Lipid, oxidative and inflammatory parameters are frequently altered in dialysis patients and may be worsened by intravenous lipid emulsions (ILE). We assessed the efficacy and tolerance of olive as compared with standard soybean oil-based ILE during intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN). IDPN mixtures containing amino acids, glucose, and either olive oil (OO group, n 17) or soybean oil-based ILE (SO group, n 18) were administered in a 5-week randomized, double-blind study. On days 0 and 35, patients' nutritional status was assessed by BMI, normalized protein catabolic rate, predialytic creatinine, serum albumin and transthyretin; lipid metabolism by plasma LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, apo A-I, A-II, B, C-II, C-III, E and lipoprotein (a); oxidative status by α-tocopherol, retinol, selenium, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde and advanced oxidized protein products; inflammatory status by serum C-reactive protein, orosomucoid, IL-2 and IL-6. No serious adverse event was observed. Significant changes were observed from day 0 to day 35 (P<0·05): nutritional criteria improved (albumin in OO; albumin, transthyretin and creatinine in SO); LDL-cholesterol, apo B, C-II, C-III and apo A-I/A-II ratio increased in both groups. HDL-cholesterol decreased in OO; apo E increased and lipoprotein (a) decreased in SO; α-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio increased in OO; malondialdehyde decreased in both groups; IL-2 increased in both groups. The between-group comparison only showed the following differences: α-tocopherol/cholesterol increased in OO; lipoprotein (a) decreased in SO. From these data, it was concluded that OO- and SO-based IDPNs similarly improved nutritional status and influenced plasma lipid, oxidative, inflammatory and immune parameters.