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Dietary indices are widely used in diet quality measurement, and the index-based dietary patterns are related to gastric cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship between different kinds of index-based dietary patterns and gastric cancer risk, we systematically searched four English-language databases and four Chinese-language databases. The quality of studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate the association between gastric cancer incidence and different types of index-based dietary patterns. The odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) of gastric cancer incidence were calculated by regression models in case-control studies and prospective cohort studies, respectively. The studies were pooled in the random-effects model to calculate the summarized risk estimate of the highest quantile interval of dietary indices, taking the lowest as the referent. The dietary indices included different versions of Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and dietary inflammatory index (DII), healthy eating index, Chinese food pagoda score, and food index score. The meta-analysis was carried out for studies on MDS and DII. The combined OR of gastric cancer for the highest MDS versus the referent was 0.42 (95% CI 0.2–0.86), and the combined HR was 0.89 (95% CI 0.68–1.17). The combined OR for DII was 2.11 (95% CI 1.41–3.15). Higher Mediterranean dietary pattern consumption might reduce gastric cancer risk, while higher inflammatory diet pattern consumption might increase gastric cancer risk.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of glucose, soy oil, or glutamine on jejunal morphology, protein metabolism, and protein expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway in jejunal villus or crypt compartment of piglets. Forty-two 21 d-weaned piglets were randomly allotted to one of the three isocaloric diets formulated with glucose, soy oil, or glutamine for 28 days. On day 14 or 28, the proteins in crypt enterocytes were analyzed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification, and proteins involved in mTORC1 signaling pathway in villus or crypt compartment cells were determined by western blotting. Our results showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in jejunal morphology among the three treatments on day 14 or 28. The differentially expressed proteins mainly took part in a few network pathways, including antimicrobial or inflammatory response, cell death and survival, digestive system development and function, and carbohydrate metabolism. On day 14 or 28, there were higher protein expression of 4EBP1 in jejunal crypt compartment of piglets supplemented with glucose or glutamine compared with soy oil. On day 28, higher protein expression of p-mTOR in crypt compartment was observed in piglets supplemented with glucose compared with the soy oil. In conclusion, the isocaloric glucose, soy oil, or glutamine did not affect the jejunal morphology of piglets; however, they had different effects on the protein metabolism in crypt compartment. Compared to soy oil, glucose or glutamine may be better energy supplies for enterocytes in jejunal crypt compartment.
Graphite nitride carbon nanosheets have received more and more attention toward the photocatalytic research and applications. Ultrathin g-CN nanosheets with porous structure were synthesized successfully by thermal calcination of melamine supramolecular complexes, which was obtained by pre-treating melamine in nitric acid solution at different concentrations (0.5–2 mol/L). Effects of HNO3 pre-treatment on the microstructure of supramolecular complexes were studied. The characteristics of g-CN nanosheets were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The degradation performance for RhB and water splitting hydrogen production performance were used to evaluate the photocatalytic performances of g-CN nanosheets. The morphology and microstructure of HNO3/melamine supramolecular complexes are different from those of melamine precursor due to the better arrangement of the melamine units. Ultrathin porous g-CN nanosheets which possess a thickness of less than 2 nm were successfully prepared by calcination of melamine pre-treated with 1.0 mol/L nitric acid. The g-CN(1.0) nanosheets possess the highest photocatalytic degradation performance and water splitting hydrogen production performance due to the effective separation of photogenerated carriers and high specific surface area providing a large number of active sites.
To support people with dementia to live at home, a key national and international policy driver is to create dementia-friendly communities which draws attention to the importance of a local neighbourhood and living well with dementia. However, there is a lack of evidence about how people with dementia define and interact with their neighbourhood. This longitudinal narrative research aimed to uncover the meaning, construction and place of neighbourhood in the lives of people with dementia and their care partners through a participatory approach. Five couples, where one partner had an early diagnosis of dementia and capacity to consent, participated in the (up to) one-year mixed qualitative method study. During this time-frame, 65 home visits were conducted, resulting in over 57 hours of interview data alongside the development of other artefacts, such as neighbourhood maps, photographs, diaries and field notes. Narrative analysis was applied within and across the data-sets. This led to the emergence of three themes to describe a connected neighbourhood. First, ‘connecting to people’ is about the couples’ connections with family members, friends and neighbours through a sense of belonging, group identification and responsibilities. Second, ‘connecting to places’ shares the couples’ emotional and biographical attachment to places. Third, ‘connecting to resources’ refers to the couples actively seeking support to live independently and to retain neighbourhood connections.
The dipeptide DL-methionyl-DL-Methionine (Met-Met) has extremely low water solubility and better absorption than other methionine sources (such as DL-methionine and L-methionine) available in the market. Therefore, six diets (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6) containing 0 %, 0.07%, 0.15%, 0.21%, 0.28% and 0.38% Met-Met were formulated to investigate the effects of Met-Met on Oreochromis niloticus. The results indicated that percent weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed with D2 and D3 diets were higher than those fed with D1, D4-D6 diets. The levels of total essential amino acid in whole body of fish fed with D3 and D4 diets were significantly higher than those fed the D1 diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde content were no significant difference in fed the diet with or without Met-Met supplementation. Majority of reads derived from the fish intestines belonged to members of Fusobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria. Diversity of intestinal microbiota and total antioxidant capacity in fish fed with D3 diet was significantly higher than that of other groups. Since due to the growth results the authors conclude the optimal proportion of Met was 0.61%, and the addition of Met-Met was 0.15% in O. niloticus.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was frequent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Yunnan province. We studied the epidemic characteristics of HCV in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Serum from 894 HIV-1 patients was collected, together with basic information and biochemical features. All samples were infected with HIV through injecting drug users (IDUs) and sexual transmission (ST). The NS5B gene was amplified and sequenced to affirm HCV genotype. In total, 202 HIV patients were co-infected with HCV, and most (81.19%) of co-infected patients were IDUs. Genotype 3b was predominant (37.62%) in these samples, and its frequency was similar in patients with IDU and ST. The frequencies of genotypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 6a, 6n, 2a and 6u were 3.96%, 16.34%, 23.76%, 6.93%, 10.40%, 0.50% and 0.50%, respectively. However, genotype 3a showed significantly different frequency in HCV patients with IDU and ST (P = 0.019). When HCV patients were divided into subgroups, the haemoglobin (HGB) level was significantly higher in patients with genotype 3a than in patients with 3b (P = 0.033), 6a (P = 0.006) and 6n (P = 0.007), respectively. Although no difference existed among HCV subgroups, HIV-viral load was identified to be positively correlated with the HGB level and CD4+ cells when dividing HCV/HIV co-infected persons into male and female groups. In conclusion, genotype 3b was the predominant HCV genotype in Yunnan HIV/HCV co-infected persons. The HGB level was higher in patients with genotype 3a than others. HIV-viral load was positively correlated with the HGB level and CD4+ cells in the male or female HCV-infected group.
Many components in diet have regulated oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and even balance oestrogen levels. Because these factors are closely associated with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women, it is considered that dietary factors are able to prevent and control depressive symptoms. On the other hand, a dietary pattern that considers the correlations and synergies between foods and nutrients is expected to have a greater impact on disease risk. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study of 2051 postmenopausal women (mean age: 58·8 (sd 7·4) years) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Dietary consumption was assessed by a valid self-administered FFQ. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns: ‘healthy’, ‘sweets’ and ‘traditional Tianjin’ from eighty-eight food items. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and cut-off point of 48 indicating serious depressive symptoms. The association between quartile of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. The multivariable-adjusted OR of having depressive symptoms for increasing quartile of dietary patterns were as follows: healthy, 1·00, 0·79 (95 % CI 0·49, 1·28), 0·62 (95 % CI 0·37, 1·04) and 0·57 (95 % CI 0·33, 0·97); sweets, 1·00, 0·75 (95 % CI 0·42, 1·3), 1·08 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·81) and 1·66 (95 % CI 1·03, 2·71); and traditional Tianjin, 1·00, 1·02 (95 % CI 0·58, 1·79), 0·96 (95 % CI 0·54, 1·71) and 2·53 (95 % CI 1·58, 4·16), respectively. The present study demonstrated that a healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. On the contrary, greater adherence to sweets and traditional Tianjin dietary patterns was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms.
North-east China occupies an important geographic position for understanding the process of Neolithisation in East Asia. Although archaeologists have long debated the trajectory of change in this region, a lack of intensive survey and excavation has precluded convincing interpretations. This article presents research on the newly excavated sites of Huayang and Taoshan in the southern Lesser Khingan Mountains, with a particular focus on the lithic assemblages. Comparative and environmental analyses demonstrate the largely uniform trajectory of lithic technologies across north-east China and close correspondence with Late Glacial palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental changes.
In this work, atomic layer deposition (ALD), as a novel strategy, has been applied to deposit MgO on nano-sized porous Si (pSi) dendrites obtained by etching Al–Si alloy for LIBs. The reversible specific capacity of pSi@MgO electrode is 969.4 mA h/g after 100 cycles at 100 mA/g between 0.01 and 1.5 V, and it presents the discharge specific capacities of 1253.0, 885.5, 642.4, 366.2, and 101.4 mA h/g at 100, 500, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mA/g, respectively. What is more, it delivers a high reversible capacity of 765.1 mA h/g even at 500 mA/g after 200 cycles. The performance improvement can be attributed to the protection of the MgO layer and built-in space of porous Si for volume expansion upon cycling. These results illustrate that ALD derived coating is a powerful strategy to enhance electrical properties of anode materials with huge volume change for lithium-ion batteries.
We present a numerical study of quasistatic magnetoconvection in a cubic Rayleigh–Bénard (RB) convection cell subjected to a vertical external magnetic field. For moderate values of the Hartmann number
(characterising the strength of the stabilising Lorentz force), we find an enhancement of heat transport (as characterised by the Nusselt number
). Furthermore, a maximum heat transport enhancement is observed at certain optimal
. The enhanced heat transport may be understood as a result of the increased coherence of the thermal plumes, which are elementary heat carriers of the system. To our knowledge this is the first time that a heat transfer enhancement by the stabilising Lorentz force in quasistatic magnetoconvection has been observed. We further found that the optimal enhancement may be understood in terms of the crossing of the thermal and the momentum boundary layers (BL) and the fact that temperature fluctuations are maximum near the position where the BLs cross. These findings demonstrate that the heat transport enhancement phenomenon in the quasistatic magnetoconvection system belongs to the same universality class of stabilising–destabilising (S–D) turbulent flows as the systems of confined Rayleigh–Bénard (CRB), rotating Rayleigh–Bénard (RRB) and double-diffusive convection (DDC). This is further supported by the findings that the heat transport, boundary layer ratio and temperature fluctuations in magnetoconvection at the boundary layer crossing point are similar to the other three cases. A second type of boundary layer crossing is also observed in this work. In the limit of
, the (traditionally defined) viscous boundary
is found to follow a Prandtl–Blasius-type scaling with the Reynolds number
and is independent of
. In the other limit of
exhibits an approximate
dependence, which has been predicted for a Hartmann boundary layer. Assuming the inertial term in the momentum equation is balanced by both the viscous and Lorentz terms, we derived an expression
is the height of the cell) for all values of
, which fits the obtained viscous boundary layer well.
A compact circularly polarized (CP) rectenna with low profile and high efficiency based on the artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is proposed in this paper. The receiving CP antenna is a coplanar stripline fed dual rhombic loop with an AMC reflector. The proposed AMC reflector not only improves the antenna gain to 9.8 dBi but also decreases the profile to 0.1 λ0. The AMC reflector also makes the antenna have a harmonic suppression function so the low pass filter between the rectifying circuit and the antenna could be omitted and the rectenna has a compact structure. According to the measured results, the rectenna has the highest conversion efficiency of 76% on the load of 240 Ω with the received power of 117.5 mW. When the linearly polarized transmitting antenna is rotated, the conversion efficiency of the CP rectenna maintains a constant high conversion efficiency of 74%. The compact structure and CP operation of the rectenna made it a good candidate of the wireless battery for some electronic devices and far-distance microwave power transmission.
A compact wideband out-of-phase power divider (PD) with improved isolation performance is proposed. This divider is formed by connecting an additional stub for isolation to output ports of a traditional Marchand balun with a defected ground structure (DGS) been used. To verify the design, a prototype divider is fabricated and tested. The measured results validate the 53.86% band-width centered at 3.43 GHz with more than 15 dB return loss at all ports, more than 17 dB isolation, respectively.
A compact high-isolation power divider with bandpass response and high-frequency selectivity is presented in this letter. Two dual-mode resonators are used to realize filtering response. The circuit size of the proposed power divider can be reduced by using dual-mode capacitance loaded square meander loop resonators. Due to capacitive load, the resonator can exhibit slow-wave characteristics, which can be utilized to suppress harmonics and reduce size. The simulated and measured results show reasonable agreement.
The timing of the Holocene summer monsoon maximum (HSMM) in northeastern China has been much debated and more quantitative precipitation records are needed to resolve the issue. In the present study, Holocene precipitation and temperature changes were quantitatively reconstructed from a pollen record from the sediments of Tianchi Crater Lake in northeastern China using a plant functional type-modern analogue technique (PFT-MAT). The reconstructed precipitation record indicates a gradual increase during the early to mid-Holocene and a HSMM at ~5500–3100 cal yr BP, while the temperature record exhibits a divergent pattern with a marked rise in the early Holocene and a decline thereafter. The trend of reconstructed precipitation is consistent with that from other pollen records in northeastern China, confirming the relatively late occurrence of the HSMM in the region. However, differences in the onset of the HSMM within northeastern China are also evident. No single factor appears to be responsible for the late occurrence of the HSMM in northeastern China, pointing to a potentially complex forcing mechanism of regional rainfall in the East Asian monsoon region. We suggest that further studies are needed to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of the HSMM in the region.
Little is known of the olfactory mechanisms of host detection in the ovipositors of endoparasitoids and ectoparasitoids. An endoparasitoid Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and an ectoparasitoid Quadrastichus mendeli Kim & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) are the two parasitoids of the eucalyptus gall wasp Leptocybe spp. Structures and sense organs of ovipositors of A. causalis and Q. mendeli were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, which provided essential information for exploring the mechanism of host detection by endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid. The ovipositors of two parasitoids consisted of the first and second valvulae and ended in a pointed tip. There were three types of microtrichia, two types of sensilla chaetica, and one type of sensilla campaniformia on the ovipositors of A. causalis and Q. mendeli. However, Q. mendeli has the fourth type of microtrichia on the ovipositor. The morphology, types, distribution, length, and width of these sensilla and microtrichia were described, and their possible functions are discussed in conjunction with the stinging, oviposition, and the host selection process.
Few studies have examined the association of various types of Fe with colorectal cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate different forms and sources of Fe in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A total of 2138 patients with colorectal cancer and 2144 sex- and age-matched (5-year interval) controls were recruited from July 2010 to November 2017. Dietary information was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI on models. Intake of Fe from plants and Fe from white meat were inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, while haem Fe and Fe from red meat were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. The multivariable OR for the highest quartile v. the lowest quartile were 0·72 (95 % CI 0·59, 0·87, Ptrend<0·001) for Fe from plants, 0·54 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·66, Ptrend<0·001) for Fe from white meat, 1·26 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·53, Ptrend=0·005) for haem Fe and 1·83 (95 % CI 1·49, 2·24, Ptrend<0·001) for Fe from red meat intake, respectively. However, no significant association was found between the consumption of total dietary Fe, non-haem Fe, Fe from meat and colorectal cancer risk. This study showed that lower intake of Fe from plants and white meat, as well as higher intake of haem Fe and Fe from red meat, were associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Identifying the relative importance of urban and non-urban land-use types for potential denitrification derived N2O at a regional scale is critical for quantifying the impacts of human activities on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission under changing environments. In this study we used a regional dataset from China including 197 soil samples and six land-use types to evaluate the main predictors (land use, heavy metals, soil pH, soil moisture, substrate availability, functional and broad microbial abundances) of potential denitrification using multivariate and pathway analysis. Our results provide empirical evidence that soils on farms have the greatest potential denitrifying ability (PDA) (10.92±6.08ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1) followed by urban soil (6.80±5.35ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1). Our models indicate that land use (low vs. high human activity), followed by total nitrogen (TN) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) was the most important driver of PDA. In addition, our path analysis suggests that at least part of the impacts of land use on potential denitrification were mediated via microbial abundance, soil pH and substrates including TN, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate. This study identifies the main predictors of denitrification at a regional scale which is needed to quantify the impact of human activities on ecosystem functionality under changing conditions.
This report was published by the Center of Family Law of East China University of Political Science and Law (Center of Family Law of ECUPL). The statistical data on sexual abuse on children was collected from public reports (including official websites of courts and procuratorates at all levels and their published accounts). The statistical data on children's education concerning the prevention of sexual assault came from online and paper questionnaires distributed over 32 provinces.
This chapter aims to draw public attention towards the serious situation regarding sexual assault on children and the lack of relevant education. Reports have been issued by the Center of Family Law of ECUPL for four successive years, with statistical data based on the reported cases. That is to say, the real figure was likely bigger than the reported one. It is difficult for us to discover all the cases, so a large number of cases are still undisclosed.
Even with under-reporting, the Center of Family Law of ECUPL demonstrates from the statistical data from local courts and procuratorates in 2016 that over 80 per cent of assaults were perpetrated by acquaintances, and that the lack of education about child sexual abuse was highly consistent with the previous reports published by the Center of Family Law of ECUPL. The Center of Family Law of ECUPL opines that relevant departments and institutions should increase the publicity concerning this kind of crime under the laws and opinions protecting juveniles rights. This chapter can serve as a warning, provide data for other relevant studies and further improve our laws and systems.
STATISTICAL DATA OF SEXUAL ASSAULT ON CHILDREN IN 2016
AN UNFORTUNATE INCREASE IN REPORTED CASES
The four summaries show an average of over 1.1 reported cases per day, with an unfortunate increase of about 20 per cent per year.
According to the public reports for 2016, there were a total of 433 cases and 778 victims of child sexual assault (those under 14 years old), with an average of 1.12 cases noted daily. This figure was 27.35 per cent higher than in 2015, when 340 cases were reported, with 0.95 cases exposed daily. In 2014, a total of 503 cases were reported, with 1.38 cases reported daily.