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The vortex sound interaction in acoustic resonance induced by vortex shedding from a cylinder in a flow duct is numerically studied based on a nonlinear physical model, which consists of three meshless sub-models describing the vortex shedding, sound generation and propagation within the duct. In addition, the acoustic particle velocity near the separation point of the shear layer is solved and added onto the Kutta condition of the vortex shedding, which takes the acoustic feedback effect into consideration and makes the vortex sound interaction bi-directional. The predicted results of resonant frequency and amplitude are found to be in conformity with previous experiment data, especially, a continuous description of the onset–sustain–cease of lock-in phenomenon is well captured. The lock-in phenomenon is depicted as a vigorous competition between the vortex shedding frequency
and the inherent frequency of the acoustic
. The mutual capturing behaviour of these two frequencies is dominated by
cannot always be locked onto
within the whole lock-in region, which is in marked contrast to the previous understanding. In this aspect, two lock-in regions, the synchronous region and the
-mode dominant region, are defined according to the relevance of
. The maximum resonant sound appears at the end of the synchronous region. The present model not only predicts the proper characteristics of frequency lock-in as observed in experiments, but also helps to provide a more detailed understanding of the underlying lock-in mechanism.
Herein, in order to research the crystalline behaviors of cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine-aluminum (HM-Al) composites in solvents, the modified attachment energy model was applied to predict the morphologies of HMX in vacuum, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and ethanol. Then HMX-Al composites with Al coated and noncoated were prepared via solvent–nonsolvent method, and the morphologies were characterized. Results show that HMX interacts with DMSO and ethanol mainly via van der Waals force and electrostatic force. HMX grows into polyhedral crystals in two solvents. However, the shapes and the crystalline surface area distributions of the polyhedrons are different for two solvents. There are many aluminum particles embedded in HMX crystals of HMX-Al composite particles prepared via solvent–nonsolvent method, but Al particles cannot embed in HMX crystals in the existence of fluoropolymer. The crystal morphology predicted is consistent with the experimental results.
M3:2 high-speed steel (HSS) billets with or without Nb addition were prepared by spray deposition. The effects of Nb and post-thermal-mechanical processing (decomposition treatment and hot forging), as well as heat treatment, on the microstructure and properties of M3:2 HSS were investigated. The microstructure of the as-deposited M3:2 HSS consisted of equiaxed grains with a mean size of approximately 25 μm and discontinuous plate-like M2C and irregular MC carbides distributed along grain boundaries. 0.5% Nb addition can refine the M2C plates and spheroidize MC carbides. With 2% Nb addition, the refined grains with a mean size of approximately 12 μm and continuous net of M6C and a uniform distribution of NbC carbides were obtained. The decomposition of metastable M2C carbides can be accelerated with 0.5% Nb addition due to the refined size and lower thermodynamic stability of M2C plates. With the increased degree of decomposition of M2C carbide, the M6C and MC carbides became refined and more uniformly distributed after optimal thermal-mechanical processing and heat treatment, which leads to a significant increase in bend strength and toughness.
FM-to-AM (frequency modulation-to-amplitude modulation) conversion caused by nonuniform spectral transmission of broadband beam is harmful to high-power laser facility. Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) beam is a special broadband beam for its monochromatic feature at the given time and space on the near field. The traditional method which uses the optical spectral transfer function as filters cannot accurately describe its AM characteristics. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the etalon effect for SSD beam. With a low-order approximation, the analytic model of the temporal shape of SSD beam is obtained for the first time, which gives the detailed AM characteristics at local and integral aspects, such as the variation of ripples width and amplitude in general situation. We also analyze the FM-to-AM conversion on the focal plane; in the focusing process, the lens simply acts as an integrator to smooth the AM of SSD beam. Because AM control is necessary for the near field to avoid optics damage and for the far field to ensure an optimal interaction of laser–target, our investigations could provide some important phenomena and rules for pulse shape control.
Rotation vector-based attitude updating algorithms have been used as the mainstream attitude computation algorithms for many years. The most popular methodology for designing the rotation vector algorithm is by leveraging multiple samples of gyro integrated angular rate measurements. However, it has been pointed out by many researchers that the attitude updating accuracy is limited when using the multiple samples rotation vector algorithms, especially when the platforms work under high rate manoeuvres. The third-, fourth-, fifth- and sixth-order Picard component solutions of the rotation vector differential equation are given in this paper. A new design methodology for rotation vector-based attitude updating algorithms is proposed. Different vibratory dynamics and high rate manoeuvre roller coaster experiments were conducted to validate the effectiveness of the new algorithm. The results demonstrate the high accuracy of the new algorithm compared with conventional coning correction methods. The proposed algorithm can also be used in high accuracy attitude computation of a post-processing system, especially when the output frequency of the gyro is limited.
Soil conservation on the Loess Plateau is important not only for local residents but also for reducing sediment downstream in the Yellow River. In this paper, we report a decrease in soil erosion from 2000 to 2010 as a result of the ‘Grain for Green' (GFG) Project. By using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation and data on land cover, climate and sediment yield, we found that soil erosion decreased from 6579.55tkm–2yr–1 in 2000 to 1986.66tkm–2yr–1 in 2010. During this period, there was a major land cover change from farmland to grassland in response to the GFG. The area of low vegetation coverage with severe erosion decreased dramatically, whereas the area of high vegetation coverage with slight erosion increased. Our study demonstrates that the reduction in soil erosion on the Loess Plateau contributed to the decrease in the sediment concentration in the Yellow River.
The effect of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at various temperatures (310, 330, and 350 °C) on precipitations and strengthening mechanisms of Mg–9Al–1Si alloys was investigated. The results indicated that the average grain size decreased gradually with decreasing of ECAP temperature. The distribution of the Mg2Si phase changed a little when the ECAP temperature increased. However, the different morphologies of β-Mg17Al12 phase were observed, including continuous and uncontinuous precipitation of particles at 310 and 350 °C. The continuous β-Mg17Al12 phase was hardly found and the refined β-Mg17Al12 phase was distributed dispersedly in the matrix at 330 °C. Thus, the mechanical properties of the Mg–9Al–1Si alloy was optimum: ultimate tensile strength and elongation were ∼350.8 MPa and ∼14.77%, respectively. It can be deduced that both grain refinement strengthening and precipitation strengthening play significant roles in strength increment of the alloy during the ECAP process. However, precipitation strengthening is the predominant mechanism.
In indirect drive, reducing peak intensity of a single beam and controlling overlap of multi-beams are two opposite requirements for laser focal spot design. In this paper, an improved laser spot design technique for indirect drive built upon the geometric structures of laser propagation into hohlraum has been introduced. The proposed technique is able to generate appropriate continuous phase plate (CPP) producing a special shaped spot that can balance the opposite requirements. The corresponding CPP does not bring difficulties to the design and fabrication. Phase aberrations are more sensitive to the special shaped spot; however, it can be tolerable for the current beam control level.
SG-III laser facility is now the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion research in China. The whole laser facility can deliver 180 kJ energy and 60 TW power ultraviolet laser onto target, with power balance better than 10%. We review the laser system and introduce the SG-III laser performance here.
The aluminothermic reduction and nitridation method using microsized Al powder and nanosized alumina powder was employed to fabricate AlON powder under N2 atmosphere. Single-phase aluminum oxynitride (AlON) can be prepared at a relatively low temperature (1700 °C) with a holding time of 3 h. The powder is ball milled, doped with different amounts of Y2O3 (0.1–0.9 wt%) as a sintering additive, and then shaped into pellets. The pellet sintering is carried out at two relatively low temperatures (1860 and 1880 °C) for 10 h. The transmittance and hardness of the obtained samples varies as the amount of Y2O3 varies. The sample sintered under optimal conditions can reach an ultimate transmittance of 65% with 2 mm thickness. The Vickers hardness of highly transparent AlON ceramic is about 15.95 ± 0.17 GPa, indicating that our method has a promising future in transparent AlON ceramic production. The sintering promoting mechanisms of Y2O3 are also discussed in detail.
Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of congenital brain disease; however, the underlying mechanism of neuropathogenesis in brain toxoplasmosis remains elusive. To explore the role of T. gondii in the development of neural stem cells (NSCs), NSCs were isolated from GD14 embryos of ICR mice and were co-cultured with tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain. We found that apoptosis levels of the NSCs co-cultured with 1×106 RH tachyzoites for 24 and 48 h significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner, as compared with the control. Western blotting analysis displayed that the protein level of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) was up-regulated, and caspase-12 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were activated in the NSCs co-cultured with the parasites. Pretreatment with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) inhibitor (TUDCA) and caspase-12 inhibitor (Z-ATAD-FMK) inhibited the expression or activation of the key molecules involved in the ERS-mediated apoptotic pathway, and subsequently decreased the apoptosis levels of the NSCs induced by the T. gondii. The findings here highlight that T. gondii induced apoptosis of the NSCs through the ERS signal pathway via activation of CHOP, caspase-12 and JNK, which may constitute a potential molecular mechanism responsible for the cognitive disturbance in neurological disorders of T. gondii.
Plasma wakefield excited by a short TeV-scale proton beam is investigated in the highly nonlinear regime. Analysis of the “bubble” field illustrates that transverse expelling force of the wakefield can be compensated by the attractive force, which originates from the co-propagating electrons within the proton bunch, leading to a collimation effect that stabilizes the beam propagation. The protons located in the beam tail can be well-confined and accelerated forward for a long distance. Two-dimensional simulations show that after a 1-TeV proton bunch propagating through plasma for a distance, several percentages of the protons achieve a remarkable energy gain. This scheme presents a potential that proton beams from conventional accelerators may gain considerable additional energy through plasmas wakefields.
The commonly used incompressible phase field models for non-reactive, binary fluids, in which the Cahn-Hilliard equation is used for the transport of phase variables (volume fractions), conserve the total volume of each phase as well as the material volume, but do not conserve the mass of the fluid mixture when densities of two components are different. In this paper, we formulate the phase field theory for mixtures of two incompressible fluids, consistent with the quasi-compressible theory , to ensure conservation of mass and momentum for the fluid mixture in addition to conservation of volume for each fluid phase. In this formulation, the mass-average velocity is no longer divergence-free (solenoidal) when densities of two components in the mixture are not equal, making it a compressible model subject to an internal con-straint. In one formulation of the compressible models with internal constraints (model 2), energy dissipation can be clearly established. An efficient numerical method is then devised to enforce this compressible internal constraint. Numerical simulations in confined geometries for both compressible and the incompressible models are carried out using spatially high order spectral methods to contrast the model predictions. Numerical comparisons show that (a) predictions by the two models agree qualitatively in the situation where the interfacial mixing layer is thin; and (b) predictions differ significantly in binary fluid mixtures undergoing mixing with a large mixing zone. The numerical study delineates the limitation of the commonly used incompressible phase field model using volume fractions and thereby cautions its predictive value in simulating well-mixed binary fluids.
A fully higher-order compact (HOC) finite difference scheme on the 9-point two-dimensional (2D) stencil is formulated for solving the steady-state laminar mixed convection flow in a lid-driven inclined square enclosure filled with water-Al2O3 nanofluid. Two cases are considered depending on the direction of temperature gradient imposed (Case I, top and bottom; Case II, left and right). The developed equations are given in terms of the stream function-vorticity formulation and are non-dimensionalized and then solved numerically by a fourth-order accurate compact finite difference method. Unlike other compact solution procedure in literature for this physical configuration, the present method is fully compact and fully higher-order accurate. The fluid flow, heat transfer and heat transport characteristics were illustrated by streamlines, isotherms and averaged Nusselt number. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and found to be in excellent agreement. A parametric study is conducted and a set of graphical results is presented and discussed to elucidate that significant heat transfer enhancement can be obtained due to the presence of nanoparticles and that this is accentuated by inclination of the enclosure at moderate and large Richardson numbers.
Fast linear transformer driver (FLTD) has some advantages in repetitive operation compared with traditional pulsed power generators. However, different types of gas switches applied in the field of pulsed power technology in recent years cannot reach the requirements of repetitive operation of FLTD. Therefore, the capability of repetitive operation of a multigap gas switch has been investigated in a circuit similar to the basic discharge loop named as brick in this paper. The switch has been triggered more than 2000 times and the distribution of delay time and switch jitter are analyzed and reported. Also, the self-breakdown voltages of the switch during different segments of the triggered breakdown experiment have been tested. The experimental results indicate that the delay time obeys the Gauss distribution and the jitter of 2000 times of discharge is about 2.3 ns.
The rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Taichung 65, a japonica subspecies, was used to characterize the isoform, protein and gene expression patterns of endo-β-mannanase during and after seed germination. Activity assays and isoform analyses of whole grains or seed parts (scutellum, aleurone layer and starchy endosperm) revealed that seeds began to express endo-β-mannanase activity at 48 h from the start of imbibition at 25°C, after the completion of germination of most seeds. Three isoforms of endo-β-mannanase (pI 8.86, pI 8.92 and pI 8.98) were detected in the aleurone layer and starchy endosperm, but only two (pI 8.86 and pI 8.92) were present in the scutellum. The endo-β-mannanase in the starchy endosperm was mainly from the aleurone layer. Western blot analysis, using a tomato anti-endo-β-mannanase antibody, indicated that an endo-β-mannanase protein was present in an inactive form in dry grains. The amount of this protein decreased in the scutellum, but increased in the aleurone layer during and after germination. Thus, the increase in endo-β-mannanase activity in rice grains may be due to the activation of extant proteins and/or the de novo synthesis of the enzyme. Northern blot analysis showed that four putative rice endo-β-mannanase genes (OsMAN1, OsMAN2, OsMAN6 and OsMANP) were expressed in germinating and germinated rice grains. However, OsMANP was not expressed in the scutellum. The amount of OsMAN6 mRNA decreased after the completion of germination and paralleled the decline in endo-β-mannanase protein. In the aleurone layer, the increase of OsMAN2, OsMAN6 and OsMANP mRNA was prior to the increase of endo-β-mannanase protein.
Grains of indica rice (Oryza sativa cv. Peiza 67) exhibit an increase in endo-β-mannanase activity, mostly after the completion of germination. According to tissue blots, the initial increase occurs in association with the embryo, and possibly the scutellum, although the largest sustained increase in activity is in the peripheral regions of the endosperm. The aleurone layer, being the only living region of the endosperm, is presumably the site of synthesis and secretion of the enzyme into the non-living, starch-laden region. β-Mannosidase activity is low throughout germination and subsequent seedling growth, particularly in the endosperm regions. Its activity profile does not mimic that of endo-β-mannanase. In the intact grain, gibberellin (GA) causes a relatively small increase in endo-β-mannanase activity, while abscisic acid (ABA) causes a large decrease; this inhibition is overcome to a considerable extent when GA is supplied along with ABA. β-Mannosidase activity is little affected by either GA or ABA. Embryoless half-grains imbibed in water exhibit only a small increase in endo-β-mannanase activity with time of imbibition, showing the necessity for a stimulus from the embryo for this to occur. Incubating half-grains in the presence of GA results in a large increase in enzyme activity; ABA reduces the amount of activity compared to the water controls. GA is capable of reversing the inhibitory effect of ABA with respect to endo-β-mannanase activity. As in the intact grains, β-mannosidase activity in the half-grains is unaffected by either GA or ABA. It is concluded that the major site for the production of endo-β-mannanase activity is the aleurone layer, and this event is influenced by the presence of the embryo; in the absence of the latter, the increase in enzyme activity is stimulated by GA. β-Mannosidase activity is low throughout germination and post-germination, it is not influenced by GA and ABA, and thus its activity is not regulated in a coordinated manner with that of endo-β-mannanase.
During the wafer manufacturing process of magnetoresistive (MR) heads which are widely used in Hard Disk Drives, the metal leads are deposited on both sides of the MR sensing element through the photoresist masks. Due to the shadowing effect of the photoresist, there may be some contamination at joint interfacial region even after ion etching. This introduces additional contact resistance and causes some region of the sensing element to be unpinned. As the geometry of the sensor element decreases, and the contamination, located in regions of few thousands of angstroms, is becoming more severe for MR head than ever. In this paper, we developed a systematic method to evaluate the contact resistance between the two metal layers. A comparison was made between the magnetic read width and the physical width. Finally TEM analysis successfully revealed the interfacial junction contamination.