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Dysregulation in hepatic lipid synthesis by excess dietary carbohydrate intake are often relevant with the occurrence of fatty liver, and therefore the thorough understanding of the regulation of lipid deposition and metabolism seems crucial to search for potential regulatory targets. In the present study, we examined TG accumulation, lipid metabolism-related genes expression, the enzyme activities of lipogenesis-related enzymes, the protein levels of transcription factors or genes involving lipogenesis in the livers of yellow catfish fed five dietary carbohydrate sources, such as glucose, corn starch, sucrose, potato starch and dextrin, respectively. Generally speaking, compared to other carbohydrate sources, dietary glucose promoted the TG accumulation, up-regulated the lipogenic enzyme activities and gene expressions, and down-regulated mRNA expression of genes involved in lipolysis and SUMO modification pathways. Further studies found that SREBP1, key transcriptional factors relevant with lipogenic regulation, was modified by SUMO1. Mutational analyses found two important sites for sumoylation modification (K254R and K264R) in SREBP1. Mutant SREBPs lacking lysine 264 up-regulated the transactivation capacity on an SREBP-responsive promoter. Glucose reduced the SUMOylation level of SREBP1 and promoted the protein expression of SREBP1 and its target gene SCD1, indicating that SUMOylation of SREBP1 mediated glucose-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Our study elucidated the molecular mechanism of dietary glucose increasing hepatic lipid deposition and found that the SREBP-dependent transactivation was regulated by SUMO1 modification, which served as a new target for the transcriptional programs governing lipid metabolism.
Based on attachment theory and a social-cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this study examined the roles of parent–child communication, perceived parental depression, and intrusive rumination in the association between insecure attachment to parents and PTSD among adolescents following the Jiuzhaigou earthquake. In this study, 620 adolescents were recruited to complete self-report questionnaires. The results showed that the direct association between anxious attachment and PTSD was significant, but that between avoidant attachment and PTSD was non-significant. In addition, both anxious and avoidant attachment had indirect associations with PTSD via the mediating effects of parent–child communication openness and problems, perceived parental depression, and intrusive rumination. However, the specific paths between anxious and avoidant attachment and PTSD were different. The findings indicated that insecure attachment among adolescents following the earthquake was predictive for their PTSD, and the mechanisms underlying the association between anxious attachment and PTSD and the association between avoidant attachment and PTSD were distinct. To alleviate PTSD, more attention should be paid to improving the quality of parent–child communication for adolescents with avoidant attachment to parents, and to reducing negative cognition in adolescents with anxious attachment.
The Antarctic subglacial drilling rig (ASDR) is designed to recover 105 mm-diameter ice cores up to 1400 m depth and 41.5 mm-diameter bedrock cores up to 2 m in length. In order to ensure safe and convenient drilling, drilling auxiliaries are designed to support fieldwork and servicing. These auxiliaries are subdivided into several systems for power supply, drill tripping in the borehole, ice core and chip processing, and drill servicing and maintenance. The required equipment also includes two generators, a drilling winch with a cable, logging winch with a cable, control desk, pipe handler with a fixed clamp, chip chamber vibrator, centrifuge, emergency devices and fitting and electrical tools. Additionally, several environmental protective measures such as a new liquid-tight casing with a thermal casing shoe and a bailing device for recovering drilling fluid from the borehole were designed. Most of the auxiliaries were tested during the summer of 2018–2019 near Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica while drilling to the bedrock to a depth of 198 m.
A new, modified version of the cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill (IBED) was designed for drilling in firn, ice, debris-rich ice and rock. The upper part of the drill is almost the same for all drill variants and comprises four sections: cable termination, a slip-ring section, an antitorque system and an electronic pressure chamber. The lower part of the IBED comprises an auger core barrel, reamers, a core barrel for ice/debris-ice drilling and a conventional geological single-tube core barrel or custom-made double-tube core barrel. First, the short and full-scale field versions of the IBED were tested at an outdoor testing stand and a testing facility with a 12.5 m-deep ice well. Then, in the 2018–2019 summer season, the IBED was tested in the field at a site ~12 km south of Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica, and a ~6 cm bedrock core was recovered from a 198 m-deep borehole. A total of 18 d was required to penetrate the ice sheet. The retrieved core samples of blue ice, basal ice and bedrock provided valuable information regarding the Earth's paleo-environment.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2 virus) has been sustained in China since December 2019, and has become a pandemic. The mental health of frontline medical staff is a concern. In this study, we aimed to identify the factors influencing medical worker anxiety in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of anxiety among medical staff in China from 10 February 2020 to 20 February 2020 using the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) to assess anxiety, with the criteria of normal (⩽49), mild (50–59), moderate (60–70) and severe anxiety (⩾70). We used multivariable linear regression to determine the factors (e.g. having direct contact when treating infected patients, being a medical staff worker from Hubei province, being a suspect case) for anxiety. We also used adjusted models to confirm independent factors for anxiety after adjusting for gender, age, education and marital status. Of 512 medical staff in China, 164 (32.03%) had had direct contact treating infected patients. The prevalence of anxiety was 12.5%, with 53 workers suffering from mild (10.35%), seven workers suffering from moderate (1.36%) and four workers suffering from severe anxiety (0.78%). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, education and marital status), medical staff who had had direct contact treating infected patients experienced higher anxiety scores than those who had not had direct contact (β value = 2.33, confidence interval (CI) 0.65–4.00; P = 0.0068). A similar trend was observed in medical staff from Hubei province, compared with those from other parts of China (β value = 3.67, CI 1.44–5.89; P = 0.0013). The most important variable was suspect cases with high anxiety scores, compared to non-suspect cases (β value = 4.44, CI 1.55–7.33; P = 0.0028). In this survey of hospital medical workers during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, we found that study participants experienced anxiety symptoms, especially those who had direct clinical contact with infected patients; as did those in the worst affected areas, including Hubei province; and those who were suspect cases. Governments and healthcare authorities should proactively implement appropriate psychological intervention programmes, to prevent, alleviate or treat increased anxiety.
To determine whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological variables are associated with daily COVID-19 incidence.
A retrospective cohort from January 25 to February 29, 2020.
Cities of Wuhan, Xiaogan, and Huanggang, China.
The COVID-19 cases detected each day.
We collected daily data of COVID-19 incidence, 8 ambient air pollutants (particulate matter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5], particulate matter ≤10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and maximum 8-h moving average concentrations for ozone [O3-8h]) and 3 meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind) in China’s 3 worst COVID-19–stricken cities during the study period. The multivariate Poisson regression was performed to understand their correlation.
Daily COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with PM2.5 and humidity in all cities. Specifically, the relative risk (RR) of PM2.5 for daily COVID-19 incidences were 1.036 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.032–1.039) in Wuhan, 1.059 (95% CI, 1.046–1.072) in Xiaogan, and 1.144 (95% CI, 1.12–1.169) in Huanggang. The RR of humidity for daily COVID-19 incidence was consistently lower than that of PM2.5, and this difference ranged from 0.027 to 0.111. Moreover, PM10 and temperature also exhibited a notable correlation with daily COVID-19 incidence, but in a negative pattern The RR of PM10 for daily COVID-19 incidence ranged from 0.915 (95% CI, 0.896–0.934) to 0.961 (95% CI, 0.95–0.972, while that of temperature ranged from 0.738 (95% CI, 0.717–0.759) to 0.969 (95% CI, 0.966–0.973).
Our data show that PM2.5 and humidity are substantially associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and that PM10 and temperature are substantially associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19.
Phase-resolved wave simulation and direct numerical simulation of turbulence are performed to investigate the surface wave effects on the energy transfer in overlying turbulent flow. The JONSWAP spectrum is used to initialize a broadband wave field. The nonlinear wave field is simulated using a high-order spectral method, and the resultant wave surface provides the bottom boundary conditions for direct numerical simulation of the overlying turbulent flow. Two wave ages of
and 25 are considered, corresponding to slow and fast wave fields, respectively, where
denotes the celerity of the peak wave and
denotes the friction velocity. The energy transfer of turbulent motions in the presence of surface waves is investigated through the spectral analysis of the two-point correlation transport equation. It is found that the production term has an extra peak at the dominant wavelength scale in the vicinity of the surface, and the energy transported to the surface via viscous and spatial turbulent transport is enhanced in the region of
. The presence of surface waves results in an inverse turbulent energy cascade in the near-surface region, where small-scale wave-related motions transfer energy back to the dominant wavelength scale. Pressure-related terms reflecting the spatial and inter-component energy transfer are strongly dependent on the wave age. Furthermore, triadic interaction analysis reveals that the energy influx at the dominant wavelength scale is due to the contribution of the neighbouring streamwise turbulent motions, and those at the harmonic wavelength scales contribute the most.
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) are the primary target of antipsychotic drugs and have been shown to regulate Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK-3b) signaling through scaffolding protein b-arrestin 2.
In the present study, we researched the effects of saikosaponin B1 on the b-arrestin 2-mediated Akt/GSK-3b pathway in human neuroblastoma cell lineSH-SY5Y cells.
To determine whether saikosaponin B1 affected neuronal morphology in human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y cells.
We investigated the effects of saikosaponin B1 on neurite outgrowth using immunostaining. We examined the effects of saikosaponin B1 on Akt and GSK-3b and its well-known downstream regulators, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Bcl-2 levels using Western blot analysis.
Saikosaponin B1 was found to enhance neurite outgrowth. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for b-arrestin 2 knockdown blocked the increase in saikosaponin B1-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, saikosaponin B1 increased the levels of Akt and GSK-3b phosphorylation. The elevation of Akt phosphorylation induced by saikosaponin B1 was reduced by b-arrestin 2 siRNA. Moreover, saikosaponin B1 effectively increased the levels of phospho-CREB, BDNF, and Bcl-2.
Together, these results suggest that regulation of the b-arrestin 2-dependent pathway via blockade of the D2R in SH-SY5Y cells is one mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of saikosaponin B1.
During World War II, the British biochemist Joseph Needham (1900–95) traveled to the wartime capital of the Chinese resistance in Chongqing, Sichuan Province, in the southwest of the country. In a village on the outskirts of the city, Needham toured the offices of the relocated Academia Sinica, the national academy of sciences and social sciences first established in 1928. The scientists had left behind their laboratories and equipment in the large coastal cities in exchange for bomb shelters in cliff-side caves and farmhouses in the countryside. Nevertheless, Needham was deeply impressed by the fortitude of Chinese scientists in harsh wartime conditions.
Mach reflection in steady supersonic flow with two incident shock waves that reflect at the same point on the reflecting surface has been studied recently. Under some conditions we have pre-Mach reflection, where the first incident shock wave produces Mach reflection, the reflected shock wave of which intersects the second incident shock wave, leading to a type I shock interference structure. In this study, we find that a critical condition exists to have a double solution of this shock interference, i.e. we may either have type I interference or type II interference. However, numerical simulation shows that, for inverted Mach reflection, the double solution domain is below the theoretical one and for usual Mach reflection, the double solution domain is above the theoretical one. This discrepancy is found to be due to secondary Mach waves on the initial segment of the slipline of the Mach reflection, thus demonstrating for the first time a case where the transition criterion is modified by secondary Mach waves developed over the primary flow structure.
The advantage of alcohol–calcium method on the formation and the stability of vaterite against ethanol–water binary solvents (EWBS) method was studied through comparative experiment. The polymorphs and morphologies of CaCO3 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show that vaterite slowly decreases from 90.4 to 82.5% as increasing aging time from 0 to 1320 min in alcohol–calcium system, while quickly decreases from 46.5% to 0% at the same aging time in EWBS system. The similar variation as reaction temperature was found in both systems. SEM images indicate that calcite presents its typical rhombohedral morphology in both systems, while the morphologies of vaterite particles in two systems are different. In alcohol–calcium system, small vaterite nanoparticles aggregate into spherical microparticles, and these microparticles become porous, loose, and irregular, even incomplete, as increasing aging time and reaction temperature, while in EWBS system, vaterite nanoparticles aggregate into irregular microparticles. The advantage of alcohol–calcium method was discussed from the formation of the complex compound CaCl2·n(C2H5OH) in alcohol and its decomplexation in aqueous medium.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) on growth performance and muscle growth, protein synthesis and antioxidant-related signalling pathways of hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂. A total of 1200 fish (14·19 (se 0·13) g) were randomly distributed into six groups with four replicates each, fed six diets with graded level of Thr (9·5, 11·5, 13·5, 15·4, 17·4 and 19·3 g/kg diets) for 56 d. Results showed (P < 0·05) that dietary Thr (1) increased percentage weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio; (2) up-regulated growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen, myogenic regulation factors (MyoD, Myf5, MyoG and Mrf4) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNA levels; (3) increased muscle protein content via regulating the protein kinase B/target of rapamycin signalling pathway and (4) decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, increased catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH activities, up-regulated mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes related to NFE2-related factor 2 and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit. These results suggest that Thr has a potential role to improve muscle growth and protein synthesis, which might be due to the regulation of GH-IGF system, muscle growth-related gene, antioxidative capacity and protein synthesis-related signalling pathways. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of specific growth rate, the Thr requirement of hybrid catfish (14·19–25·77 g) was estimated to be 13·77 g/kg of the diet (33·40 g/kg of dietary protein).
The present study investigated the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on intestinal immune function in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 healthy grass carp were fed six diets containing different levels of CT (0, 10·00, 20·00, 30·00, 40·00 and 50·00 g/kg diet) for 70 d and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the control group, dietary CT (1) induced intestinal histopathological lesions and aggravated enteritis; (2) decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and IgM contents and down-regulated the Hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, Mucin2 and β-defensin-1 mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) (P < 0·05); (3) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2 (not in MI and DI), IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B), IL-10 and IL-11 partly correlated with target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling; and (4) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 (not in PI), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D partly related to NF-κB signalling in the intestine of on-growing grass carp. Overall, the results indicated that CT could impair the intestinal immune function, and its potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with the TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. Finally, based on the percentage weight gain and enteritis morbidity, the maximum allowable levels of CT for on-growing grass carp (232·22–890·11 g) were estimated to be 18·6 and 17·4 g/kg diet, respectively.
• The Chinese diaspora, consisting of both Chinese living overseas who are citizens of China (huaqiao), and people of Chinese descent who are citizens of foreign countries (huaren), have significantly shaped the making of modern China.
• China's policy towards its diaspora is primarily governed by its national interests and foreign policy imperatives. However, the Chinese government has been careful to ensure that the huaqiao and the huaren fall into different policy domains: Chinese citizens living overseas are subject to China's domestic policies, while Chinese descendants who are citizens of other countries come under China's foreign affairs. Nevertheless, from the beginning, the latter continue to be regarded as kinsfolk distinct from other foreign nationals.
• The huaqiao-huaren distinction is often blurred in ordinary discourse and this has been a source of much misunderstanding. However, it has not been the policy of the Chinese government to blur this distinction, and it is acutely aware of the complexity of the issue and is therefore very cautious about implying any change. As such, when terms such as huaqiao-huaren are introduced in the official lexicon, they are meant to acknowledge certain historical and contemporary realities, and not to deliberately obfuscate the two categories. The use of the combined term is in fact a recognition of the clear-cut distinction between the two groups, and is meant to convey a semantic balance in which neither category is emphasized at the expense of the other.
• In general, since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government has treated the diaspora as an asset, rather than a liability. The sole exception was during the Cultural Revolution when returnees, or the guiqiao, were condemned as reactionary and bourgeois elements.
• There is therefore a fundamental continuity in China's diaspora policy: namely, that China embraces both groups as part of a global Chinese community. Some policy shifts can be expected in future as China becomes more proactive in reaching out to its diaspora while balancing the needs and interests of Chinese abroad with the needs and interests of the Mainland.
The issue of China and its diaspora, particularly the one in Southeast Asia, is the subject of much academic attention and popular controversy. China's diaspora affairs receives greater scrutiny than the diaspora issues of other countries such as India, Israel, and Ireland. This paper tries to tackle the issue holistically by covering both the historical and contemporary dimensions of Chinese diaspora policy, with an emphasis on its reach and impact in Southeast Asia.
There is a need to clarify at the outset the various terms related to China's diaspora discourse. The two primary terms are “overseas Chinese” and “Chinese overseas”. According to Professor Wang Gungwu, these two terms posit a legal and political distinction between two different ethnic Chinese communities residing outside mainland China. The “overseas Chinese”, or huaqiao (华侨) in Mandarin, refer to citizens of China who are living abroad. The “Chinese overseas”, or huaren (华人), are foreign citizens who are Chinese by descent and ethnicity. This distinction between the huaqiao and huaren was introduced partly because the ethnic Chinese of Southeast Asia, having naturalized their citizenship in their country of residence, wanted to maintain and emphasize their difference and distance from the Chinese mainland. For them, this was a strategy of self-preservation, undertaken as a means of allaying domestic suspicions about their allegiance, especially in the light of anti-Chinese undercurrents running through many Southeast Asian countries.
However, it must be noted that the scholarly demarcation of these terms does not necessarily comport with their regular use and meaning on the Mainland. For instance, the terms “overseas Chinese” and “Chinese overseas” are often used simultaneously in China as a combined term huaqiao-huaren (华侨华人), which is denoted in English as a parallel term separated by a hyphen.
In the light of China's historical, ideological, and policy contexts, “overseas Chinese” is an evolving category which includes important contemporary dimensions such as the newer waves of Chinese migrants to the developed countries of the West as well as the overseas Chinese returnees of the 1950s and the post-1990s. It is important to note that China's diaspora policy, especially over the last few decades, has not only been directed at the Chinese residing abroad, but also to Chinese returnees who are either citizens or permanent residents of foreign countries, but who have chosen to return to settle in China.
The Chinese diaspora, consisting of both Chinese living overseas who are citizens of China (huaqiao), and people of Chinese descent who are citizens of foreign countries (huaren), have significantly shaped the making of modern China. China's policy towards its diaspora is primarily governed by its national interests and foreign policy imperatives. However, the Chinese government has been careful to ensure that the huaqiao and the huaren fall into different policy domains: Chinese citizens living overseas are subject to China's domestic policies, while Chinese descendants who are citizens of other countries come under China's foreign affairs. Nevertheless, from the beginning, the latter continue to be regarded as kinsfolk distinct from other foreign nationals. The huaqiao-huaren distinction is often blurred in ordinary discourse and this has been a source of much misunderstanding. However, it has not been the policy of the Chinese government to blur this distinction, and it is acutely aware of the complexity of the issue and is therefore very cautious about implying any change. As such, when terms such as huaqiao-huaren are introduced in the official lexicon, they are meant to acknowledge certain historical and contemporary realities, and not to deliberately obfuscate the two categories. The use of the combined term is in fact a recognition of the clear-cut distinction between the two groups, and is meant to convey a semantic balance in which neither category is emphasized at the expense of the other. In general, since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government has treated the diaspora as an asset, rather than a liability. The sole exception was during the Cultural Revolution when returnees, or the guiqiao, were condemned as reactionary and bourgeois elements. There is therefore a fundamental continuity in China's diaspora policy: namely, that China embraces both groups as part of a global Chinese community. Some policy shifts can be expected in future as China becomes more proactive in reaching out to its diaspora while balancing the needs and interests of Chinese abroad with the needs and interests of the Mainland.
The economic, political, strategic and cultural dynamism in Southeast Asia has gained added relevance in recent years with the spectacular rise of giant economies in East and South Asia. This has drawn greater attention to the region and to the enhanced role it now plays in international relations and global economics.
The sustained effort made by Southeast Asian nations since 1967 towards a peaceful and gradual integration of their economies has had indubitable success, and perhaps as a consequence of this, most of these countries are undergoing deep political and social changes domestically and are constructing innovative solutions to meet new international challenges. Big Power tensions continue to be played out in the neighbourhood despite the tradition of neutrality exercised by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
The Trends in Southeast Asia series acts as a platform for serious analyses by selected authors who are experts in their fields. It is aimed at encouraging policymakers and scholars to contemplate the diversity and dynamism of this exciting region.