as well as differences in inner structure and include in-situ diamicts; (2) palaeosols found in several small depressions in the southern slope of the Mount Harding; and (3) different kinds of glacial moraine floating on the surface of blue ice or around the foot of some nunataks. Preliminary results suggest that the in situ glaciogenic sediments were formed in the ice-sheet frontal area by the interaction of glacial movement and ice sheet melt water under climatic conditions warmer than today.
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