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Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) is a major challenge in prehospital bleeding control and is associated with high mortality. This study was performed to estimate medical knowledge and the perceived barriers to information acquisition among health-care workers (HCWs) regarding NCTH in China.
A self-administered and validated questionnaire was distributed among 11 WeChat groups consisting of HCWs engaged in trauma, emergency, and disaster rescue.
A total of 575 HCWs participated in this study. In the knowledge section, the majority (87.1%) denied that successful hemostasis could be obtained by external compression. Regarding attitudes, the vast majority of HCWs exhibited positive attitudes toward the important role of NCTH in reducing prehospital preventable death (90.4%) and enthusiasm for continuous learning (99.7%). For practice, fewer than half of HCWs (45.7%) had heard of NCTH beforehand, only a minority (14.3%) confirmed they had attended relevant continuing education, and 16.3% HCWs had no access to updated medical information. The most predominant barrier to information acquisition was the lack of continuing training (79.8%).
Knowledge and practice deficiencies do exist among HCWs. Obstacles to update medical information warrant further attention. Furthermore, education program redesign is also needed.
We investigated the effects of botulinum toxin on gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with foot dystonia. Six patients underwent onabotulinum toxin A injection and were assessed by Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Test (BBT), and 3D gait analysis at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. BFMDRS (p = 0.002), VAS (p = 0.024), TUG (p = 0.028), and BBT (p = 0.034) were improved. Foot pressures at Toe 1 (p = 0.028) and Midfoot (p = 0.018) were reduced, indicating botulinum toxin’s effects in alleviating the dystonia severity and pain and improving foot pressures during walking in PD.
Sugarcane brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is one of the main diseases of sugarcane in China. The identification and discovery of new resistance genes have important theoretical and practical significance for preventing outbreaks of brown rust and ensuring the sustainable production of sugarcane. To screen for polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers for localization of brown rust resistance genes, we used two populations that are suitable for genetic linkage map construction and mapping of new resistance genes to construct resistant and susceptible genetic pools. We then screened 449 pairs of primers to identify polymorphic SSR markers in the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools. The results showed that 25 pairs of primers directed amplification of polymorphic DNA fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’, and 16 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Liucheng 03-1137’ × ‘Dezhe 93-88’. Four pairs of primers (SMC236CG, SCESSR0928, SCESSR0636 and SCESSR2551) amplified polymorphic DNA fragments between the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools in ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’. The results of this study will establish a solid foundation for the mapping of new brown rust resistance genes, genetic linkage map construction and the development of closely-associated molecular markers in sugarcane.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
Challenges remain in the judgement of pathological murmurs in newborns at maternity hospitals, and there are still many simple major CHD patients in developing countries who are not diagnosed in a timely fashion. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of cardiac auscultation on neonatal CHD by general paediatricians.
We conducted a prospective study at three hospitals. All asymptomatic newborns underwent auscultation, pulse oximetry monitoring, and echocardiography. Major CHD was classified and confirmed through follow-up. We evaluated the accuracy of various degrees of murmurs for detecting major CHD to determine the most appropriate standards and time of auscultation.
A total of 6750 newborns were included. The median age of auscultation was 43 hours. Cardiac murmurs were identified in 6.6% of newborns. For all CHD, 44.4% had varying degrees of murmurs. A murmur of grade ≥2 used as a reference standard for major CHD had a sensitivity of 89.58%. The false positive rate of murmurs of grade ≥2 for detecting major CHD was significantly negatively related to auscultation time, with 84.4% of false positives requiring follow-up for non-major CHD cardiac issues. Auscultation after 27 hours of life could reduce the false positive rate of major CHD from 2.7 to 0.9%.
With appropriate training, maternity hospital’s paediatricians can detect major CHD with high detection rates with an acceptable false positive rate.
Patient’s needs and rights are the key to delivering state-of-the-art modern nursing care. It is especially challenging to provide proper nursing care for patients who are reaching the end of life (EOL). In Chinese culture nursing practice, the perception and expectations of these EOL patients are not well known. This article explores the feelings and wishes of 16 terminally ill Chinese cancer patients who are going through the dying process. An open-ended questionnaire with eight items was used to interview 16 terminally ill Chinese cancer patients, and was then analyzed by a combined approach employing grounded theory and interpretive phenomenological analysis. Four dimensions were explored: first, patient’s attitudes towards death, such as accepting the fact calmly, striving to survive, and the desire for control; second, the care desired during the dying process, including avoiding excessive treatment and dying with dignity; third, the degree of the patient’s acceptance of death; and fourth, the consequences of death. This cognitive study offers a fundamental understanding of perceptions of death of terminally ill cancer patients from the Chinese culture. Their attitude toward death was complex. They did not prefer aggressive treatment and most of them had given a great deal of thought to their death.
Tungstate based phosphors have efficient absorption in the UV region and can be used for UV-pumped light emitting. For novel and effective materials and synthesis methods in this system, a series of Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-doped NaY(WO4)2 phosphors have been synthesized via the molten salt method. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns, scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and photoluminescent spectra have been characterized for the prepared samples. The results show the flux (NaCl) not only decreases the reaction temperature (700–900 °C) than the normal solid state synthesis (∼1000 °C), but also controls the morphology of the products. The shape and size of products can be changed simply and effectively by the reaction conditions, such as temperature and heating time. It is also found that the emission colors of the samples can be tuned from red to green by simply adjusting the doping concentrations of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions under the same wave length excitation, which has potential applications for multi-color display and illumination as a single-component phosphor.
The Myanmar snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri was discovered in 2010 on the western slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains in the Irrawaddy River basin in Myanmar and subsequently in the same river basin in China, in 2011. Based on 2 years of surveying the remote and little disturbed forest of the Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve in China, with outline transect sampling and infrared camera monitoring, a breeding group comprising > 70 individuals was found on the eastern slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains in the Salween River Basin. Given the Critically Endangered status of this primate (a total of < 950 individuals are estimated to remain in the wild), efforts to protect the relatively undisturbed habitat of this newly discovered population and to prevent hunting are essential for the long-term survival of this species.
Introduction: Earthquake exposure has been associated with adverse consequences for coronary heart disease. However, the natural history and prognostic significance of earthquake-related, new-onset angina have not been characterized.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between episodes of depressive symptoms and one-year prognosis after the first admission to the hospital among adults with new-onset angina before and after the Sichuan earthquake.
Methods: One hundred forty-one first hospitalized patients with new-onset angina before and after the Sichuan earthquake underwent psychological assessments during their first admission to the hospital following the earthquake. Patients were followed for 12 months to determine survival status. The independent relationships between baseline variables and readmission risk after the earthquake were examined. Baseline somatic and psychosocial variables were collected with the aid of standard, validated questionnaires.
Results: The proportion of patients with moderate/severe depression symptom in the earthquake-related group is higher than among their counterparts (23.7% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.026). Patients with new-onset angina after the Sichuan earthquake had a higher risk of readmission (22.4% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.041) and longer total hospitalization (average of 13.4 ±6.8 vs. 10.7 ±5.5 days, p = 0.015). The risks for readmission was associated with moderate/severe depression (adjusted hazard ratio, 9.18 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.09–27.23, p = 0.0000]) and low ejection fraction (adjusted hazard ratio, 6.66 [95%CI = 2.131–20.781, p = 0.001]).
Conclusions: Among patients diagnosed with new-onset angina, those with first episode after the Sichuan earthquake generated more moderate/severe depressive symptoms and had a higher risk for readmission and longer hospital stay. Depressive symptoms upon admission and low ejection fractions were significant predictors of 12-month risk for readmission, which indicates that antidepressants should be prescribed.
Objective: To evaluate the role of transoesophageal echocardiography and problems related to safety during the surgical repair of congenital cardiac malformations in children. Methods: We examined the transoesophageal recordings made in 350 children with congenital cardiac diseases, aged from 2 months to 17 years and 9 months, with a median age of 2.7 years, tracings having been taken both before and after cardiopulmonary bypass. All patients had been scanned by transthoracic echocardiography before the operative procedures. Results: Preoperative transoesophageal echocardiography added additional findings, or changed the diagnoses made using transthoracic echocardiography, in 33 cases (9.4%), among which the findings had therapeutic significance in 23 cases (6.6%) that altered the planned surgical procedures. Residual problems or sequels were detected by postoperative transoesophageal echocardiography in 57 cases (16.3%), with 13 patients (3.7%) requiring instant intervention or return to bypass for modifications of the surgical procedures. We encountered no severe complications due to the performance of transoesophageal echocardiography. Mild complications occurred in only 2 patients (0.6%). Conclusions: Transoesophageal echocardiography is a useful tool with which to determine the strategies for treatment in the perioperative period, and to improve the quality of surgical procedures in children with congenital cardiac diseases. Complications were few, but still deserved careful attention to detail.
A joule level of XeF(C-A) laser optically pumped by a sectioned
surface discharge was developed. The irradiative intensity of pumping
source was diagnosed by calculating XeF2 photo-dissociation
wave evolvement which was photographed by a framing camera. The photon
flux in the wavelength region of 140 to 170nm is about 5 ×
1023 photon s−1cm−2, that
corresponds to the irradiative brightness temperature of more than 25000
K. The laser experiments were carried out in different conditions. The
maximum laser output energy of 2.5 J was obtained with the total
conversion efficiency of 0.1%.
The present study examined: (i) age-induced regional changes in fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids; (ii) α-linolenic acid deficiency-induced regional depletion and recovery of DHA in the brain. DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) did not distribute evenly in the brain. In weaning and adult rats, the region with the highest DHA percentage was the cortex whereas the medulla had the lowest DHA percentage. In the aged rats, both the cortex and cerebellum were the regions with the highest DHA percentage whereas in the neonatal rats, the striatum had the greatest percentage of DHA, and the hypothalamus and hippocampus had the least percentage of DHA. Regarding AA, the hippocampus was the region that had the highest percentage whereas the medulla was the region with the lowest percentage except for the neonatal rats, whose cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum and midbrain had AA percentage lower than hippocampus and cortex. DHA was not proportionally depleted in various regions of brain when the rats were maintained on an n-3-deficient diet for two generations. The results demonstrated that the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum and hypothalamus had DHA depleted by >71 %, whereas the midbrain and medulla had only 64 and 57 % DHA depleted, respectively. The most important observation was that the diet reversal for 12 weeks resulted in complete DHA recovery in all regions except for the medulla where the recovery was only 62 %. It was concluded that the location of DHA, n-3 deficiency-induced DHA depletion and reversibility of DHA deficiency across the brain were region-specific.
Two pairs of nested primers were derived from the 5′ flanking sequence of the bovine SRY gene to serve as male-specific sexing primers, which were used for PCR-based sex determination of bovine embryos in combination with casein protein gene primers as internal control. At the same time, methods of DNA extraction from bovine embryo cells were established and the sensitivity of nested PCR and normal PCR was studied for developing a technique of sex determination of bovine embryos adapted for practical use. Results showed that the primers used in the study were male-specific and all primers were bovine-specific. Boiling and freeze–thawing were used for DNA extraction from embryo cells. Amplification products were obtained with only 10 cells by nested PCR, so this system was used for the sex determination of bovine embryos. The sex of 10 Holstein cow embryos was identified and the results were confirmed upon birth of the calves.
As a starting material to produce BaTiO3 ceramic, BaCO3 fine powders (<1 μm in diameter) are required. In this paper, how to transform 2–3μm length viraulate BaCO3 microlite into 0.2–0.8μm globose particle is discussed. The factors that affect aggregation and dispersion in fine powder are experienced. Special equipment is introduced to this process. The particle diameter is determined by the SEM micrograph. The whole process is a simple method.
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