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The Iterated Closest Contour Point (ICCP) algorithm is widely used in geomagnetic navigation. In order to enhance the anti-interference performance of the ICCP, an improved algorithm is proposed. First, the principle of delta modulation is introduced to generate a geomagnetic matching sequence according to the magnetic fluctuations, this assists finding the optimal quantitative step and matching length; thus, the algorithm's accuracy and real-time performance are improved. Second, in order to solve the problem of geomagnetic matching under an interference environment, a Probability Data Association (PDA) algorithm based on regenerated measurements is adopted. The ideal magnetic value is regarded as a target, and the measured values within the confidence region are taken as the effective measurements of the target. Each of them will give an estimation of the vehicle's position. Considering the constraints of a vehicle's kinematic performance, its final position can be obtained by fusing all effective estimations with the PDA algorithm. Simulation and semi-physical experiments have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The Regenerated Measurements (RM)-PDA algorithm shows better performance and can be used in practical applications.
Direct determination of barrier height (ΦBH) value between Ir and single crystal (001) hydrogen-terminated diamond with lightly boron doped has been performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. 70 nm Ir islands were formed on hydrogen-terminated diamond surface using anodic aluminum oxide. The ΦBH value for Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was −0.43 ± 0.14 eV, indicating that Ir was a suitable metal for ohmic contact with hydrogen-terminated diamond. The band diagram of Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was obtained. The experimental ΦBH was compared with the theoretical ΦBH in this work.
Nanoscale magnetization modulation by electric field enables the construction of low-power spintronic devices for information storage applications and, etc. Electric field-induced ion migration can introduce desired changes in the material's stoichiometry, defect profile, and lattice structure, which in turn provides a versatile and convenient means to modify the materials’ chemical-physical properties at the nanoscale and in situ. In this review, we provide a brief overview on the recent study on nanoscale magnetization modulation driven by electric field-induced migration of ionic species either within the switching material or from external sources. The formation of magnetic conductive filaments that exhibit magnetoresistance behaviors in resistive switching memory via foreign metal ion migration and redox activities is also discussed. Combining the magnetoresistance and quantized conductance switching of the magnetic nanopoint contact structure may provide a future high-performance device for non-von Neumann computing architectures.
Universal salt iodisation (USI) has been successfully implemented in China for more than 15 years. Recent evidence suggests that the definition of ‘adequate iodine’ (100–199 µg/l) be revised to ‘sufficient iodine’ (100–299 µg/l) based on the median urinary iodine concentration (MUI) in school-age children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in populations after long-term salt iodisation and examine whether the definition of adequate iodine can be broadened to sufficient iodine based on the thyroid function in four population groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in six provinces in the northern, central and southern regions of China. Four population groups consisting of 657 children, 755 adults, 347 pregnant women and 348 lactating women were recruited. Three spot urinary samples were collected over a 10-d period and blood samples were collected on the 1st day. In the study, among the adults, pregnant women and lactating women, the prevalence rates of elevated thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid microsomal antibody levels were 12·4, 8·5 and 7·8 %, and 12·1, 9·1 and 9·1 %, respectively. Abnormally high thyroid dysfunction prevalence was not observed after more than 15 years of USI in China because the thyroid dysfunction rates were all <5 %. The recommended range should be cautiously broadened from adequate iodine to sufficient iodine according to the MUI of school-age children considering the high levels of hormones and antibodies in the other populations. Adults, particularly pregnant women positive for thyroid antibodies, should be closely monitored.
TMNCN (where TM = Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+ or Ni2+) have been recently proposed as electrochemically active materials for Na-ion insertion that operate via conversion reaction. Their electrochemical performance for Na-ion batteries is presented here with an emphasis on long-term cycling. With a very low voltage for Na insertion of ∼0.1V vs Na+/Na for MnNCN, the overpotential observed in batteries of MnNCN plays a very important role in their performance, evidencing big differences in the electrochemical performance between materials produced with different nano- and micrometer particle sizes evidenced by SEM images. A more suitable voltage for the conversion reaction accompanied by less overpotential is shown by FeNCN, CoNCN and NiNCN. Despite the lower reversible capacity achieved by FeNCN (450 mAh/g) in comparison with CoNCN and NiNCN in the first cycle; the smallest first-cycle irreversible capacity (220 mAh/g) and the lower voltage plateau (0.3 V vs Na+/Na) make FeNCN a good candidate as an anode material for sodium ion batteries. The voltages of conversion reaction are correlated with the calculated enthalpies of formation suggesting that thermodynamics dominates the observed electrochemical conversion reaction.
I deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Median urinary I concentration in school-aged children has been used globally as a proxy for all populations. This study aims to determine whether median urinary I concentration of school-aged children is an appropriate indicator of I nutritional status in different adult populations. This is a secondary data analysis of two national I Deficiency Disorder surveys (2011, 2014) and two regional surveys (in coastal areas, 2009, and in high-risk areas, 2009–2014). Population groups included in these surveys were school-aged children (8–10 years), pregnant women, lactating women, women of childbearing age and adults (men and women, 18–45 years). All participants were self-reported healthy without history of thyroid diseases or were not using thyroid medicines. The median urinary I concentration of school-aged children was matched with that of the other population at the county level. The matched populations had similar iodised salt supply, food and water I, food composition and I content in salt. Weak or moderate correlation of median urinary I concentrations was observed between school-aged children and pregnant women and between children and lactating women. However, the agreement was stronger between children and women of childbearing age and between children and adult men and women. The results could be affected by cut-off values, data aggregation level and sample size. Using median urinary I concentration of school-aged children tends to overestimate that of pregnant women and lactating women. Median urinary I concentration of school-aged children can be used for assessing I nutrition in the adult population.
A continuous time delay-difference model (CD-DM) was applied to the Chinese neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) jigging fisheries data (2001–2004) in the north-west Pacific Ocean. The continuous time delay-difference model (CD-DM) was modified from the discrete-time delay-difference model (D-DM), in which recruitment, growth and mortality rates are treated as varying continuously over time. Some commercially important stocks, such as shrimp and O. bartrami with recruitment, growth and mortality rates all varying continuously over time, may be better analysed by a continuous delay-difference model. We estimated the growth and recruitment of O. bartramii on the basis of the CD-DM, and biological reference points (BRPs) and accuracy of estimates are discussed in this study. We obtained population sizes of 183.9–201.8 million squid during early September 2004. The status of the stock was not in a sustainable state at this time with the available data, which suggests that measures should be taken for the sustainable utilization of this stock. The ability to calculate reference points without need of a full age-structured data makes CD-DM an attractive option for data-poor fisheries. We provided an alternative method for assessing O. bartramii stock and bridged the gap between simple surplus production models and complex fully age-structured models.
Silicone Rubber (SR) filled with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and carbon black (CB) is prepared for high performance flexible pressure sensor. Due to the synergetic effect of mixed GNPs and CB, the percolation threshold of GNPs/CB/SR is lower than that of CB/SR, which indicates the addition of GNPs is contributed to enhance the electrical conductivity of GNPs/CB/SR. Moreover, the GNPs/CB/SR has a higher electrical stability and weaker resistance creep than that of GNPs/SR. That is to say, the addition of CB can promote the electrical and mechanical performance of GNPs/CB/SR, simultaneously. The pressure sensor array based on GNPs/CB/SR with weight on different sensing element is tested, and the results show that the size of applied loading on the pressure-sensitivity array can be recognized accurately.
The management paradigms in the West mainly rely on legal contracts and explicit rules (formality), while the management traditions in the East emphasize social relationships and implicit norms (informality). In an era of ‘West-meets-East’, balancing formality and informality is becoming critical for firms, especially those facing institutional differences in transnational contexts and institutional transitions. In this research, we conducted a comparative multicase study on returnee entrepreneurs and local entrepreneurs in China. We found that at the early stage of venturing, returnee entrepreneurs emphasized formality more than informality, while local entrepreneurs stressed informality more than formality. However, the formality-informality balance among both returnee and local entrepreneurs converged over time in line with the institutional transition in China. Returnee entrepreneurs increased the emphasis on informality (but kept the dominant position of formality), whereas local entrepreneurs gradually shifted from informality to formality. The spatial pattern of asymmetrical balancing and the temporal pattern of transitional balancing are both rooted in the Chinese philosophy of Yin-Yang balancing.
Undoped and Zinc-doped GaN films have been grown using TMGa, DEZn and Ammonia by MOVPE. The GaN blue-green LEDs of m-i-n structure have been fabricated. They can be operated at forward bias less than 5 volts. The EL peak wavelength was from 455 nm to 504 nm.
Using recent survey data, this study examines the impact of firm resources, industry dynamics, and government policies on the outward foreign direct investment (FDI) motives of Chinese firms, based on the integrated ‘strategy tripod’ framework. The results suggest that supportive government policies are important motivators for both strategic asset-seeking and market-seeking outward FDI. Firms' technology-based competitive advantages and a high level of industry research and development (R&D) intensity tend to motivate strategic asset-seeking outward FDI, whereas firm's export experience and higher level of domestic industry competition tend to induce market-seeking outward FDI.
Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28 857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8–10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6·3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150–300 μg/l and 11·0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3·69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100–199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.
Two phenomena have probably affected modern data analysts' lives more than anything else. First, the size of real-world data sets is getting increasingly large, especially during the last decade or so. Second, modern computational methods and tools are being developed which add further capability to traditional statistical analysis tools. These two developments have created a new range of problems and challenges for analysts, as well as new opportunities for intelligent systems in data analysis.
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