The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), is an invasive and important pest in China. Investigations on insect natural enemies have been conducted from 1996 to 1999 in five provinces and one municipality of China in order to select effective species for biological control. Two carabid predators (Coleoptera) and 25 parasitoid species were found, among which 23 were parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera), including five hyperparasitic species and two tachinid flies (Diptera). The two carabids preyed on young larvae inside webs, two braconid wasps parasitized larvae, and 18 parasitoid species attacked the fall webworm during the pupal and/or ‘larval-pupal’ stages. Among these parasitoids, there were one genus and nine species that are new to science and four species new to China, which were described and published by the senior author Yang. The average parasitism rates of fall webworm pupae were 25.8% and 16.1% in the overwintering generation and the first generation (summer generation), respectively. These findings reveal that these natural enemies play an important role in the natural control of the pest. Chouioia cunea Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious pupal endo-parasitoid, was recommended as a promising biological control agent against the fall webworm in China.