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Bainite transformation in steels is influenced by various factors. In the present work, bainite transformation in medium carbon high alloyed steel was investigated focusing on the influence of preexisting VC carbides on the morphology and transformation kinetics of the subsequently formed bainite. Hot-work die steels were held at 950 °C for various times to precipitate VC carbides, then rapidly cooled from 950 to 350 °C and held at this temperature for the bainite transformation. It is found that the bainite transformation was obviously accelerated by the preexisting VC carbides precipitated at the austenite region. The precipitation of carbides leads to a decrease in carbon concentration in the matrix, which decreases the effective activation energy and increases the highest temperature for the nucleation of bainite. Besides, bainite was observed to grow beside the VC carbides. It suggests that the VC carbides in the matrix act as nucleation sites for the bainite transformation. In the specimens, the bainite transformation is accelerated, and a higher fraction of bainite is formed when there are carbides in the matrix.
Routine early integration of palliative care with advanced cancer management is not yet a part of standard practice in many countries, including mainland China. Whether patients in China suffering from advanced cancer are referred to palliative care services in a timely manner remains unclear. We sought to investigate the timing of palliative care referral of Chinese cancer patients at our center and its predictors.
Retrospective medical data including demographic characteristics and referral information were collected for analysis. A total of 759 patients referred to our palliative care unit (PCU) from January of 2007 to December of 2013 were included in the final analysis.
The mean age of the 759 patients included in the study was 62.89 years (range 61.95–63.82). Some 369 patients (48.6%) were male and 559 (73.6%) Shanghainese (indigenous). Lung cancer (17.9%) was the most common diagnosis. The time interval since enrollment into the PCU until a patient's death (length of stay, LOS) was calculated. A longer LOS indicated earlier referral to inpatient PC services. The median LOS was 21 days (CI95% = 19.79–22.21). Multivariate analysis showed that whether or not the patient was indigenous (p = 0.002) and younger than 65 (p = 0.031) were independent factors for a longer LOS. Such other characteristics as gender and primary cancer type bore no relationship to LOS.
Significance of results:
Our findings demonstrate that Chinese cancer patients are referred relatively late in the course of their disease to inpatient palliative care services. To overcome the barriers to early integration of palliative care into a patient's treatment plan, accurate information about palliative care must be provided to both oncologists and patients via comprehensive and systematic educational programs.
Laser plasma experiments, which demonstrated the single order diffraction property of spectroscopic photon sieve (a novel single-order diffraction grating), were performed on the SILEX-I femto-second laser facility. High-intensity laser radiation was focused onto a Cu target to generate plasma. The spectra of soft X-ray from copper plasmas have been measured with spectroscopic photon sieve based spectrograph. The results show that the spectroscopic photon sieve is able to provide soft X-ray spectrum free from higher-order diffraction components. The measured spectra obtained with such a spectroscopic photon sieve need no unfolding process to extract higher-order diffraction interference.
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