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To examine the vitamin D status, SNP of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and the effects of vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone and insulin secretion in adult males with obesity or normal weight in a subtropical Chinese city.
An intervention trial.
Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China.
From a cross-sectional survey conducted from June to July, eighty-two normal-weight and ninety-nine obese males (18–69 years) were screened to analyse their vitamin D status and for five SNP of VDR. From these individuals, in the same season of a different year, obese and normal-weight male volunteers (twenty-one per group) were included for an intervention trial with oral vitamin D supplementation at 1250 µg/week for 8 weeks.
For the survey, there was no significant difference (P>0·05) in baseline circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations or in the percentages of participants in different categories of vitamin D status between the two groups. The VDR SNP, rs3782905, was significantly associated with obesity (P=0·043), but none of the examined SNP were correlated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D when adjusted for age, BMI and study group. After vitamin D supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, hypersecretions of parathyroid hormone and insulin, and insulin resistance in the obese were changed beneficially (P<0·05); however, the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was less than that of the normal-weight men.
For obese and normal-weight men of subtropical China, the summer baseline vitamin D status was similar. However, oral vitamin D supplementation revealed a decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obese men and ameliorated their hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone and insulin resistance.
The EPR parameters (zero-field splitting D and g-factors g//, g⊥) of Mn5+-doped solid state laser materials Ca2(MO4)Cl (M = P, As, V) are calculated from the complete high-order perturbation formulas of EPR parameters based on the two-mechanism model for 3d2 ions in a approximately tetragonal tetrahedron. The model includes the contributions from both the crystal-field (CF) mechanism and the charge-transfer (CT) mechanism (the latter is neglected in crystal field theory). The calculated results suggest that the contribution to EPR parameters due to CT mechanism is important. So, in the cases of high valence state 3dn ions in crystals, the reasonable explanation of EPR parameters should take both CF and CT mechanisms into account.
In this work, we review current trends in China to investigate beam plasma interaction phenomena. Recent progresses in China on low energy heavy ions and plasma interaction, ion beam-plasma interactions under the influences of magnetic fields, high energy heavy ion radiography through marginal range method, energy deposition of highly charged ions on surfaces and Raman spectroscopy of surfaces after irradiation of highly charged ions are presented.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
Total body fat mass (TBFM) and total body lean mass (TBLM) are the major components of the human body. Although these highly correlated phenotypic traits are frequently used to characterize obesity, the specific shared genetic factors that influence both traits remain largely unknown. Our study was aimed at identifying common quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to both TBFM and TBLM. We performed a whole genome-linkage scan study in a large sample of 3255 subjects from 420 Caucasian pedigrees. Bivariate linkage analysis was carried out in both the entire sample and gender-specific subsamples. Several potentially important genomic regions that may harbour QTLs important for TBFM and TBLM were identified. For example, 20p12-11 achieved a LOD score of 2·04 in the entire sample and, in the male subsample, two genomic regions, 20p12 (LOD=2·08) and 3p26-25 (LOD=1·92), showed suggestive linkage. In addition, two-point linkage analyses for chromosome X showed suggestive linkages on Xp22 in the entire sample (LOD=2·14) and significant linkage on Xp22 in the female subsample (LOD=3·05). Complete pleiotropy was suggested for 20p12 and 3p26-25 in males. Our results suggest that QTLs on chromosomes 20p12, 3p26-25 and Xp22 may jointly influence TBFM and TBLM. Further fine mapping and gene identification studies for these pleiotropic effects are needed.
In the two-dimensional simulation of the interaction of an ultrashort intense laser with droplet plasma, two hot electron jets generated by resonance absorption and emitted symmetrically with respect to the laser propagation direction are observed at a low laser field amplitude such as $a_0=0.1$. However, the emission angle of electron jets cannot be explained simply with the theory of resonance absorption for planar targets. When the laser amplitude is increased to $a_0=2$, electron bunches generated by the ponderomotive force separated by a laser period are superimposed into the hot electron jets. Accelerated ions have two groups at low laser intensities, one is anisotropic and associated with hot electron jets and the other is isotropic due to hydrodynamics expansion. At high light intensities, isotropic ion acceleration is found through Coulomb explosion.
Pancreases obtained from 1–9-day-old rabbits were digested with 1 mg/ml ?? collagenase and cultivated with low-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). The cells were subcultured almost until confluence. They were identified as pancreatic stem/progenitor cells using two methods: an immunohistochemical staining technique and the response of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after β-cell induction. Results showed that the cells of rabbits acquired strong proliferation ability, and expressed the markers of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells: PDX-1, CK19 and nestin. After β-cell induction for 2 days, 20% of cells were dithizone (DTZ) positive, rapidly increasing to 80% after 6 days. Insulin secretion was stimulated by a high glucose concentration (26 mmol/l). These powerful tests demonstrated that isolated and cultivated cells in rabbits were pancreatic stem/progenitor cells. This result has not yet been reported elsewhere.
Monodisperse hematite cubes about 30nm in size have been prepared by aging a refluxing acidified aqueous solution of FeCl3 in an open vessel. The as grown nano cubes were determined to be single crystalline hematite in perfect cubic shapes using transmission electron microscope and electron diffraction. The nano cube is one of the equilibrium shapes of hematite, which is resumed to be formed by preferential growth in certain crystallographic directions through the species diffusion in the aqueous solutions.
Some self-assembly prototypes have been observed, such as the short range ordered buildup consisting of several brick-like hematite nano cubes and the nano box consisted of square plates of hematite nanocrystals. The drive force for the formation of the above assemblies is assumed to be the unique magnetic feature of the single crystalline hematite nano cubes.
The perfect shape and the self-assembly feature give a possibility to fabricate bulk ceramics orderly assembled using hematite nano cubes.
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