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This work aimed to evaluate a pre/post-reform pilot study from 2015 to 2018 in a rural county of Zhejiang Province, China to realign the provider payment system for primary health care (PHC).
Data were extracted from the National Health Financial Annual Reports for the 21 township health centers (THCs) in Shengzhou County. An information system was designed for the reform. Differences among independent groups were assessed using Kruskal–Wallis H-test. Dunn’s post hoc test was used for multiple comparisons. Differences between paired groups were tested by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Two-tailed P < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Data were processed and analyzed using R 3.6.1 for Windows.
First, payments to THCs shifted from a “soft budget” to a mixed system of line-item input-based and categorized output-based payments, accounting for 17.54% and 82.46%, respectively, of total revenue in 2017. Second, providers were more motivated to deliver services after the reform; total volumes increased by 27.80%, 19.22%, and 30.31% for inpatient visits, outpatient visits, and the National Essential Public Health Services Package (NEPHSP), respectively. Third, NEPHSP payments were shifted from capitation to resource-based relative value scale (RBRVS) payments, resulting in a change in the NEPHSP subsidy from 36.41 to 67.35 per capita among the 21 THCs in 2017. Fourth, incentive merit pay to primary health physicians accounted for 38.40% of total salary, and the average salary increased by 32.74%, with a 32.45% increase in working intensity. A small proportion of penalties for unqualified products and pay-for-performance rewards were blended with the payments. The reform should be modified to motivate providers in remote areas.
In the context of a profit-driven, hospital-centered system, add-on payments – including categorized output-based payments to THCs and incentive merit pay to primary care physicians (PCPs) – are probably worth pursuing to achieve more active and output/outcome-based PHC in China.
Evidence has suggested that honey intake has a beneficial impact on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether these findings apply to adults with prediabetes is yet unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether honey intake is associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes. A cross-sectional study was performed in 18 281 participants (mean age 39·6 (sd 11·1) years; men, 51·5 %). Dietary intake was assessed through a validated 100-item FFQ. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria: impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or raised glycosylated Hb. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between honey consumption and prediabetes. As compared with those who almost never consumed honey, the multivariable OR of prediabetes were 0·94 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·02) for ≤3 times/week, 0·77 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·94) for 4–6 times/week and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·99) for ≥1 time/d (Pfor trend < 0·01). These associations did not differ substantially in sensitivity analysis. Higher honey consumption was associated with a decreased prevalence of prediabetes. More large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate this association.
Aim: To provide a framework for provider payment reform for primary care physicians in China. Background: Primary health care is central to health system reform and payment incentives have significant consequences for the equity and efficiency of it. Methods: This paper describes the special payments system for public primary health institutions and the subsequent internal salary remuneration to primary care physicians in China. Based on an analysis of the major challenges, we suggest a reform framework including the pattern of governance, and payments to primary health institutions and employed physicians. Findings: A mixed system of input-based and output-based payments to institutions would probably be appropriate under a long-term and relational contract with the government. It was also advised that internal remuneration is provided by a basic salary plus a bonus based on performance, and an extra-regional allowance. We hope that the results can be used to shift the passive budgeting of in-house staff within the public primary health institutions toward strategic purchasing.
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