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Composite materials include various components with different structures, which cooperatively increase their properties and extend their application. In this study, the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) guest material was assembled into the porous of the SiO2 aerogel, which was prepared during the gel process. By this way, the g-C3N4 could be absolutely encapsulated into the porous of the disordered porous SiO2 aerogel. The prepared g-C3N4/SiO2 composite had a loose porous structure and exhibited the much higher photocatalytic activity to the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light. The disordered porous structure enhanced photocatalytic activity, and the degradation rate reached to 96.42% in 90 min under the irradiation of visible light, which could be attributed to its high surface area and effective electron–hole separation rate. The catalyst had the much higher stability and could be easily recycled utilization. The prepared composites could be applied to degrade organic pollutants in wastewater.
The influence of the azimuthal electron drift on anomalous erosion and the sheath profile in a stationary plasma thruster (SPT) is analysed in this article. It is found that the anomalous erosion has a self-organized structure, which is formed by the interaction between the plasma and the ceramic walls. In order to interpret the mechanism of the azimuthal erosion structure, a particle in cell (PIC) model is developed to simulate the azimuthal sheath. The results show that the electron azimuthal Hall drift due to crossed electric and magnetic field plays a key role in the azimuthal erosion evolution process. Electron Hall drift can generate an asymmetric sheath structure and induce azimuthal sheath oscillation. Furthermore, an asymmetric sheath caused by the integrated effect of the azimuthal irregular wall structure and azimuthal Hall drift will result in the azimuthal movement of ions. Based on the sheath simulated results, an erosion model is used to simulate the azimuthal erosion evolution. An asymmetric erosion profile caused by the azimuthal asymmetric ion sputtering is found.
CrFeNiTix (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 molar ratio) compositionally complex alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting to investigate the microstructure, hardness, and compressive properties. The results revealed that CrFeNiTix alloys consisted of the principal face-centered cubic (FCC) phase and body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution, with an amount of (Ni, Ti)-rich hexagonal close-packed phase. CrFeNiTix alloys exhibited the typical dendrite. Ti0.2 and Ti0.3 alloys were composed of FCC and BCC solid solutions in the dendrite, as well as ε (Ni3Ti) and R (Ni2.67Ti1.33) phases in the inter-dendrite, simultaneously. For Ti0.4, Ti0.5, and Ti0.6 alloys, (Fe, Cr)-rich solid solution separated out and ε phase transformed into R phase gradually. Meanwhile, TEM analysis indicated that Ti0.4 alloy matrix consisted of the principal FCC phase containing (Ni, Ti)-rich intragranular nanoprecipitates. The hardness values of CrFeNiTix alloys were increased with the addition of Ti content and the high compressive strength of CrFeNiTix alloys was maintained, which was attributed to the solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening.
Previous studies have inferred a strong genetic component in schizophrenia. However, the genetic variants involved in the susceptibility to schizophrenia remain unclear.
To detect potential gene pathways and networks associated with schizophrenia, and to explore the relationship between common and rare variants in these pathways and abnormal white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
The analysis included 100 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 140 healthy controls. A network-based analysis was carried out on the data collected from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Phase I (PGC-I). Based on our genome-wide association study and whole-exome sequencing data-sets, we performed a gene-set analysis to detect associations between the combining effects of common and rare genetic variants and abnormal white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
Patients had significantly reduced functional anisotropy in the left and right anterior cingulate cortex, left and right precuneus and extra-nuclear (t = 4.61–5.10, PFDR < 0.01), compared with controls. Generated from co-expression network analysis of the PGC-1 summary statistics of schizophrenia, a subnetwork of 207 genes associated with schizophrenia was identified (P < 0.01), and 176 genes were co-expressed in four gene modules. Functional enrichment analysis for genes in each module revealed that the yellow module was enriched with highly co-expressed, innate immune response genes. Furthermore, rare variants of enriched genes in the yellow module were associated with reduced functional anisotropy in the left anterior cingulate cortex (P = 0.006; Padjusted = 0.024) in patients only.
The pathogenesis of schizophrenia may be substantially influenced by genes involved in the immune system, via both pathway and network.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
An oblique detonation wave in two-phase kerosene–air mixtures over a wedge is numerically studied for the first time. The features of initiation and stabilisation of the two-phase oblique detonation are emphasised, and they are different from those in previous studies on single-phase gaseous detonation. The gas–droplet reacting flow system is solved by means of a hybrid Eulerian–Lagrangian method. The two-way coupling for the interphase interactions is carefully considered using a particle-in-cell model. For discretisation of the governing equations of the gas phase, a WENO-CU6 scheme (Hu et al., J. Comput. Phys., vol. 229 (23), 2010, pp. 8952–8965) and a sixth-order compact scheme are employed for the convective terms and the diffusive terms, respectively. The inflow parameters are chosen properly from real flight conditions. The fuel vapour, droplets and their mixture are taken as the fuel in homogeneous streams with a stoichiometric ratio, respectively. The effects of evaporating droplets and initial droplet size on the initiation, transition from oblique shock to detonation and stabilisation are elucidated. The two-phase oblique detonation wave is stabilised from the oblique shock wave induced by the wedge. As the mass flow rate of droplets increases, a shift from a smooth transition with a curved shock to an abrupt one with a multi-wave point is found, and the initiation length of the oblique detonation increases, which is associated with the increase of the transition pressure. By increasing the initial droplet size, a smooth transition pattern is observed, even if the equivalence ratio remains constant, and the transition pressure decreases. The factor responsible is incomplete evaporation before the detonation fronts, which results in a complicated flame structure, including regimes of formation of oblique detonation, evaporative cooling of droplets and post-detonation reaction.
High-quality carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have unique one- and two-dimensional structures made up of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and excellent physical and chemical properties. They have shown potential for use in electronics, optoelectronics, energy-storage devices, composites, and sensors. In this article, we review important milestones in these uses of CNTs and graphene produced by CVD, with special emphasis on the latest advances and remaining challenges. The key characteristics and advantages of CNTs and graphene synthesized by CVD for different applications are compared, and future trends in the use of these nanocarbons are discussed.
Glacier variation is one of many indicators of climate change. Repeat measurements of the glacier terminus positions for selected glaciers in the central Himalaya document that they have been in a state of continuous retreat over the past few decades. Since the 1960s the average retreat rate on the north slope of Qomolangma (Mount Everest) is 5.5–9.5ma-1 and on Xixiabangma it is 4.0–5.2ma-1. Many glaciers on the south slope of the central Himalaya have been in retreat, and recently their retreat rate has accelerated. Ice-core studies show that the annual accumulation on these glaciers has fluctuated, but over the last century it has declined. It decreased rapidly in the 1960s and has remained consistently below the long-term mean thereafter. Meteorological station records indicate that the annual mean temperature in the region has slowly increased, particularly during the summer months. The strongest warming has occurred in the last 30 years. These data suggest that the current glacier retreat is due to the combined effect of reduced precipitation and warmer temperatures, and, if these conditions continue, the glaciers in the region will continue to shrink.
Glacier surface melting can be described using energy-balance models. We conducted a surface energy budget experiment to quantify surface energy fluxes and to identify factors affecting glacial melt in the ablation zone of Laohugou glacier No. 12, western Qilian mountains. The surface energy budget was calculated based on data from an automatic weather station, and turbulent fluxes calculated using the bulk-aerodynamic approach were corrected using measurements from an eddy-covariance system. Simulated mass balances were validated by stake observations. Net shortwave radiation was the primary component of the surface energy balance (126Wm–2), followed by sensible heat flux. Net longwave radiation (–45Wm–2) and latent heat flux (–12.8 Wm–2) represented heat sinks. The bulk-aerodynamic method underestimated sensible and latent heat fluxes by 3.4 and 1.2 W m–2, respectively. The simulated total mass balance of –1703mmw.e. exceeded the observed total by 90 mm w.e. Daily positive accumulated temperature and low albedo were the main factors accelerating glacier melt. An uncertainty assessment showed that mass balance was very sensitive to albedo and varied by 36% when albedo changed by 0.1.
In this paper, a tri-band bandpass filter (BPF) using asymmetric stub-loaded stepped-impedance resonator (SL-SIR) is presented. The asymmetric characteristic of SL-SIR broadens degrees of freedom for three controllable modes design. Also, the coupling coefficients (Mij) and the external quality factors (Qei) at each passband of the filter can be independently adjusted by the proposed mixed-type feedline structure. Besides, multi-transmission zeros are produced to improve the isolation and selectivity of the passbands. Finally, a tri-band BPF is operated at 1.9 GHz (time division long term evolution – TD-LTE band), 3.2 GHz (worldwide interoperability for microwave access – WiMAX band), and 5.8 GHz (wireless local area networks – WLAN band) and their insertion loss are 1.03, 0.94, and 1.27 dB, respectively. The measured results of the fabricated tri-band BPF exhibit good agreement with simulated results.
This paper attempts to explore the social production of architecture in contemporary Chinese rural villages through a case study on the Community Centre in Xihe Village. This community project, designed and built in 2014, exemplifies a lesser-known type of Chinese architectural practice engaging in a local and specific context, which suddenly gave participation a dramatic image in current breakneck Chinese rural-urban transition of large scale and rapid speed. By looking at this highly specific case through a detailed description and critical evaluation, this paper takes this participatory architectural project as the very first critical example of the socially-engaged architecture in China; as presenting an alternative architecture of resistance in response to the top-down guiding principle ‘Construction of A New Socialist Countryside’ launched by the government in 2005. Source material was collected through fieldwork in the village, including observational study, photographic documentation, and intensive formal and informal interviews with practitioners, authorities, and villagers. The analysis emphasizes the social process and consequences of different stages of this building, in order to explore hidden potentials and methodologies tailoring the architectural design and construction to the site-specificity. The social consequence of the building process is much more important than the object produced. By investigating the architectural version within a broader framework combining anthropology and activism, the paper attempts to introduce a more socially resilient way of making architecture in the current Chinese rural-urban transition. On the one hand it addresses the contingencies in working with underprivileged village communities in inner rural China, which have scarce resources and fragile identities; on the other hand it cuts through the surface of rural vernacular China to expose the undercurrent of silent issues in architecture that constitute the indigenous, the everyday, resistance, transition, and resilience.
The genetic influences in human brain structure and function and impaired functional connectivities are the hallmarks of the schizophrenic brain. To explore how common genetic variants affect the connectivities in schizophrenia, we applied genome-wide association studies assaying the abnormal neural connectivities in schizophrenia as quantitative traits.
We recruited 161 first-onset and treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia and 150 healthy controls. All the participants underwent scanning with a 3 T-magnetic resonance imaging scanner to acquire structural and functional imaging data and genotyping using the HumanOmniZhongHua-8 BeadChip. The brain-wide association study approach was employed to account for the inherent modular nature of brain connectivities.
We found differences in four abnormal functional connectivities [left rectus to left thalamus (REC.L–THA.L), left rectus to right thalamus (REC.L–THA.R), left superior orbital cortex to left thalamus (ORBsup.L–THA.L) and left superior orbital cortex to right thalamus (ORBsup.L–THA.R)] between the two groups. Univariate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association revealed that the SNP rs6800381, located nearest to the CHRM3 (cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3) gene, reached genomic significance (p = 1.768 × 10−8) using REC.L–THA.R as the phenotype. Multivariate gene-based association revealed that the FAM12A (family with sequence similarity 12, member A) gene nearly reached genomic significance (nominal p = 2.22 × 10–6, corrected p = 0.05).
Overall, we identified the first evidence that the CHRM3 gene plays a role in abnormal thalamo-orbital frontal cortex functional connectivity in first-episode treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia. Identification of these genetic variants using neuroimaging genetics provides insights into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help us determine the mechanisms of dysfunction in schizophrenia.
To improve the crashworthiness of civil aircraft, the design concept of energy absorption structure for civil aircraft is investigated. Two typical different design principles could be identified. The first category includes Helicopter and Light fixed-wing Aircraft (HLA), and Transport, Mid-size and Commuter type Aircraft (TMCA) are classified into the second group. Frame, strut and bottom structure are the three kinds of energy absorption structure for TMCA. The strut layout of conventional civil aircraft is studied and some energy absorption devices are adopted. High efficiency energy absorption structures such as the foam and sine-wave beam are employed as the bottom structure for both of HLA and LMCA. The finite element method is used to analyse and design energy absorption structure in aircraft crashworthiness problem. Results show that the crashworthiness of civil aircraft could be largely improved by using proper strut layout and excellent energy absorption device. The stiffness combination of frame and strut should be considered to get better global aircraft deformation. Supporting platform and failure model are the two core problems of bottom energy absorption structure design. Foam and sine-wave beam under the lifted frame could improve the crashworthiness of civil aircraft.
Atomic layer deposition has attracted much attention recently in fabricating noble metal nanoparticles for a wide range of applications. We have explored synthesizing palladium nanoparticles via atomic layer deposition on self-assembled monolayers modified silicon substrate. Using alkyltrichlorosilanes as the passivating agents, our results show the method is capable of fabricating Pd nanoparticles with well controlled density and particle diameter on the modified silicon substrate.
Emerging telecommunication and data routing applications anticipate a photonic roadmap leading to ultra-compact photonic integrated circuits. Consequently, photonic devices will soon have to meet footprint and efficiency requirements similar to their electronic counterparts calling for extreme capabilities to create, guide, modulate, and detect deep-subwavelength optical fields. For active devices such as modulators, this means fulfilling optical switching operations within light propagation distances of just a few wavelengths. Plasmonics, or metal optics, has emerged as one potential solution for integrated on-chip circuits that can combine both high operational speeds and ultra-compact architectures rivaling electronics in both speed and critical feature sizes. This article describes the current status, challenges, and future directions of the various components required to realize plasmonic integrated circuitry.
High quality factor and near-zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) are the two key issues for a certain microwave dielectric material system used in microstrip patch antennas. ZnTiO3-based ceramics is a promising candidate for microstrip patch antennas. On inhibiting the decomposition of ZnTiO3 by adding sufficient amount of MgO, high quality factor microwave dielectric material (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3 was obtained. The deviations between theoretical and observed dielectric polarizabilites, the packing fraction, and bond valence were calculated to analyze correlation between structure and properties of (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3. TiO2 was added to adjust τf of (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3, and 0.82(Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3–0.18TiO2 with an εr of 28.5, a Qf of 125,050 GHz, and a near-zero τf which satisfied the requirement as a substrate material for microstrip patch antenna was obtained at 1100 °C. In addition, a dielectric microstrip antenna was designed and fabricated using the proposed dielectric materials. The microstrip patch antenna exhibited a −34.96 dB return loss and a 1.05 voltage standing wave ratio at 2.5 GHz.
The electronic structures of pure BaF2 crystal and lanthanum doped BaF2 crystal have been calculated in a self-consistent molecular-cluster model. The cluster is embedded in the crystal lattice and the entire system treatediteratively in the Hartree-Fock-Slater local-density theory. As lanthanum doped BaF2 is concerned, the obtained results revealed that the F1–i which is introduced by the lanthanum may contribute to the suppression ofthe slow component in the scintillation light of BaF2 crystal.
In this paper, we used the Discrete Variational Xα, (DV-Xα) method to calculate the energy level of some rare earth doped BaF2 crystals and indicated that the Eu, Dy and Yb elements will change their valence from +3 to +2 under irradiation and thus change the optical properties of the crystals.The results show that this radiation effect model presented agree well with experiments.