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Whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder are the same or different disorders lacks consistency.
To detect whether grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter density (GMD) alterations show any similarities or differences between BPD and bipolar disorder.
Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all voxel-based studies that compared BPD or bipolar disorder with healthy controls. We included 13 BPD studies (395 patients with BPD and 415 healthy controls) and 47 bipolar disorder studies (2111 patients with bipolar disorder and 3261 healthy controls). Peak coordinates from clusters with significant group differences were extracted. Effect-size signed differential mapping meta-analysis was performed to analyse peak coordinates of clusters and thresholds (P < 0.005, uncorrected). Conjunction analyses identified regions in which disorders showed common patterns of volumetric alteration. Correlation analyses were also performed.
Patients with BPD showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex network (mPFC), bilateral amygdala and right parahippocampal gyrus; patients with bipolar disorder showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC), right insula and right thalamus, and increased GMV and GMD in the right putamen. Multi-modal analysis indicated smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the right medial orbital frontal cortex. Decreased bilateral mPFC in BPD was partly mediated by patient age. Increased GMV and GMD of the right putamen was positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale scores in bipolar disorder.
Our results show different patterns of GMV and GMD alteration and do not support the hypothesis that bipolar disorder and BPD are on the same affective spectrum.
This study investigated Echinococcus genotypes in patients with hydatidosis that reside in Inner Mongolia, Tibet or Qinghai Province by partially sequencing the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) genes. Cyst fluids were collected from 23 patients with hydatidosis and DNA was extracted. Portions of the cox1 and nad1 genes were amplified and subsequently sequenced. Sequencing analysis determined that one of the isolates contained Echinococcus multilocularis, and the other 22 isolates contained E. granulosus sensu lato. The isolates were then further classified based on genotype, and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) G1 (n = 20), E. granulosus s.s. G3 (n = 1) and E. canadensis G6/7 (n = 1) were identified. Additionally, the sequences were concatenated (pcox1 + pnad1) and 11 haplotypes were identified among the E. granulosus s.s. isolates (G1 and G3), with a shared common haplotype (H1) identified. Overall, these findings provide further understanding of the genetic patterns of Echinococcus in western and northern China.
Seven-band grouper (Hyporthodus septemfasciatus) is a commercial rocky reef fish in East Asia that has been regarded as a promising species for aquaculture. To investigate the broodstock contributions to offspring for the sustainability of fry production, 62 individuals of H. septemfasciatus from two broodstocks and one offspring population were analysed using fluorescent-AFLP. A total of 602 bands were amplified and 70.10% of them were polymorphic. The numbers of polymorphic loci were 308 (Pbroodstock I = 55.50%) and 356 (Pbroodstock II = 63.12%) in the two broodstocks, and 294 (Poffspring = 52.88%) in the offspring, respectively. The average values of Shannon diversity index (I) and expected heterozygosity (H) were higher in the broodstock (Ibroodstock I = 0.281, Ibroodstock II = 0.244, Hbroodstock I = 0.185, Hbroodstock II = 0.161) than those in the offspring (Ioffspring = 0.243, Hoffspring = 0.161). AMOVA and FST analyses showed that significant genetic differentiation between broodstock and offspring populations, and limited effective broodstock population size has contributed to the offspring. Both STRUCTURE and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) also showed the three populations composed of two stocks and most offspring individuals (95.0%) only originated from 44.0% of the individuals of broodstock I, which may have negative effects on sustainable fry production. Therefore, genetic variation between broodstock and offspring should be monitored, and large effective size of broodstock should be employed to ensure the success of commercial breeding programmes. Our data provide a useful genetic basis for future planning of sustainable culture and management of H. septemfasciatus.
X-ray powder diffraction data for 5,6-dihydro-3-(4-morpholinyl)-1-[4-(2-oxo-1-piperidinyl)phenyl]-2(1H)-pyridinone, C20H25N3O3, are reported [a = 5.989(2), b = 6.669(3), c = 24.605(5)Å, α = 84.466(7)°, β = 89.859(6)°, γ = 69.074(4)°, unit-cell volume V = 913.11 Å3, Z = 2, and space group P−1]. No detectable impurities were observed.
Experimental X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for trelagliptin succinate, C18H20FN5O2•C4H6O4, are reported [a = 18.481(6), b = 8.120(4), c = 7.903(4) Å, α = 89.972(0)°, β = 97.722(4)°, γ = 90.120(0)°, unit-cell volume V = 1175.37 Å3, Z = 2, and space-group P1]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P1 space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
We aimed to examine the contribution of blood lipids to the association between BMI and blood pressure (BP) in children with overweight and obesity. Data were collected in elementary and high schools of Chaoyang District, Beijing, China in 2012. Participants’ weight, height, BP and fasting plasma lipid profile were measured by standard protocols. Mediation analysis was used to examine the mediation role of blood lipids on the relation between BMI and BP, with age included as a covariate. We found that in boys 8·29 % (mediation effect=0·106, P=0·012) of the association between BMI and systolic BP was mediated through TAG. TAG mediated 12·53 % (mediation effect=0·093, P=0·018) and LDL-cholesterol mediated 7·75 % (mediation effect=0·57, P=0·046) of the association between BMI and diastolic BP was mediated by TAG and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. However, blood lipids did not show the mediation effect in girls. Our findings suggested that there was a sex difference in the contribution of blood lipids to the association between BMI and BP. Controlling TAG or LDL-cholesterol may be beneficial for reducing the risk of the BMI-related high BP in overweight boys; however, this outcome is not the case when controlling TAG or LDL-cholesterol in girls. This study may provide clues to explore the underlying mechanism of the association between obesity and hypertension.
X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data for Palbociclib, C24H29N7O2, are reported [a = 18.182(2) Å, b = 11.508(1) Å, c = 5.041(1) Å, α = 81.282(7)°, β = 97.423(7)°, γ = 102.415(2)°, unit-cell volume V = 1013.1(4) Å3, Z = 2, and space group P-1. All XRPD measured lines were indexed and no detectable impurities were observed.
Experimental X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for niclosamide, C13H8N2O4Cl2, are reported [a = 13.571(1) Å, b = 7.181(8) Å, c = 13.742(3) Å, β = 97.984(7)°, unit-cell volume V = 1326.40 Å3, Z = 4, and space group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
We conducted community interviews and field surveys to determine the distribution and population of the Endangered Shortridge's capped langur Trachypithecus shortridgei, and the threats to the species, in the Dulong and Nu River valleys of north-western Yunnan Province, China. We found that c. 19 groups of T. shortridgei reside in the Dulong valley, mostly located in the southern portion of the valley. According to interview and observational records in the Gaoligong Mountains to the west of the Nu River, 12 individuals and no groups were observed. Family groups consist of one adult male, 2–3 adult females and up to five young. We estimate the population of T. shortridgei in China to be c. 250–370 individuals. Threats to the species include habitat loss and poaching. We suggest several measures to conserve T. shortridgei, such as a review of the Gaoligong National Nature Reserve management strategy, and increasing engagement, education, inclusion of local people in forest management, and the consistency of enforcement.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
An epigenetic mechanism has been suggested to explain the effects of the maternal diet on the development of disease in offspring. The present study aimed to observe the effects of a maternal high-lipid, high-energy (HLE) diet on the DNA methylation pattern of male offspring in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed an HLE diet during gestation and lactation. The genomic DNA methylations at promoter sites of genes in the liver, mRNA and protein levels of selected genes related to lipid and glucose metabolism were measured by microarray, real-time PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that the percentage of methylated DNA in offspring from dams that were fed an HLE diet was significantly higher than that from dams that were fed a chow diet, and most of these genes were hypermethylated in promoter regions. The nuclear protein content and mRNA levels of hypermethylated genes, such as PPARγ and liver X receptor α (LXRα), were decreased significantly in offspring in the HLE group. The results suggested that the DNA methylation profile in adult offspring livers was changed by the maternal HLE diet during gestation and lactation.
The present study aimed to compare the effects of a general dietary intervention and an intervention with low glycaemic load (GL) on glycaemic control, blood lipid metabolism and pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Participants were randomly assigned to two groups, receiving either an individualized general dietary intervention (Control group) or an intensive low-GL intervention (Low-GL group) every two weeks, from 24–26 weeks of gestation to delivery.
The Center of Maternal Primary Care in Guangdong General Hospital, China.
Ninety-five women with gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled from June 2008 to July 2009.
After the intervention, both groups significantly decreased their dietary intakes of energy, fat and carbohydrate. The Low-GL group had significantly lower values for GL (122 v. 136) and glycaemic index (50 v. 54) but greater dietary fibre intake (33 v. 29 g/d) than did the Control group (all P<0·01). Significantly greater decreases in fasting plasma glucose (−0·33 v. −0·02 mmol/l, P<0·01) and 2 h postprandial glucose (−2·98 v. −2·51 mmol/l, P<0·01), significantly lower increases in total cholesterol (0·12 v. 0·23 mmol/l) and TAG (0·41 v. 0·56 mmol/l) and a significantly lower decrease in HDL cholesterol (−0·01 v. −0·11 mmol/l) were also observed in the Low-GL group compared with the Control group (all P<0·05). There were no significant differences in body weight gain, birth weight or other maternal–fetal perinatal outcomes between the two groups.
The low-GL targeted dietary intervention outperformed the general dietary intervention in glycaemic control and the improvement of blood lipid levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Two phases of nickel sulfide (α-NiS and β-NiS) nanoarchitectures were successfully and controllably synthesized by a facile solvothermal method with two different solvents of alcohol and water, respectively. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The sphere-like shape for α-NiS and cross-like shape composed of nanorods for β-NiS are uniform and well distributed as well as their size. Both α-NiS and β-NiS powders were used as counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that the DSSC with an α-NiS CE performs much better than the one with a β-NiS CE. The energy conversion efficiency of the former was 5.2%, whereas the latter was 4.2%, about 20% increment.
The mutualism between fig trees and their wasp pollinators is a model system for many ecological and evolutionary studies. However, the immature stages of pollinating fig wasps have rarely been studied. We monitored developing fig wasps of known ages and performed a series of dissections at 24 h intervals to identify key developmental traits of Ceratosolen solmsi marchali Mayr (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae), a pollinator of Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae). We identified where in the Ficus ovary eggs were deposited and time to hatch. We were also able to identify the timing and key underlying characters of five larval instars, three sub-pupal stages, and a single prepupal stage. We provide detailed morphological descriptions for the key stages and report some behavioral observations of the wasps in the several developmental stages we recorded. Scanning electron microscope images were taken.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer can be used to produce embryonic stem (ES) cells, cloned animals, and can even increase the population size of endangered animals. However, the application of this technique is limited by the low developmental rate of cloned embryos, a situation that may result from abnormal expression of some zygotic genes. In this study, sheep–sheep intra-species cloned embryos, goat–sheep inter-species cloned embryos, or sheep in vitro fertilized embryos were constructed and cultured in vitro and the developmental ability and expression of three pluripotency genes, SSEA-1, Nanog and Oct4, were examined. The results showed firstly that the developmental ability of in vitro fertilized embryos was significantly higher than that of cloned embryos. In addition, the percentage of intra-species cloned embryos that developed to morula or blastocyst stages was also significantly higher than that of the inter-species cloned embryos. Secondly, all three types of embryos expressed SSEA-1 at the 8-cell and morula stages. At the 8-cell stage, a higher percentage of in vitro fertilized embryos expressed SSEA-1 than occurred for cloned embryos. However, at the morula stage, all detected embryos could express SSEA-1. Thirdly, the three types of embryos expressed Oct4 mRNA at the morula and blastocyst stages, and embryos at the blastocyst stage expressed Nanog mRNA. The rate of expression of Oct4 and Nanog mRNA at these developmental stages was higher in in vitro fertilized embryos than in cloned embryos. These results indicated that, during early development, the failure to reactivate some pluripotency genes maybe is a reason for the low cloning efficiency found with cloned embryos.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
Previous studies showed an inconsistent association of fruit and vegetable consumption with bone health. We assessed the associations in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study conducted in China during July 2009 to May 2010.
Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the whole body, lumbar spine and left hip were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using an FFQ. All these values were separately standardized into Z-scores in each population subgroup.
One hundred and ten boys and 112 girls (11–14 years), 371 young women (20–34 years, postpartum within 2 weeks) and 333 postmenopausal women (50–70 years).
After adjustment for potential covariates, analysis of covariance showed a significantly positive association between fruit intake and BMD and BMC in all participants combined (P-trend: < 0·001 to 0·002). BMD Z-score increased by 0·25 (or 2·1 % of the mean), 0·22 (3·5 %), 0·23 (3·0 %) and 0·25 (3·5 %), and BMC Z-score increased by 0·33 (5·7 %), 0·25 (5·8 %), 0·34 (5·9 %) and 0·29 (4·7 %), at the total body, lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck in participants belonging to the top tertile compared with the bottom tertile of fruit intake (all P < 0·05), respectively. There was no significant association between vegetable intake and bone mass at all bone sites studied except for total body BMD (P = 0·030). Relatively more pronounced effects were observed in boys and postmenopausal women.
Our findings add to the existing evidence that fruits and vegetables may have a bone sparing effect.
The correlation of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1/T1 genetic polymorphisms with oxidative stress-related chronic diseases was proved recently. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of GSTM1/T1 genetic polymorphisms with antioxidant biomarkers and consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) in healthy subjects. In this study, for conducting a 3 d dietary survey, 190 healthy adults were recruited. After DNA extraction, a multiple PCR method was used for GSTM1/T1 genotyping. A spectrophotometer method was applied for the determination of plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), vitamin C level and erythrocyte GST enzyme activity. A general linear model was used to compare the mean values of antioxidant parameters for different GSTM1/T1 genotypes and consumption of F&V. Polymorphisms of GSTM1/T1 had no effects on plasma T-AOC and vitamin C levels. Deletion of the GSTM1 gene decreased the erythrocyte GST activity. There was correlation between plasma T-AOC and consumption of F&V in the GSTM1− or GSTT1+ subjects. A similar pattern was evident for erythrocyte GST activity in the GSTM1− subjects. No association was found among consumption of F&V and GSTM1/T1 genotypes and plasma vitamin C level. Different consumption of F&V had no impact on plasma T-AOC and vitamin C levels in the GSTM1−/GSTT1+ or GSTM1−/GSTT1− subjects. The erythrocyte GST activity was more sensitive to consumption of F&V in the individuals with the GSTM1−/GSTT1+ genotype. Association was found among GSTM1/T1 genotypes, antioxidant parameters and consumption of F&V. Large-scale and multiple ethnic studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell walls (YCW) from the yeast extract industry on performance and immune function of cyclosporine A (CSA)-treated, immunosuppressed broiler chickens. A total of 240 day-old male broilers were allocated randomly into four treatments: (1) non-challenged control; (2) non-challenged control+0·3 % YCW; (3) CSA-challenged group; (4) CSA-challenged+0·3 % YCW. On days 1–4 and 22–25 of age, broilers were subcutaneously injected with CSA or sterile saline. The results showed that supplementation of YCW significantly improved daily weight gain (DWG) during the starter (days 1–21, P < 0·01), finisher (days 22–42, P < 0·01) and overall (days 1–42, P < 0·05) periods compared with the control birds, but had no effect on feed conversion ratio (FCR, P>0·05). Compared with the CSA-treated birds, YCW alleviated the decrease of DWG (P < 0·01) and increase of FCR (P < 0·05) caused by CSA challenge at different periods and cumulatively. On days 21 and 42, YCW mitigated the CSA-induced decrease of peripheral blood lymphocyte blastogenic response (P < 0·01). In addition, YCW improved the relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius (P < 0·01) and thymus (P < 0·01) and up-regulated the splenic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β (P < 0·01) and IL-6 (P < 0·01) on day 42 compared with the CSA-treated birds. These results indicate that YCW supplementation has beneficial effects in attenuating the immunosuppressive effects of CSA challenge, therefore improving growth performance of broiler chickens.
Vinpocetine has long been used for cerebrovascular disorders and cognitive impairment. Based on the evidence that the translocator protein (TSPO, 18 kDa) was expressed in activated microglia, while Vinpocetine was able to bind TSPO, we explored the role of Vinpocetine on microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro. Our results show that both LPS and OGD induced the up-regulation of TSPO expression on BV-2 microglia by RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry. Vinpocetine inhibited the production of nitrite oxide and inflammatory factors such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in BV-2 microglia, in which cells were treated with LPS or exposed to OGD, regardless of the time Vinpocetine was added. Next, we measured cell death-related molecules Akt, Junk and p38 as well as inflammation-related molecules nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Vinpocetine did not change cell death-related molecules, but inhibited the expression of NF-κB and AP-1 in LPS-stimulated microglia, indicating that Vinpocetine has an anti-inflammatory effect by partly targeting NF-κB/AP-1. Next, conditioned medium from Vinpocetine-treated microglia protected from primary neurons. As compared with in vitro, the administration of Vinpocetine in hypoxic mice also inhibited inflammatory molecules, indicating that Vinpocetine as a unique anti-inflammatory agent may be beneficial for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases.