The study reported in this Research Communication was conducted to investigate the molecular characterisation of buffalo SCAP gene, expression analysis, and the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and milk production traits in 384 buffaloes. Sequence analysis revealed the SCAP gene had an open reading frame of 3837 bp encoding 1279 amino acids. A ubiquitous expression profile of SCAP gene was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the mammary gland during early lactation. Moreover, eleven SNPs in buffalo SCAP gene were identified, six of them (g.1717600A>G, g.1757922C>T, g.1758953G>A, g.1759142C>T, g.1760740G>A, and g.1766036T>C) were found to be significantly associated with 305-day milk yield. Thus, buffalo SCAP could sever as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in buffalo and the identified SNPs might potentially be genetic markers.