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Metamaterials, including their two-dimensional counterparts, are composed of subwavelength-scale artificial particles. These materials have novel electromagnetic properties, and can be artificially tailored for various applications. Based on metamaterials and metasurfaces, many abnormal physical phenomena have been realized, such as negative refraction, invisible cloaking, abnormal reflection and focusing, and many new functions and devices have been developed. The effective medium theory lays the foundation for design and application of metamaterials and metasurfaces, connecting metamaterials with real world applications. In this Element, the authors combine these essential ingredients, and aim to make this Element an access point to this field. To this end, they review classical theories for dielectric functions, effective medium theory, and effective parameter extraction of metamaterials, also introducing front edge technologies like metasurfaces with theories, methods, and potential applications. Energy densities are also included.
The transformation of unstable austenite to ferrite or α′ martensite as a result of exposure to Xe+ or Ga+ ions at room temperature was studied in a 304 stainless steel casting alloy. Controlled Xe+ and Ga+ ion beam exposures of the 304 were carried out at a variety of beam/sample geometries. It was found that both Ga+ and Xe+ ion irradiation resulted in the transformation of the austenite to either ferrite or α′ martensite. In this paper, we will refer to the transformation product as a BCC phase. The crystallographic orientation of the transformed area was controlled by the orientation of the austenite grain and was consistent with either the Nishiyama–Wasserman or the Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationships. On the basis of the Xe+ and Ga+ ion beam exposures, the transformation is not controlled by the chemical stabilization of the BCC phase by the ion species, but is a result of the disorder caused by the ion-induced recoil motion and subsequent return of the disordered region to a more energetically favorable phase.
The provenance and tectonic setting of the Lower–Middle Triassic clastic sediments from the Napo basin, South China, have been examined here using detrital modes, whole-rock geochemistry and detrital zircon U–Pb ages. Field investigations indicate that these sediments consist of fan delta, slope and turbidity fan facies with dominantly southward palaeocurrent directions. Detrital modes and geochemical characteristics of the clastic rocks indicate that they were derived from mixed magmatic arc and Palaeozoic successions in a continental island arc setting, with no significant sediment recycling. The U–Pb age spectra of sandstone detrital zircons from different stratigraphic positions are similar, with one major group (300–230 Ma), two subordinate groups (400–320 Ma and 480–420 Ma, respectively) and two scattered groups (1200–800 Ma and 2000–1700 Ma, respectively). Thus, we consider that the north late Permian – Middle Triassic volcanic rocks and the uplifted Palaeozoic sedimentary/volcanic sequences constituted the predominant sources. The detritus derived from the late Permian Emeishan mafic rocks is subordinate and limited. The pre-Devonian zircons are likely sedimentary-recycled or magmatic-captured instead of directly derived from the early Palaeozoic orogen (e.g. Yunkai massif) and Neoproterozoic Jiangnan orogen because of the topographic barrier of a magmatic arc and carbonate platform. Considering the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of the volcanic arc and ophiolite, we suggest that the Triassic Napo basin was a fore-arc basin within a continental island arc setting, which developed in response to the northward subduction of the Babu–Cao Bang branch ocean beneath the South China Block.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic lipid accumulation in intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Rats with a normal birth weight (NBW) or IUGR were fed basic diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic diets supplemented with curcumin (NBW-C and IUGR-C groups) from 6 to 12 weeks. Rats in the IUGR group showed higher levels of glucose and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (P < 0·05) than in the NBW group. The livers of IUGR rats exhibited higher (P < 0·05) concentration of TAG and lower (P < 0·05) activities of lipolysis enzymes compared with the normal rats. In response to dietary curcumin supplementation, concentrations of serum insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR, pyruvate, TAG, total cholesterol and NEFA in the liver were decreased (P < 0·05). The concentrations of glycogen and activities of lipolysis enzymes in the liver were increased (P < 0·05) in the IUGR-C group compared with the IUGR group. These results were associated with lower (P < 0·05) phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, protein kinase B or Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β and expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase (FASN); decreased expressions for Cd36, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (Srebf1) and Fasn; increased (P < 0·05) expression of PPARα; and expressions for Ppara and hormone-sensitive lipase in the liver of IUGR-C rats than the IUGR rats. Maternal malnutrition caused IR and lipid accumulation in the liver. Curcumin supplementation prevented IR by regulating insulin signalling pathways and attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation.
Clozapine treatment increases the risk of agranulocytosis, but findings on the epidemiology of agranulocytosis have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients.
A literature search in the international (PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) and Chinese (WanFang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Sinomed) databases was conducted. Prevalence estimates of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients were synthesized with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program using the random-effects model.
Thirty-six studies with 260 948 clozapine-treated patients published between 1984 and 2018 were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of agranulocytosis and death caused by agranulocytosis were 0.4% (95% CI 0.3–0.6%) and 0.05% (95% CI 0.03–0.09%), respectively. The prevalence of agranulocytosis was moderated by sample size, study quality, year of publication, and that of data collection.
The prevalence of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis is low. Agranulocytosis-related death appears rare.
Rats with a normal birth weight (NBW) or intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) were fed basic diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic diets supplemented with curcumin (NC and IC groups) from 6 to 12 weeks. The body weight of IUGR rats was lower (P<0·05) than that of the controls. Rats with IUGR showed higher (P<0·05) concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; higher (P<0·05) activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in their serum; and increased (P<0·05) concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) in the liver compared with the NBW rats. The livers of IUGR rats exhibited a lower (P<0·05) superoxide dismutase activity and decreased (P<0·05) metabolic efficiency of the hepatic glutathione redox cycle compared with those of the NBW rats. In response to dietary curcumin supplementation, concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and activities of AST and ALT in the serum and MDA, PC and 8-OHDG in the liver were lower (P<0·05), and the hepatic glutathione redox cycle in the liver was improved (P<0·05) in the IC group than in the IUGR group. These results were associated with lower (P<0·05) phosphorylated levels of the NF-κB pathway and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and higher (P<0·05) mRNA expression of genes involved in the nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (Nfe2l2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in the liver of the IC rats than that of the IUGR rats. Maternal undernutrition decreased birth weight and led to inflammation, oxidative damage and injury in rats. Curcumin appeared to be beneficial in preventing IUGR-induced inflammation, oxidative damage and injury by activating the expression of the NF-κB, JAK/STAT and Nfe2l2/ARE pathways in the liver.
Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
In recent years, an increasing number of studies utilizing in situ liquid and/or gaseous cell scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) have been reported. Because of the difficulty in the preparation of suitable specimens, these environmental S/TEM studies have been generally limited to studies of nanoscale structured materials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, or sputtered thin films. In this paper, we present two methodologies which have been developed to facilitate the preparation of electron-transparent samples from conventional bulk metals and alloys for in situ liquid/gaseous cell S/TEM experiments. These methods take advantage of combining sequential electrochemical jet polishing followed by focused ion beam extraction techniques to create large electron-transparent areas for site-specific observation. As an example, we illustrate the application of this methodology for the preparation of in situ specimens from a cold-rolled Type 304 austenitic stainless steel sample, which was subsequently examined in both 1 atm of air as well as fully immersed in a H2O environment in the S/TEM followed by hyperspectral imaging. These preparation techniques can be successfully applied as a general procedure for a wide range of metals and alloys, and are suitable for a variety of in situ analytical S/TEM studies in both aqueous and gaseous environments.
A new approach for the analysis of stress intensity factors (SIFs) for cracked plane plate is proposed based on the wavelet finite element method using the scaling functions of B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI). The performance of the method is investigated through the comparison of the results with the available numerical examples in the literate. It is shown that the solution quality is much better than that of the traditional adaptive finite element method. Though the method is applied to plane structures in this paper, it can be extended to solving problems for other classes of structures.
The mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited in animals, despite the fact that paternal mitochondria enter oocytes during fertilization. Autophagy and ubiquitin-mediated degradation are responsible for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans; however, the involvement of these two processes in the degradation of paternal mitochondria in mammals is not well understood. We investigated the localization patterns of light chain 3 (LC3) and ubiquitin in mouse and porcine embryos during preimplantation development. We found that LC3 and ubiquitin localized to the spermatozoon midpiece at 3 h post-fertilization, and that both proteins were colocalized with paternal mitochondria and removed upon fertilization during the 4-cell stage in mouse and the zygote stage in porcine embryos. Sporadic paternal mitochondria were present beyond the morula stage in the mouse, and paternal mitochondria were restricted to one blastomere of 4-cell embryos. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), did not affect the distribution of paternal mitochondria compared with the positive control, while an autophagy inducer, rapamycin, accelerated the removal of paternal mitochondria compared with the control. After the intracytoplasmic injection of intact spermatozoon into mouse oocytes, LC3 and ubiquitin localized to the spermatozoon midpiece, but remnants of undegraded paternal mitochondria were retained until the blastocyst stage. Our results show that paternal mitochondria colocalize with autophagy receptors and ubiquitin and are removed after in vitro fertilization, but some remnants of sperm mitochondrial sheath may persist up to morula stage after intracytoplasmic spermatozoon injection (ICSI).
First principle calculations are employed scheme to investigate the electronic structures and mechanical properties of AlCu3 with divacancy defects using the pseudopotential plane wave method. The defect crystal is constructed by removing the nearest Al or Cu atoms to form the double point vacancies. Calculated lattice constants agree well with the experimental data. Moreover, structural stabilities of crystals containing divacancy are reduced. Results reveal that the crystal with double Cu vacancy defects is more stable than that of Al. Calculations of defect formation energies indicate that the divacancy of Cu is easier to exist in AlCu3. Divacancy defects play an important role to improve the mechanical properties of AlCu3 and corresponding ductility, stiffness and plasticity are increased. Furthermore, chemical bonds become weaker since the divacancy are introduced. Hybridizations between orbits of crystals are analyzed to account for the interactions in perfect and defect structures. Accordingly, implications of these findings on the mechanism of divacancy are discussed.
Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have suggested a variety of patterns from a single catastrophic event to multiple phases. But most of these analyses have been based on fossil distributions from single localities. Although single sections may simplify the interpretation of species diversity, they are susceptible to bias from stratigraphic incompleteness and facies control of preservation. Here we use a data set of 1450 species from 18 fossiliferous sections in different paleoenvironmental settings across South China and the northern peri-Gondwanan region, and integrate it with high-precision geochronologic data to evaluate the rapidity of the largest Phanerozoic mass extinction. To reduce the Signor-Lipps effect, we applied constrained optimization (CONOP) to search for an optimal sequence of first and last occurrence datums for all species and generate a composite biodiversity pattern based on multiple sections. This analysis indicates that an abrupt extinction of 62% of species took place within 200 Kyr. The onset of the sudden extinction is around 252.3 Ma, just below Bed 25 at the Meishan section. Taxon turnover and diversification rates suggest a deterioration of the living conditions nearly 1.2 Myr before the sudden extinction. The magnitude of the extinction was such that there was no immediate biotic recovery. Prior suggestions of highly variable, multi-phased extinction patterns reflect the impact of the Signor-Lipps effect and facies-dependent occurrences, and are not supported following appropriate statistical treatment of this larger data set.
Convergent studies have highlighted the dysfunction of the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only a few studies have investigated the functional connectivity between brain regions in PTSD patients during the resting state, which may improve our understanding of the neuropathophysiology of PTSD. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of whole-brain functional connectivity in treatment-naive PTSD patients without co-morbid conditions who experienced the 8.0-magnitude earthquake in the Sichuan province of China.
A total of 72 PTSD patients and 86 trauma-exposed non-PTSD controls participated in the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. All these subjects were recruited from the disaster zone of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Functional connectivities between 90 paired brain regions in PTSD patients were compared with those in trauma-exposed non-PTSD controls. Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis was performed between significantly abnormal connectivities in PTSD patients and their clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS) scores.
Compared with non-PTSD controls, PTSD patients showed weaker positive connectivities between the middle prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and rectus, as well as between the inferior orbitofrontal cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, PTSD patients showed stronger negative connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the insula. The CAPS scores in PTSD patients correlated negatively with the connectivity between the amygdala and the mPFC.
PTSD patients showed abnormalities in whole-brain functional connectivity, primarily affecting the connectivities between the mPFC and limbic system, and connectivity between the PCC and insula.
To investigate the relationships between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NOTCH4 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with schizophrenia among Han Chinese in Southern China.
Two NOTCH4 SNPs (rs520688 and rs415929) and two BDNF SNPs (rs2030324 and rs12273539) were examined in 464 schizophrenics and 464 healthy controls from Hunan province in South China, using the Sequenom MassARRAY® iPLEX System.
In the study population, rs520688 and rs2030324 were significantly associated with schizophrenia. A decreased risk of schizophrenia was associated with the rs520688 GA genotype (p = 0.035), whereas an increased risk of schizophrenia was associated with the rs2030324 CC/CT genotype (p = 0.044). The genotype distributions of rs415929 in NOTCH4 and rs12273539 in BDNF did not differ significantly between the case and control groups. Although no allele–allele interactions were detected between rs520688 and rs2030324, recombination analysis revealed a combined effect of the two on the susceptibility to schizophrenia, with GA-TT decreasing and CT/CC-GG/GA increasing the risk of schizophrenia.
In conclusion, rs520688 in NOTCH4 and rs2030324 in BDNF are significantly associated with schizophrenia among Han Chinese in Southern China. The two had a combined effect on the susceptibility to schizophrenia among Han Chinese in Southern China, but this may not be caused by an allele–allele interaction.
The poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) based ferroelectric and relaxor materials have been proved to be good electrocaloric (EC) materials. To further enhance the EC effect in ferroelectric relaxor terpolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)), composites such as polymer-polymer blends and nanocomposites filled with inorganic nanoparticles are fabricated and investigated. It is found that the addition of small amount of filler (such as P(VDF-TrFE) or nano-ZrO2) can increase terpolymer’s crystallinity and enhance its relaxor behavior through interface couplings. The increased crystallinity and enhanced relaxor behavior together result in enhanced electrocaloric effect. The results demonstrate the promise of composite approaches in tailoring and enhancing ECE in the relaxor terpolymers.
Quiver Hopf algebras are classified by means of ramification systems with irreducible representations. This leads to the classification of Nichols algebras over group algebras and pointed Hopf algebras of type one.
To assess the relationship between carotid flow velocity and cognitive impairment in patients with mild-moderate (<50%) carotid artery disease.
We studied 407 participants with available carotid ultrasound and cognitive measures. We related peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) of internal carotid artery (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) and intimal medial thickness (IMT) to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock Draw Test (CDT), Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL)and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).
EDV of CCA was significantly different in higher and lower MoCA (MMSE) groups. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that lower EDV was significantly associated with lower MoCA (+0.459 per standard deviation (SD), p<0. 01 for the left; +0.539 per SD, p<0. 01 for the right) and CDT (odds ratio (OR) 0.093, p< 0.05 for the left; OR) 0.120, p<0. 01 for the right) scores. PSV of left CCA (-0.205 per SD, p<0.05) and IMT (+42.536 per SD, p< 0.001) were associated with ADL. PSV of right CCA was associated with MMSE (+0.081 per SD, p<0.001). No significant relationship between ICA flow velocity and cognitive performance was observed.
Our preliminary data show that common carotid artery flow velocity was associated with cognitive performance.
The anti-inflammatory effects of two esters of α-tocopherol (α-TOH), all-rac-α-TOH acetate (dl-α-TOA) and RRR-α-TOH succinate (d-α-TOS), on broilers repeatedly challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated. Three hundred and twenty 1-d-old broiler chicks were allotted into four treatment groups and fed on a control diet (30 mg/kg dl-α-TOA) or diets containing 10, 30, 50 mg/kg d-α-TOS. Half of the birds from each treatment group were challenged with 0·9 % NaCl solution or LPS (250 μg/kg body weight) at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. The results indicated that the pretreatment of birds with 50 mg/kg d-α-TOS markedly reduced serum PGE2 secretion and increased the concentrations of serum or hepatic α-TOH. When LPS-challenged birds were pretreated with 30 or 50 mg/kg d-α-TOS, the increases of plasma and splenic concentrations of interferon-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 were dramatically attenuated. Also, a significant decrease of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hepatic or splenic phosphokinase C (PKC) activities was found in birds pretreated with 30 or 50 mg/kg d-α-TOS. Furthermore, d-α-TOS inhibited the activation of NF-κB by preventing the degradation of inhibitory-κBα. In conclusion, D-α-TOS is able to prevent LPS-induced inflammation response in vivo. The beneficial effect may depend on suppressing the secretion of various plasma and splenic inflammatory mediators through inhibiting NF-κB activation and by blocking ROS signalling, in which PKC may play an assistant role.
The black-and-white snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus bieti (Colobinae), categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, is endemic to the Trans-Himalayas (the Hengduan Mountains) of north-west Yunnan and south-east Tibet. To evaluate the species’ current status in Tibet we surveyed six sites in Honglaxueshan National Nature Reserve, believed to be the area's only remaining location of R. bieti. Sites were identified from previous surveys and interviews with villagers and local officials. Three sub-populations, with a total of >300 individuals, were located in conifer and evergreen broad-leaf forests, which together comprise 971 km2. One of the sub-populations, in Zhina, is a new discovery, and is the northernmost known sub-population of R. bieti. Identified threats to the species include habitat destruction through wood extraction, uncontrolled grass fires, cutting of oak Quercus aquifolioides branches, inappropriate attitudes to R. bieti when people carry out economic activities in the forest, and hunting. Opportunities for conservation include the existence of sacred mountains, the limited possibilities for agriculture, and the economic dependency of villagers on the forest. We recommend the development of a sustainable ecosystem to reduce pressure on R. bieti and its forest habitat, including use of solar energy for heating and cheap electricity for cooking to minimize dependence on firewood, introduction of techniques for high crop yields to improve food supplies, and release of some farmland for planting grass, which can be used to raise livestock in enclosures and thus reduce the cutting of oak.