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The flow over a square cylinder controlled by a slot synthetic jet positioned at the front surface is investigated experimentally at different excitation frequencies. The Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity and the side length of the square cylinder is 1000. The flow visualization was conducted using the laser-induced fluorescence technique. The velocity fields upstream and downstream of the square cylinder were measured synchronously with the two-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry technique. Both the evolution of vortex structures and the characteristic frequencies of upstream and downstream flow fields are presented. The flow dynamics vary significantly with the excitation frequency at a fixed stroke length. During one excitation cycle, the synthetic jet vortex pair deflects to one side and later swings to the other side at a quite small excitation frequency of
, while it only deflects toward one side and does not turn to the other side at
. Compared with the natural case, the wake characteristics for the above two cases are not changed much by the synthetic jet adopted. At a moderate excitation frequency of
, the synthetic jet deflects upwards and downwards alternatively. The upstream flow field has a dominant frequency identical to half of the excitation frequency. Under the perturbations of the synthetic jet, two wake vortex pairs are formed per shedding cycle with a shedding frequency equal to that of the square cylinder without control. At a higher excitation frequency of
, the synthetic jet keeps deflecting to one side, and the upstream flow field is governed by the excitation frequency. The flow separation on the deflected side is suppressed effectively, and no periodic vortex shedding can be observed in the wake. Statistically, the velocity profiles also change with control. The recirculation bubble length in the wake is shortened, and the time-averaged velocity fluctuation is weakened remarkably. The control effects of the synthetic jet and the continuous jet are compared in this paper when placed at the front surface of a square cylinder.
In this paper, the design of a graded honeycomb radar absorbing structure (RAS) is presented to realize both a wide bandwidth and absorption over a wide range of angles. For both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarization, a fractional bandwidth of more than 118.6% is achieved for at least a 10 dB reflectivity reduction when the incident angle is <45°, an 8 dB reduction when the incident angle is <55° and a 5 dB reduction when the incident angle is <70°. Meanwhile the 10 dB reduction upper angle limit is approximately 30° for the uniform coating honeycomb RAS in the literature, which loses its absorbing ability when the incident angle is larger than 55°. Furthermore, the total thickness of our design is 10.7 mm, which is only approximately 1.29 times that of the theoretical limitation. The good agreement between the calculated, simulated, and measured results demonstrates the validity of this optimization.
It is well established that estrogen and progesterone are critical endogenous hormones that are essential for implantation and pregnancy in females. However, the distribution of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) in female reproductive tracts is elusive. Herein, we report that after serial treatments with pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) with or without anti-PMSG (AP), mice could regulate the distribution of ERα and PR in the murine ovary, oviduct and uterus and the level of estradiol in serum. ERα and PR regulation by PMSG and anti-PMSG was estrous cycle-dependent and critical for promoting the embryo-implantation period. Furthermore, our results suggested that AP-42 h treatment is more effective than the other treatments. In contrast, other treatment groups also affected the distribution of ERα and PR in mouse reproductive tracts. Thus, we found that anti-PMSG has the potential to restore the distribution of ERα and PR, which could effectively reduce the negative impact of residual estrogen caused by the normal superovulation effect of PMSG in mice.
The maintenance and preservation of strains of mice used in biomedical research presents a unique challenge to individual investigators and research institutions. The goal of this study was to assess a comprehensive system for mouse strain conservation through a combination of natural mating, sperm cryopreservation and assisted reproductive technology. Our strategy was based on the collection and cryopreservation of fresh epididymal sperm from male mice by semi-vasectomy; these mice were then naturally mated for breeding purposes. If no satisfactory results were obtained from natural breeding, then the cryopreserved sperm were used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); resultant embryos were then transferred into pseudopregnant-recipient female mice. Our results show that some semi-vasectomized mouse strains can be conserved by natural breeding, and that sterile males can be compensated for through the use of IVF and ICSI technology. As such, we believe this system is suitable for the purpose of strain conservation, allowing the continuation of natural breeding with the safeguard of assisted reproduction available.
To obtain highly dispersed and highly active catalysts by impregnating of active species onto the monolith directly, cordierite honeycomb ceramics were modified by nitric acid solution of 68wt%. Effects of acid treatment temperature and time on the performance of cordierite were investigated. Specific surface area, pore size distribution, morphology and structure of cordierite were characterized by N2-physical adsorption, SEM, XRD, respectively. Concentrations of ions in the acid solution were measured by AAS. It is shown that the corrosion content of cordierite increases and more micropores are generated with increasing time of acid treatment, leading to an upward trend of specific surface area. The coefficient of thermal expansion and compression strength decrease obviously at a higher temperature, which is mainly attributed to the removal of Al and Mg ions from the silicate structure and delayed formation of free amorphous silica on the surface of the cordierite. The optimal modification process of cordierite matrix acid erosion is at 110°C for 6 h.
During diabetes, structural and functional changes in the alimentary tract are known to take place resulting in an increased absorption of intestinal glucose and alterations in the activities of brush-border disaccharidases. To elucidate the effect of administrating polysaccharide from Gynura divaricata (PGD) on disaccharidase activities, the specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases, namely sucrase, maltase and lactase, were measured in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Normal control and diabetic rats were treated by oral administration with PGD. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes, and amelioration of the activities of sucrase and maltase during diabetes was clearly visible by the treatment with PGD. However, the increased activity of lactase during diabetes mellitus was remarkably alleviated by the administration of PGD only in the duodenum. Meanwhile, oral sucrose tolerance tests demonstrated that PGD alleviated the hyperglycaemia during diabetes mellitus, resulting from the amelioration in the activities of intestinal disaccharidases. The present investigation suggests that PGD exerted an anti-diabetic effect partly via inhibiting the increased intestinal disaccharidase activities of diabetic rats. This beneficial influence of administration of PGD on intestinal disaccharidases clearly indicates their helpful role in the management of diabetes.
A new process has been developed in Paratek Microwave Inc. to formulate stable tunable (Ba, Sr)TiO3 (BST) based thin film material. Varactors, with a co-planar structure, were fabricated by using the new material. The varactor Q of 105 tested at 2 GHz was observed with average tunability of 58 % at 150V (37.5 V/μm). The lifetime tests indicated that this material is very stable under continuous 100 to 150 V dc bias both at the room temperature and in 70 °C environment. Thus, this novel tunable thin film material opens a new avenue to develop high quality tunable microwave devices. Tunable IF filters have been built by using this novel material for microwave backhaul radios and handset applications. Initial results of a RF phase shifter are also included and demonstrate another application of these films.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
Upconversion luminescence (UPL) characteristics and effects of Li+ ion on the UPL of ZnWO4:Yb,Er polycrystalline phosphors were investigated. It was shown that introduction of Li+ ions could reduce the calcination temperature by about 200 °C and increase the crystallinity of ZnWO4:Yb,Er by a liquid-phase sintering process via formation of Li2WO4 and other intermediates. UPL efficiency is remarkably promoted by Li+ ions. Moreover, the UPL spectrum of Li+-doped ZnWO4:Yb,Er presents a red shift, and the strongest peak position shifts from 553 to 559 nm. These can be attributed to a shift in the 4f level barycenter to lower energy, which results from lowering of the symmetry of the crystal field around Er3+.
We aimed to describe the vitamin D status of young women living in two Chinese cities in the spring – Beijing in the north (latitude 39° north) and Hong Kong (latitude 22° north) in the south. We also examined the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations to determine a threshold for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D above which there is no further suppression of PTH. Finally, we examined whether dietary Ca intake influences this relationship. Non-pregnant women aged 18–40 years (n 441) were recruited between February and June. Fasting blood was collected and dietary intakes were assessed using 5 d food records. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was lower in Beijing than Hong Kong women (29 v. 34 nmol/l; P < 0·001). Vitamin D deficiency ( ≤ 25 nmol/l) was indicated in 40 % of Beijing and 18 % of Hong Kong women, and over 90 % of women in both cities were insufficient ( ≤ 50 nmol/l). Mean Ca and vitamin D intakes were 478 mg/d and 2·0 μg/d, respectively. The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and PTH was linear throughout the range with a slope of − 0·36 (different from 0; P < 0·001; R 0·26), with no apparent threshold. There was no influence of Ca intake on the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentration. Vitamin D deficiency is common and insufficiency is very common in non-pregnant women in Hong Kong and Beijing during spring. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was inversely associated with PTH with no apparent threshold. Strategies such as vitamin D fortification or supplementation may be required.
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity is highly related to the undesirable browning of wheat-based end products. In this study, wheat PPO sequences (mRNA) were searched/BLASTed in the NCBI database and aligned using DNAMAN software. The results showed that wheat PPO genes could be divided into two clusters (I and II) and that three genes (‘i’) of cluster II seemed not to be located on chromosomes 2A and 2D. Ninety-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected between two haplotypes of the PPO gene on chromosome 2D. Eighty of these were found in the coding region (coding (c) SNPs) and 36 were non-synonymous cSNPs, which could affect the PPO amino acid sequence. Primers (STS-H) were designed at some non-synonymous cSNPs sites and were used to investigate the correlations between allelic variants and PPO activity of seeds – a total of 130 common wheat varieties were evaluated in 2 years. The results showed that STS-H could amplify a 460 bp DNA fragment in most cultivars with high PPO activity, while no PCR product was detected in most cultivars with low PPO activity. To improve the selection efficiency of a single dominance molecular marker, the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system of STS-H and STS01 markers was also studied, based on the complementary between them.
Two TiO2layers formed in TiAl oxidation for 50 h at 900 °C were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy. The main efforts were placed on the investigation of the distribution of niobium. It was found that Nb enriched in TiO2grains of mixture layer but did not exist in the outer TiO2layer. High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) Z-contrast image revealed that Nb substitute for Ti site leading to Nb enrichment in TiO2grains of the mixture layer. The formation mechanism of the two TiO2layers and the potential effect of Nb doping in the mixture layer were also discussed.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
X-ray phosphors of Gd2O2S:Tb3+ and La2O2S:Eu3+ were synthesized by combustion reactions. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and x-ray excited luminescence (XEL) spectra. XRD results revealed pure oxy-sulfide phases when the sintering temperatures were no more than 500 °C, and the mean particle sizes were about 20 nm. While the sintering temperatures became higher, oxy-sulfate phases were present. SEM results illustrated a loose, porous agglomeration and a continuous three-dimensional network structure; PL spectra showed the characteristic emission of rare-earth activation ions. To our satisfaction, the PL intensities were nearly the same as some commercial x-ray phosphors. XEL spectra revealed the same characteristic emission, although their luminescence principles were different from those of the PL spectra. In addition, because absorption coefficients of these samples for x-ray and doped concentrations doped of activation ions were different, their light emission intensities and efficiencies also varied.
Eight marine transgressions have been recognized from more than 30 deep drill holes (ca. 300 m deep) through Quaternary sequences in the Yangtze River delta region. These are, in ascending order, the Rugao and Zhoupe transgressions (early Pleistocene); the Shanghai, Jiading, and Wangdian transgressions in the middle Pleistocene; the Jiangyin and Gehu transgressions in the late Pleistocene; and the Zhenjiang transgression in the Holocene. The transgressions correspond to warm periods and regressions to cold periods. The younger transgressions were not only of shorter duartion, but also of larger magnitude. The findings verify that there were five moderately warm periods during the early to middle Pleistocene and two very warm periods during the late Pleistocene in the Yangtze River delta region.
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