We aimed to study the response of serum transferrin receptors (sTfR) to Fe supplementation in women of childbearing age with Fe-deficiency erythropoiesis (IDE) and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA). Primary screening was performed in 942 women ranging in age from 18 to 45 years. After Fe-related biochemical indices such as serum ferritin, Zn protoporphyrin and Hb were determined, the subjects were divided into four groups: normal, Fe store depletion, IDE and IDA. A total of 131 women were randomly selected from the normal, IDE and IDA groups. Subsequently, seventy-six women with IDE and IDA were given various doses of Fe (14 mg/d for IDE; 28 mg/d for IDA) with ferrous l-threonate capsules for twelve consecutive weeks. After receiving Fe supplements, the levels of Fe and sTfR were determined at weeks 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12.The levels of sTfR in women of childbearing age with IDE and IDA were significantly higher than those in the normal group. After receiving Fe supplements, the levels of sTfR were significantly decreased in women of childbearing age with IDE and IDA, while the levels of serum ferritin were significantly increased. In conclusion, STfR can be used as a reliable indicator for assessing the efficacy of Fe supplements.