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Following their early domestication, broomcorn millet and rice (in East Asia) and wheat and barley (in South-west Asia) were subsequently adopted across Eurasia during the Bronze Age/early historic period. The precise timing and dispersal routes for this trans-Eurasian exchange, however, remain unclear. Here, the authors present archaeobotanical evidence from sites on the Caspian Sea's southern coast, demonstrating that broomcorn millet reached West Asia by c. 2050 BC and rice by c. 120 BC. These dispersals relate to two waves of globalisation and were based on two different mechanisms: an ‘infiltration’ model (broomcorn millet) and a ‘leapfrog’ model (rice). The results contribute to our understanding of the continental-scale connectivity of the late prehistoric/early historic periods.
The influences of different plants on herbivores have recently attracted research interest; however, little is known regarding the effects of wild, local and cultivated varieties of the same plant from the same origin on herbivores. This study aimed to examine the effects of different tobacco varieties from the same origin on the oviposition preference and offspring performance of Spodoptera litura. We selected two wild (‘Bishan wild tobacco’ and ‘Badan wild tobacco’), two local (‘Liangqiao sun-cured tobacco’ and ‘Shuangguan sun-cured tobacco’) and two cultivated (‘Xiangyan No. 5’ and ‘Cunsanpi’) tobacco varieties from Hunan Province, China. We found that female S. litura varied in oviposition preferences across the tobacco varieties. They preferred to lay eggs on the cultivated varieties, followed by the local varieties, with the wild varieties being the least preferred. Furthermore, different tobacco varieties significantly influenced the life history parameters of S. litura. Survival rate, pupal weight, emergence rate and adult dry weight decreased in the following order: cultivated varieties > local varieties > wild varieties. Conversely, the pupal stage and development period decreased in the following order: wild varieties > local varieties > cultivated varieties. Therefore, we conclude that wild tobacco varieties have higher resistance to S. litura than cultivated and local varieties, reflecting the evolutionary advantages of wild tobacco varieties.
Oracle bone script developed into a sophisticated writing system in Shang Dynasty of China more than 3000 years ago. The systematic scientific dating of oracle bones had not been previously reported. Here we present radiocarbon (14C) dates measured from the sequential samples of oracle bones that pertain to the Shang kings. The results indicate that King Wu Ding (who is called Wu Ting in some literature) reigned during 1254 BC to 1197 BC, and the Shang Dynasty terminated around 1041 BC. It also points that the Li group in the sequence of oracle bones is most probably related to the time of King Wu Ding and Zu Geng.
Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
Battery-casing sealing is the key factor for secure travel of new energy vehicles. We constructed a relatively accurate mechanical-simulation model by selecting a constitutive model, analyzing the influence of thermal elongation, verifying the grid-independence and comparing numerically by the pressure-measurement film on the basis of studying the physical performance of a certain type of sealing material that had been used in battery-casings after aging. Based on a porous-media model and combined with changes of macroscopic and microscopic contact characteristics of materials at different times after aging, the evolution rule of sealing performance with time was analyzed quantitatively by calculating the leakage. By analyzing the structure of circular arc bulge on the surface of sealing material, the radius of circular arc bulge with better sealing performance was obtained, which could reduce the leakage of sealing structure during the material’s lifecycle.
Excavations at Shichengzi, the probable location of ancient Shule, have revealed diverse burial practices suggesting a population with varied cultural backgrounds. Together with archaeobotanical evidence, this indicates a community of agro-pastoralists and Han Dynasty migrants using diverse cropping patterns to attain self-sufficiency. The project raises interesting questions about the impact of migrations on the identities of inhabitants.
This paper first investigates the influencing factors of between-receiver Differential Inter-System Bias (DISB) between overlapping frequencies of the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). It was found that the receiver reboot and the type of observations may have an impact on DISBs. The impact of receiver firmware upgrades and the activation of anti-multipath filters are also investigated and some new results are presented. Then a performance evaluation is presented of tightly combined relative positioning for a short baseline with GPS/Galileo/QZSS L1-E1-L1/L5-E5a-L5 observations with the current constellations, in which the recently launched Galileo and QZSS satellites will also be included. It is demonstrated that when DISBs are a priori calibrated and corrected, the tightly combined model can deliver a much higher empirical ambiguity resolution success rate and positioning accuracy with respect to the classical loosely combined model, especially under environments where the observed satellites for each system are limited and only single-frequency observations are available. The ambiguity dilution of precision, bootstrapping success rate, and ratio values are analysed to illustrate the benefits of the tightly combined model as well.
In precise relative positioning applications, an effective approach to improve the interoperability of GNSS systems is the tightly combining or inter-system double-differencing of observations from the common frequencies that are shared by different constellations. As the BeiDou satellites are currently transmitting a B2 signal at 1207.14 MHz that is identical to the Galileo E5b signal, the inter-system double-differenced observations can also be created between observations from both systems at that particular frequency. In this paper, we will focus on the instantaneous ambiguity resolution performance analysis of tightly combining BeiDou B2 and Galileo E5b observations. The size and stability of phase and code Differential Inter-System Biases (DISBs) between BeiDou B2 and Galileo E5b signals are first investigated, in which the new BeiDou and Galileo satellites launched recently will also be included. Then, first results of the Tightly Combined Model (TCM) with a priori corrected DISBs (TCM_C) are evaluated in comparison to the Loosely Combined Model (LCM) and tightly combined model with unknown DISBs (TCM_F) in an instantaneous approach. It is demonstrated that the instantaneous integer ambiguity resolution performance can be improved using the TCM_C with respect to LCM and TCM_F.
The Palaeolithic sequence of East Asia differs from that of western Eurasia in that it is characterised by core-and-flake tools. Blade industries only appear late in the sequence, long after the first appearance of modern humans; bone tools and personal ornaments may therefore function as a better marker of modern human presence. Longquan Cave provides vital new evidence to this effect, with dated hearths indicating an initial occupation around 40 kya cal BP, followed by a second period of activity around 35–31 kya cal BP. They are associated with a polished bone awl and a structured division of settlement space, features typically associated with modern humans.
It has long been believed that the earliest ceramics in the central plain of China were produced by the Neolithic cultures of Jiahu 1 and Peiligang. Excavations at Lijiagou in Henan Province, dating to the ninth millennium BC, have, however, revealed evidence for the earlier production of pottery, probably on the eve of millet and wild rice cultivation in northern and southern China respectively. It is assumed that, as in other regions such as south-west Asia and South America, sedentism preceded incipient cultivation. Here evidence is presented that sedentary communities emerged among hunter-gatherer groups who were still producing microblades. Lijiagou demonstrates that the bearers of the microblade industry were producers of pottery, preceding the earliest Neolithic cultures in central China.
A prerequisite for a Global Positioning System (GPS) attitude determination is to calculate baselines between antennae with accuracy at the millimetre level simultaneously. However, in order to have a low cost attitude determination system, a set of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) receivers with separate clocks are used. In this case, if the receiver clocks are not precisely synchronized, the baseline vector between antennae will be calculated from the GPS signals received at different times. This can be a significant error source for high-kinematic applications. In this paper, two equivalent and effective approaches are developed to compensate this significant bias for baseline estimation and attitude determination. Test results using real airborne GPS data demonstrate that the receiver time misalignment between the two receivers can result in a 5 cm baseline offset for an aircraft with a 50 m/s velocity; the corresponding attitude errors can reach about 0·50° in yaw and 0·10° in pitch respectively for the attitude determination system with a baseline length of 3·79 m. With the proposed methods, these errors can be effectively eliminated.
The Chengdu plain of south-west China lies outside the main centres of early domestication in the Huanghe and Yangzi valleys, but its importance in Chinese prehistory is demonstrated by the spectacular Sanxingdui bronzes of the second millennium BC and by the number of walled enclosures of the third millennium BC associated with the Baodun culture. The latter illustrate the development of social complexity. Paradoxically, however, these are not the outcome of a long settled agricultural history but appear to be associated with the movement of the first farming communities into this region. Recent excavations at the Baodun type site have recovered plant remains indicating not only the importance of rice cultivation, but also the role played by millet in the economy of these and other sites in south-west China. Rice cultivation in paddy fields was supplemented by millet cultivation in neighbouring uplands. Together they illustrate how farmers moving into this area from the Middle Yangzi adjusted their cultivation practices to adapt to their newly colonised territories.
The morphological structures of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide), PS-b-PEO, have been investigated under humidity controlled environments during film formation. Well-defined cylindrical microdomains oriented normal to the surface were induced by the high humidity during spin coating. Effects of the relative humidity (RH) on such ordered structures have also been studied. The results show that, the orientation and the ordering of the copolymer structures are very sensitive to the humidity of the environment during the film formation. Such ordered structure is stable at a variety of the RHs, and the phase contrast between the cylindrical PEO domains and the PS matrix domains can be significantly enhanced by the elevated RH. After the incorporation of the nanoparticles, however, the morphological structures of the PS-b-PEO are modified.
Animal bones and tortoise shells were used for divination by the Chinese royal family during the Shang Dynasty (∼16th–11th century BC), and the divination results were recorded as inscriptions on oracle bones and shells, which are very valuable cultural remains and record many important events in the Shang Dynasty period. Thus, radiocarbon dating of oracle bones was used to build a precise chronology of the late Shang Dynasty. Due to their original burial conditions and the fact that in subsequent decades the pieces were traded or archived in museums, oracle bones are expected to be contaminated with exogenous materials from the environment and the conservation process. During dating, we found that some samples were contaminated by conservation chemical reagents. The contaminated samples were purified by removing exogenous chemicals with a series of organic solvents, in a method modified from Bruhn et al. (2001). Both whole bone and gelatin samples were processed with this purification method, resulting in satisfactory improvements in dating results.
Xinzhai is an important archaeological site discovered 40 yr ago and recently re-excavated in the Henan Province, China. It is believed that the cultural characteristics of the Xinzhai site correspond to the Xia dynasty, the first ancient dynasty of China. Radiocarbon measurements on bone samples from this site were performed at the Peking University AMS facility (PKU-AMS) and the Vienna University AMS facility (VERA). Calibrated ages were obtained with the computer program OxCal. The results of these measurements are presented and the related chronology is discussed.
The Fengxi site is near the Feng River in Shaanxi Province, China. Feng City was the capital of the vassal state of Zhou, and the Zhou people lived in this area until the end of the Western Zhou. Serial samples of charcoal, bone, and charred millet were collected from the site and dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). A sequence model with 6 phases of the Western Zhou dynasty was constructed and the 14C ages were calibrated with OxCal v 3.9. The results showed that the site was used from 1170–1070 BC until 825–755 BC, and the Conquest of Shang by King Wu most probably occurred during 1060–1000 BC.
The chronology study of the cemetery of Marquises of Jin is valuable to improving the chronological table of Marquis of Jin family. It is also helpful for improving the chronological table of the Zhou Dynasty. The samples were measured at Peking University (PKUAMS). We also made an interlaboratory check with Isotrace to ensure the accuracy. By careful analysis of archaeological information, we built different models and calibrated by OxCal. The calibration results, both sampling contexts and estimations, are in very good agreement with the historical record. Because the dates of some events correspond to the special part of the curve, the calibration gets very high precision. The calibration result of tomb M93 suggests that its host is Marquis Shangshu instead of Marquis Wen.
Tianma-Qucun is the biggest site of Western Zhou Dynasty discovered in Shanxi Province, China. It has been recognized as the early capital of Jin, a vassal state of Western Zhou. The territories were granted to the first Marquis of Jin with the title in the early days of Western Zhou. Bone sample series from the site were radiocarbon-dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and calibrated with the Oxford calibration program OxCal 3.5. Bayesian analysis of the calibrated ages shows that the earliest residents of the Western Zhou came to Tianma-Qucun area in 1020–940 BC and the lower boundary of the Western Zhou is 796–754 BC, which corresponds well to the historical record 770 BC.
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