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Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development.
This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge.
Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted.
Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = −1.15, 95% CI = −1.70, −0.33) or death (adjusted B = −1.55, 95% CI = −2.62, −0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.31, −0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = −0.25, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.22, −0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10).
COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.
An 8-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) levels on growth, gut morphology, oxidation resistance and immunity of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀×Epinephelus lanceolatus♂) juveniles. Seven isoenergetic (1465 kJ (350 kcal)/100-g DM), isoproteic (53·5 % of DM) and isolipidic (7 % of DM) experimental diets were formulated to contain graded Arg levels ranging from 1·9 to 4·7 % (dry weight) at approximately 0·5 % increments. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 16 juvenile fish (average initial body weight: 11·7 (sd 0·1) g) and was administered twice daily (08.00 and 16.00 hours). After the growth trial, all remaining fish were fed their prescribed diets for 2 d and then exposed to 4·5 mg Cu2+/l water for 36 h. Results showed that growth performance and feed utilisation of experimental fish were significantly affected by different dietary Arg levels. Weight gain % (WG%) of fish was increased as dietary Arg increased, reaching a peak value at 3·8 % dietary Arg level, and when dietary Arg level increased to 4·7 % WG% was reduced. Fish fed 1·9 and 2·2 % dietary Arg levels had higher daily feed intake compared with fish fed other dietary Arg levels. Feed conversion ratios in fish fed 1·9, 2·2, 2·7 and 4·7 % dietary Arg levels were higher than those in fish fed 3·1, 3·8 and 4·1 % dietary Arg levels. Protein efficiency ratio and protein productive value (PPV) increased with an increase in dietary Arg, up to a peak value at 3·8 % dietary Arg level, above which these parameters declined. On the basis of quadratic regression analysis of weight gain % (WG%) or PPV against dietary Arg levels, the optimal dietary Arg requirement for hybrid grouper was estimated to be 3·65 %. Fish fed 3·8 % dietary Arg had higher whole-body and muscle protein contents compared with fish fed other dietary Arg levels. Fish fed 3·8 and 4·1 % dietary Arg levels had higher levels of mRNA for insulin-like growth factor-I and target of rapamycin in the liver compared with fish fed other dietary Arg levels. Hepatic S6 kinase 1 mRNA expression in fish fed 3·8 % dietary Arg level was higher than that in fish fed any of the other dietary Arg levels. Gut morphology, hepatic antioxidant indices and immune indices in serum and head kidney were significantly influenced by dietary Arg levels. In conclusion, the optimal dietary Arg requirement for hybrid grouper was estimated to be 3·65 %, and suitable dietary Arg supplementations improved gut morphology and oxidation resistance of hybrid grouper.
The mass-balance of Muztag Ata No. 15 (MZ15) glacier in the eastern Pamir is reconstructed between 1980 and 2012 using an energy-based mass-balance model. The results show that this glacier has been characterized by obvious interannual mass-balance changes during 1980–2012 with a slightly positive mass balance during 1998–2012. Precipitation in the ablation season is a primary driver of these mass-balance fluctuations. Distinct changes in the mass-balance of MZ15 glacier between 1980–1997 and 1998–2012 are thought to be associated with changes in the regionally averaged meridional wind speed and corresponding precipitation in the ablation season. The negative and positive mass-balance phases during 1980–1997 and 1998–2012, respectively, were associated with northerly and southerly wind anomalies in the eastern Pamir and their corresponding decreasing and increasing precipitation. These changes in circulation appear to be linked to the mid-latitude climate. Finally, contrary to the variation of most glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau, glaciers in the Karakoram-western Kunlun-eastern Pamir appear to have retreated more slowly over the past 10 years than during the 1970s-2000. This contrasting trend may be caused by different changes in snowfall and different topography factors in different regions under warming and increased precipitation.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of in ovo feeding (IOF) of folic acid on the folate metabolism, immune function and the involved epigenetic modification of broilers. A total of 400 (Cobb) hatching eggs were randomly divided into four groups (0, 50, 100 and 150 µg injection of folic acid at embryonic age 11 d), and chicks hatched from each treatment were randomly divided into six replicates with 12 broilers/replicate after incubation. The results indicated that, in ovo, 100- and 150-µg folic acid injections improved the hatchability. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio increased in the 150-µg group during the late growth stage. Simultaneously, in the 100- and 150-µg groups, an increase was observed in hepatic folate content and the expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (d1 and 42) and methionine synthase reductase (d21). IgG and IgM concentrations, as well as plasma lysozyme activity of broilers, showed a marked increase along with increasing folic acid levels. The splenic expression levels of IL-2 and IL-4 were up-regulated, whereas that of IL-6 was down-regulated, in the 100- and 150-µg folic acid treatment groups. In addition, histone methylation in IL-2 and IL-4 promoters exhibited an enrichment of H3K4m2 but a loss of H3K9me2 with the increased amount of folic acid additive. In contrast, a decrease in H3K4m2 and an increase in H3K9me2 were observed in the IL-6 promoter in folic acid treatments. Furthermore, in ovo, the 150-µg folic acid injection improved the chromatin tightness of the IL-2 and IL-4 promoter regions. Our findings suggest that IOF of 150 µg of folic acid can improve the growth performance and folate metabolism of broilers, and enhance the relationship between immune function and epigenetic regulation of immune genes, which are involved with the alterations in chromatin conformation and histone methylation in their promoters.
The impact of climate change on the variability of local discharge was investigated in a glacierized high mountain catchment located in the source area of the Ürümqi river, northwest China. We used past climate records to drive a hydrological model to simulate the discharge from 2000 to 2008. The model was then used to project future discharge variations for the period 2041–60, based on a regionally downscaled climate-change scenario combined with three stages of glacier coverage (i.e. compared to the glacier coverage in 2008): unchanged glacier size (100% glacierized), recession of half the glacier area (50% glacierized) and complete disappearance of glaciers (0% glacierized). In each scenario, snowmelt will begin half a month earlier and the discharge will increase in May. For the 100% glacierized scenario, the discharge will increase by 66 ± 35% in a smaller (3.34 km2) and more glaciated (50%) catchment and 33 ± 20% in a larger (28.90 km2) and proportionally less glaciated (18%) catchment. If the glacier area reduces by half, the discharge will decrease by 8 ± 5% and 9 ± 6%, respectively. Once the glacier disappears, the discharge will decrease by 58 ± 20% and 40 ± 13%, respectively. Together, the results indicate that a warming climate and the resulting glacier shrinkage will cause significant changes in the volume and timing of runoff.
The second Chinese glacier inventory was compiled based on 218 Landsat TM/ETM+ scenes acquired mainly during 2006–10. The widely used band ratio segmentation method was applied as the first step in delineating glacier outlines, and then intensive manual improvements were performed. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model was used to derive altitudinal attributes of glaciers. The boundaries of some glaciers measured by real-time kinematic differential GPS or digitized from high-resolution images were used as references to validate the accuracy of the methods used to delineate glaciers, which resulted in positioning errors of ±10 m for manually improved clean-ice outlines and ±30 m for manually digitized outlines of debris-covered parts. The glacier area error of the compiled inventory, evaluated using these two positioning accuracies, was ±3.2%. The compiled parts of the new inventory have a total area of 43 087 km2, in which 1723 glaciers were covered by debris, with a total debris-covered area of 1494 km2. The area of uncompiled glaciers from the digitized first Chinese glacier inventory is ∼8753 km2, mainly distributed in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, where no images of acceptable quality for glacier outline delineation can be found during 2006–10.
We use remote-sensing and GIS technologies to monitor glacier changes in the Koshi River basin, central Himalaya. The results indicate that in 2009 there were 2061 glaciers in this region, with a total area of 3225 ±90.3 km2. This glacier population is divided into 1290 glaciers, with a total area of 1961 ±54.9 km2, on the north side of the Himalaya (NSH), and 771 glaciers, with a total area of 1264 ± 35.4 km2, on the south side of the Himalaya (SSH). From 1976 to 2009, glacier area in the basin decreased by about 19±5.6% (0.59±0.17%a–1). Glacier reduction was slightly faster on SSH (20.3 ±5.6%) than on NSH (18.8±5.6%). The maximum contribution to glacier area loss came from glaciers within the 1-5 km2 area interval, which accounted for 32% of total area loss between 1976 and 2009. The number of glaciers in the Koshi River catchment decreased by 145 between 1976 and 2009. Glacier area on SSH decreased at a rate of 6.2 ±3.2% (0.68 ±0.36% a–1), faster than on NSH, where the rate was 2.5 ±3.2% (0.27±0.36% a–1) during 2000-09. Based on records from Tingri weather station, we infer that temperature increase and precipitation decrease were the main causes of glacier thinning and retreat during the 1976-2000 period. Glacier retreat during the 2000-09 period appears to be controlled by temperature increase, since precipitation increase over this period did not offset ice losses to surface melting.
The Tibetan Plateau interior area (TPIA), often termed the Qangtang Plateau, is distinguished by many dome-like mountains higher than 6000 ma.s.l. These mountains provide favourable conditions for the development of ice caps and glaciers of extreme continental/subpolar type. According to historical topographic maps (1959–80) and recent Landsat images (2004–11), continuous retreat was observed and the glacierized part of this area decreased by 9.5% (0.27% a–1) with respect to the total glacier area of 8036.4 km2 in the 1970s. Glaciers in the Zhari Namco basin have experienced the highest area shrinkage, with a reduction rate of 0.72% a–1, while the smallest reduction occurred in Bangong Co (0.12% a–1) and Dogai Coying basins (0.11% a–1). A regional gradient of area loss was found, with a larger decrease in the south and a smaller decrease in the north of the plateau. Comparisons indicate glaciers have experienced smaller shrinkage in the TPIA than in surrounding regions. Glacier shrinkage in the TPIA is mainly attributed to an increase in air temperature, while precipitation, glacier size and positive difference of glaciation also played an important role.
Glacial lake outburst flood hazards in the Himalayan region have received considerable attention in recent years. Accurate volume estimation for glacial lakes is important for calculating outburst flood peak discharge and simulating flood evolution. Longbasaba lake, a potentially dangerous moraine-dammed lake, is located on the north side of the Himalaya. Its depth was surveyed using the SyQwest Hydrobox™ high-resolution echo sounder, and 6916 measurements were collected in September 2009. The maximum and average depths of the lake were 102 ± 2 and 48 ± 2 m, respectively. The morphology of the lake basin was modeled by constructing a triangulated irregular network, and the lake was found to have a storage capacity of 0.064 ± 0.002 km3. Multi-source remote-sensing images from Landsat MSS, Landsat TM/ETM+ and Terra ASTER and a topographic map were digitized to delineate the outlines of the lake between 1977 and 2009. The results indicate that the length and area of the lake have increased during the past 32 years, with a drastic expansion occurring since 2000. Based on volume and area data of Longbasaba lake in different periods, we deduced an empirical equation of the lake volume-area relationship that can be used to calculate the storage capacity of similar moraine-dammed lakes in the Himalayan region.
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