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The associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain controversial. A quantitative assessment of dose–response associations has not been reported. This study aims to assess the associations between the risk of MetS and SSB, ASB, and total sweetened beverage (TSB, the combination of SSB and ASB) consumption by reviewing population-based epidemiological studies.
We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases prior to 4 November 2019, for relevant studies investigating the SSB–MetS and ASB–MetS associations. A random effects model was used to estimate pooled relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. Dose–response association was assessed using a restricted cubic splines model.
We identified seventeen articles (twenty-four studies, including 93 095 participants and 20 749 MetS patients).
The pooled RR for the risk of MetS were 1·51 (95 % CI 1·34, 1·69), 1·56 (1·32, 1·83) and 1·44 (1·19, 1·75) in high consumption group of TSB, SSB and ASB, respectively; and 1·20 (1·13, 1·28), 1·19 (1·11, 1·28) and 1·31 (1·05, 1·65) per 250 ml/d increase in TSB, SSB and ASB consumption, respectively. Additionally, we found evidence of non-linear, TSB–MetS and SSB–MetS dose–response associations and a linear ASB–MetS dose–response association.
TSB, SSB and ASB consumption was associated with the risk of MetS. The present findings provide evidence that supports reducing intake of these beverages to lower the TSB-, SSB- and ASB-related risk of MetS.
Cruciferous vegetables contain high levels of glucosinolates (GSL) and isothiocyanates (ITC). ITC are known to induce glutathione S-transferases (GST) and thus exert their anticarcinogenic effects. This study explored the combined effects of cruciferous vegetable, GSL and ITC intake and GST polymorphisms on breast cancer risk. A total of 737 breast cancer cases and 756 controls were recruited into this case–control study. OR and 95 % CI were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Higher cruciferous vegetable, GSL and ITC intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, with adjusted OR of 0·48 (95 % CI 0·35, 0·65), 0·54 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·74) and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·84), respectively. Compared with women carrying the GSTP1 rs1695 wild AA genotype and high cruciferous vegetable, GSL or ITC intake, carriers of the AA genotype with low cruciferous vegetable, GSL and ITC intake had greater risk of breast cancer, with adjusted OR of 1·43 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·87), 1·34 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·75) and 1·37 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·80), respectively. Persons with the GSTM1-null genotype and lower intake of cruciferous vegetables, GSL and ITC had higher risk of breast cancer than those with the GSTM1-present genotype and higher intake, with OR of 1·42 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·95), 1·43 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·96) and 1·45 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·98), respectively. Among women possessing the GSTT1-present genotype, low intake of cruciferous vegetables, GSL or ITC was associated with higher risk of breast cancer. But these interactions were non-significant. This study indicated that there were no significant interactions between cruciferous vegetable, GSL or ITC intake and GST polymorphisms on breast cancer risk.
B vitamins (including folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12) and methionine are essential for methylation reactions, nucleotide synthesis, DNA stability and DNA repair. However, epidemiological evidence among Chinese populations is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate B vitamins and methionine in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A case–control study was conducted from July 2010 to April 2019. A total of 2502 patients with colorectal cancer were recruited along with 2538 age- (5-year interval) and sex-matched controls. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess OR and 95 % CI. The intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. The multivariable OR for the highest quartile v. the lowest quartile were 0·62 (95 % CI 0·51, 0·74; Ptrend < 0·001) for folate, 0·46 (95 % CI 0·38, 0·55; Ptrend < 0·001) for vitamin B2, 0·55 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·76; Ptrend < 0·001) for vitamin B6 and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·86; Ptrend < 0·001) for vitamin B12. No statistically significant association was found between methionine intake and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the inverse associations between vitamin B12 and methionine intake and colorectal cancer risk were found only among women. This study indicated that higher intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 was associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.
The effect of dietary vitamin D, calcium and dairy products intake on colorectal cancer risk is controversial. This study aims to investigate the associations between dietary vitamin D, calcium, dairy products intake and colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population.
Materials and Methods
During July 2010 to December 2018, 2380 incident, first primary, histologically confirmed colorectal cancer cases and 2389 sex and age-matched (5-year interval) controls were recruited. Dietary intake information was collected by face-to-face interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Energy and other nutrient intakes such as dietary calcium were computed on the basis of the 2002 Chinese Food Composition Table, and the dietary vitamin D intake was calculated according to the United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Database. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for various confounders, including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, BMI, family history of cancer, energy intake and several nutrient intakes.
The energy-adjusted mean dietary vitamin D, calcium and total dairy products intakes were 5.69μg/d, 406.94mg/d, 4.02g/d for cases and 6.81μg/d, 468.21mg/d, 9.50g/d for controls. Compared with the controls, cases had a lower intake of dietary vitamin D, calcium and total dairy (P < 0.001). A higher intake of dietary vitamin D and calcium was found to be associated with 43% and 51% reduction in colorectal cancer. The ORs of the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile intake were 0.57 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.70, Ptrend < 0.001) for dietary vitamin D and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.61, Ptrend < 0.001) for dietary calcium. We observed a statistically significant inverse association of dairy products intake with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest tertile, the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile were 0.31 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.38, Ptrend < 0.001) for total dairy. The inverse associations of dietary vitamin D, calcium and dairy products intakes with colorectal cancer risk were observed in both men and women, colon and rectal cancer.
Our study indicated that higher dietary vitamin D, calcium and dairy products intakes were associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk.
The effects of dietary vitamin D, Ca and dairy products intakes on colorectal cancer risk remain controversial. The present study investigated the association between these dietary intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer in Guangdong, China. From July 2010 to December 2018, 2380 patients with colorectal cancer and 2389 sex- and age-matched controls were recruited. Dietary intake data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a validated FFQ. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate the OR and 95 % CI after adjusting for various confounders. Higher dietary vitamin D and Ca intakes were associated with 43 and 52 % reductions in colorectal cancer risk, with OR of 0·57 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·70) and 0·48 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·61), respectively, for the highest quartile (v. the lowest quartile) intakes. A statistically significant inverse association was observed between total dairy product intake and colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted OR of 0·32 (95 % CI 0·27, 0·39) for the highest v. the lowest tertile. Subjects who drank milk had a 48 % lower risk of colorectal cancer than those who did not (OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·59). The inverse associations of dietary vitamin D, Ca, total dairy products and milk intakes with the risk of colorectal cancer were independent of sex and cancer site. Our study supports the protective effects of high dietary vitamin D, Ca and dairy products intakes against colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
Few studies have examined the association of various types of Fe with colorectal cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate different forms and sources of Fe in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A total of 2138 patients with colorectal cancer and 2144 sex- and age-matched (5-year interval) controls were recruited from July 2010 to November 2017. Dietary information was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI on models. Intake of Fe from plants and Fe from white meat were inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, while haem Fe and Fe from red meat were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. The multivariable OR for the highest quartile v. the lowest quartile were 0·72 (95 % CI 0·59, 0·87, Ptrend<0·001) for Fe from plants, 0·54 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·66, Ptrend<0·001) for Fe from white meat, 1·26 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·53, Ptrend=0·005) for haem Fe and 1·83 (95 % CI 1·49, 2·24, Ptrend<0·001) for Fe from red meat intake, respectively. However, no significant association was found between the consumption of total dietary Fe, non-haem Fe, Fe from meat and colorectal cancer risk. This study showed that lower intake of Fe from plants and white meat, as well as higher intake of haem Fe and Fe from red meat, were associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.
This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99–21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum threonine requirements were estimated to be 14·53 g threonine/kg diet (4·48 g threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4·64 g threonine/100 g protein) and 15·17 g threonine/kg diet (4·68 g threonine/100 g protein), respectively.
Excavation of the Han Dynasty chambered tomb at Laoguanshan in Chengdu, south-west China, has provided the earliest known evidence of pattern loom technology. Four model looms, along with accompanying artefacts and figurines relating to the weaving process, give insight into the technique of jin silk production. The discovery is hugely significant as it provides the first direct evidence of pattern-weave textile production in ancient China. Jin silk, made using this method, was both valuable and widely distributed, and the design of the machine influenced the invention of later looms and the spread of technology throughout Eurasia and Europe, representing great technological accomplishment for the second century BC.
An effective multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of three major pathogens, Nosema bombycis Nägeli (Microsporidia: Nosematidae), Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (Baculoviridae: genus Alphabaculovirus) (NPV), and Bombyx mori densovirus (Parvoviridae: genus Iteravirus) (DNV), in silkworms (Bombyx mori (Linnaeus); Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was developed in this study. Polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR tests and basic local alignment search tool searches revealed that the primers and probes used in this study had high specificities for their target species. The ability of each primer/probe set to detect pure pathogen DNA was determined using a plasmid dilution panel, in which under optimal conditions the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed high efficiency in the detection of three mixed target plasmids with a detection limit of 8.5×103 copies for N. bombycis and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV) and 8.5×104 copies for Bombyx mori DNV (BmDNV). When the ability to detect these three pathogens was examined in artificially inoculated silkworms, our method presented a number of advantages over traditional microscopy, including specificity, sensitivity, and high-throughput capabilities. Under the optimal volume ratio for the three primer/probe sets (3:2:2=N. bombycis:BmNPV:BmDNV), the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed early detection of BmNPV and BmDNV by day 1 post inoculation using DNA templates of the three pathogens in various combinations from individually infected silkworms; the early detection of N. bombycis was possible by day 3 post inoculation using the DNA isolated from the midgut of N. bombycis-infected silkworms.
The present study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin A on immune function in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed graded levels of dietary vitamin A for 10 weeks, and then a challenge test using an injection of Aeromonas hydrophila was conducted for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the optimum vitamin A level, vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased fish growth performance, increased enteritis morbidity, decreased intestinal innate humoral immune response and aggravated intestinal inflammation. However, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2A/B mRNA in the DI and IL-6, IL-17D, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2 mRNA in the PI were not affected by vitamin A levels. Meanwhile, vitamin A deficiency disturbed inflammatory cytokines in the PI, MI and DI, which might be partly linked to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signalling and NF-κB canonical signalling pathway (IκB kinase β (IKKβ), IKKγ, inhibitor of κBα, NF-κB p65 and c-Rel) rather than NF-κB non-canonical signalling pathway (NF-κB p52 and IKKα). However, the signalling molecules NF-κB p65 and p38MAPK did not participate in regulating cytokines in the PI. These results suggested that vitamin A deficiency decreased fish growth and impaired intestinal immune function, and that different immune responses in the PI, MI and DI were mediated partly by NF-κB canonical signalling and p38MAPK signalling pathways. On the basis of percentage of weight gain, to protect fish against enteritis morbidity and acid phosphatase activity, the optimum dietary vitamin A levels were estimated to be 0·664, 0·707 and 0·722 mg /kg, respectively.
For the prevention and control of newly emergent or sudden infectious diseases, we built an on-site, modularized prevention and control system and tested the equipment by using the clustering analysis method. On the basis of this system, we propose a modular equipment allocation method and 4 applications of this method for different types of infectious disease prevention and control. This will help to improve the efficiency and productivity of anti-epidemic emergency forces and will provide strong technical support for implementing more universal and serialized equipment in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:375–382)
Two transmission curved crystal spectrometers are designed to measure the hard x-ray emission in the laser fusion experiment of Compton radiography of implosion target on ShenGuang-III laser facility in China. Cylindrically curved
-quartz (10–11) crystals with curvature radii of 150 and 300 mm are used to cover spectral ranges of 10–56 and 17–100 keV, respectively. The distance between the crystal and the x-ray source can be changed over a broad distance from 200 to 1500 mm. The optical design, including the integral reflectivity of the curved crystal, the sensitivity, and the spectral resolution of the spectrometers, is discussed. We also provide mechanic design details and experimental results using a Mo anode x-ray source. High-quality spectra were obtained. We confirmed that the spectral resolution can be improved by increasing the working distance, which is the distance between the recording medium and the Rowland circle.
Abstract: Hitachi Lab-in-Gap transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technologies are introduced. The term Lab-in-Gap refers to a special function that allows in situ and in operando TEM studies of materials in gas or liquid environments while stimulations, such as thermal or electrical fields, are applied to the specimen sitting in the pole piece gap in a TEM system. Physical or chemical process can be activated and imaged in real time using TEM or other imaging modes. The new generation environmental TEM platform with large pole piece gap and advanced aberration correctors opens wide possibilities for integrating multiple stimuli sources as well as large-area, sub-Å resolution live imaging for dynamic structural changes.
Crack propagation behaviors in a precracked single crystal Ag under mode I loading at different temperatures are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results show that the crack propagation behaviors are sensitive to external temperature. At 0 K, the crack propagates in a brittle manner. Crack tip blunting and void generation are first observed followed by void growth and linkage with the main crack, which lead to the propagation of the main crack and brittle failure immediately without any microstructure evolution. As the temperature gets higher, more void nucleations and dislocation emissions occur in the crack propagation process. The deformation of the single crystal Ag can be considered as plastic deformation due to dislocation emissions. The crack propagation dynamics characterizing the microstructure evolution of atoms around the crack tip is also shown. Finally, it is shown that the stress of the single crystal Ag changes with the crack length synchronously.
This study investigated the effects of glycinin on the growth, intestinal oxidative status, tight junction components, cytokines and apoptosis signalling factors of fish. The results showed that an 80 g/kg diet of glycinin exposure for 42 d caused poor growth performance and depressed intestinal growth and function of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Meanwhile, dietary glycinin exposure induced increases in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation; it caused reductions in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities; and it increased MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx1b and GPx4a mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress in the intestines of fish. However, dietary glycinin exposure decreased both the activity and mRNA levels of nine isoforms of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (α, μ, π, ρ, θ, κ, mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3), indicating toxicity to this enzyme activity and corresponding isoform gene expressions. In addition, glycinin exposure caused partial disruption of intestinal cell–cell tight junction components, disturbances of cytokines and induced apoptosis signalling in the distal intestines>mid intestines>proximal intestines of fish. Glycinin exposure also disturbed the mRNA levels of intestinal-related signalling factors Nrf2, Keap1a, Keap1b, eleven isoforms of protein kinase C and target of rapamycin/4E-BP. Interestingly, glutamine was observed to partially block those negative influences. In conclusion, this study indicates that dietary glycinin exposure causes intestinal oxidative damage and disruption of intestinal physical barriers and functions and reduces fish growth, but glutamine can reverse those negative effects in fish. This study provides some information on the mechanism of glycinin-induced negative effects.
The Sun drives most events of space weather in the vicinity of the Earth. Because the activities of the Sun are complicated, a visualized chart with key objects of solar activities is needed for space weather forecast. This work investigates the key objects in research during the past forty years and surveys a variety of solar observational data. We design the solar synoptic chart (SSC) that covers the key objects of solar activities, i.e., active regions, coronal holes, filaments/prominences, flares and coronal mass ejections, and synthesizes images from different heights and temperatures of solar atmosphere. The SSC is used to analyze the condition of the Sun in March 2012 and October 2014 as examples. The result shows that the SSC is timely, comprehensive, concise and easy to understand. It has the potentiality for space weather forecast and can help in improving the public education.
Post-flare loops (PFLs) usually appear in the late phase of eruptive flares as an arcade-like loop system. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) delivers continuously high temporal and spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations, providing a unique chance to study the PFLs. In this work, we use SDO/AIA high-quality EUV images to study the dark loop-like features in post-flare loops (DPFLs) of an X5.4 flare. Our analysis shows that: 1) the DPFLs are darker than their surrounding and the bright loops, but are brighter than the EUV background; 2) the DPFLs appear in multiple EUV channels, which indicates that they are absorption features; 3) the DPFLs are associated with downflows that are caused by the thermal instability in the cooling process of the flare.