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Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have been used to investigate the interaction between a laser pulse and a foil exposed to an external strong longitudinal magnetic field. Compared with that in the absence of the external magnetic field, the divergence of proton with the magnetic field in radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) regimes has improved remarkably due to the restriction of the electron transverse expansion. During the RPA process, the foil develops into a typical bubble-like shape resulting from the combined action of transversal ponderomotive force and instabilities. However, the foil prefers to be in a cone-like shape by using the magnetic field. The dependence of proton divergence on the strength of magnetic field has been studied, and an optimal magnetic field of nearly 60 kT is achieved in these simulations.
Triploid and pentaploid breeding is of great importance in agricultural production, but it is not always easy to obtain double ploidy parents. However, in fishes, chromosome ploidy is diversiform, which may provide natural parental resources for triploid and pentaploid breeding. Both tetraploid and hexaploid exist in Schizothorax fishes, which were thought to belong to different subfamilies with tetraploid Percocypris fishes in morphology, but they are sister genera in molecule. Fortunately, the pentaploid hybrid fishes have been successfully obtained by hybridization of Schizothorax wangchiachii (♀, 2n = 6X = 148) × Percocypris pingi (♂, 2n = 4X = 98). To understand the genetic and morphological difference among the hybrid fishes and their parents, four methods were used in this study: morphology, karyotype, red blood cell (RBC) DNA content determination and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In morphology, the hybrid fishes were steady, and between their parents with no obvious preference. The chromosome numbers of P. pingi have been reported as 2n = 4X = 98. In this study, the karyotype of S. wangchiachii was 2n = 6X = 148 = 36m + 34sm + 12st + 66t, while that the hybrid fishes was 2n = 5X = 123 = 39m + 28sm + 5st + 51t. Similarly, the RBC DNA content of the hybrid fishes was intermediate among their parents. In ISSR, the within-group genetic diversity of hybrid fishes was higher than that of their parents. Moreover, the genetic distance of hybrid fishes between P. pingi and S.wangchiachii was closely related to that of their parental ploidy, suggesting that parental genetic material stably coexisted in the hybrid fishes. This is the first report to show a stable pentaploid F1 hybrids produced by hybridization of a hexaploid and a tetraploid in aquaculture.
The alarm behavior plays a key role in the ecology of aphids, but the site and molecular mechanism for the biosynthesis of aphid alarm pheromone are largely unknown. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) catalyzes the synthesis of FPP, providing the precursor for the alarm pheromone (E)-β-farnesene (EβF), and we speculate that FPPS is closely associated with the biosynthetic pathway of EβF. We firstly analyzed the spatiotemporal expression of FPPS genes by using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, showing that they were expressed uninterruptedly from the embryonic stage to adult stage, with an obvious increasing trend from embryo to 4th-instar in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, but FPPS1 had an overall significantly higher expression level than FPPS2; both FPPS1 and FPPS2 exhibited the highest expression in the cornicle area. This expression pattern was verified in Acyrthosiphon pisum, suggesting that FPPS1 may play a more important role in aphids and the cornicle area is most likely the site for EβF biosynthesis. We thus conducted a quantitative measurement of EβF in M. persicae by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data obtained were used to perform an association analysis with the expression data, revealing that the content of EβF per aphid was significantly correlated with the mean weight per aphid (r = 0.8534, P = 0.0307) and the expression level of FPPS1 (r = 0.9134, P = 0.0109), but not with that of FPPS2 (r = 0.4113, P = 0.4179); the concentration of EβF per milligram of aphid was not correlated with the mean weight per aphid or the expression level of FPPS genes. These data suggest that FPPS1 may play a key role in the biosynthesis of aphid alarm pheromone.
To investigate the morphology and dimensions of the vestibular aqueduct on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique computed tomography images.
The computed tomography temporal bone scans of 112 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Midpoint and opercular measurements were performed using axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images. Morphometric analyses were also conducted. The vestibular aqueduct sizes on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images were compared.
At the midpoint, the mean (± standard deviation) vestibular aqueduct measured 0.61 ± 0.23 mm, 0.74 ± 0.27 mm and 0.82 ± 0.38 mm on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images, respectively; at the operculum, the vestibular aqueduct measured 0.91 ± 0.30 mm, 1.11 ± 0.45 mm and 1.66 ± 1.07 mm on the respective images. The co-efficients of variation of the vestibular aqueduct measured at the midpoint were 37.4 per cent, 36.5 per cent and 47.5 per cent on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images, respectively; at the operculum, the measurements were 33.0 per cent, 40.5 per cent and 64.5 per cent. Regarding morphology, the vestibular aqueduct was fissured (33.5 per cent), tubular (64.3 per cent) or invisible (2.2 per cent).
The morphology and dimensions of the vestibular aqueduct were highly variable among axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images.
The response of soil microbial communities to soil quality changes is a sensitive indicator of soil ecosystem health. The current work investigated soil microbial communities under different fertilization treatments in a 31-year experiment using the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profile method. The experiment consisted of five fertilization treatments: without fertilizer input (CK), chemical fertilizer alone (MF), rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw residue and chemical fertilizer (RF), low manure rate and chemical fertilizer (LOM), and high manure rate and chemical fertilizer (HOM). Soil samples were collected from the plough layer and results indicated that the content of PLFAs were increased in all fertilization treatments compared with the control. The iC15:0 fatty acids increased significantly in MF treatment but decreased in RF, LOM and HOM, while aC15:0 fatty acids increased in these three treatments. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to determine factors defining soil microbial community structure using the 21 PLFAs detected in all treatments: the first and second PCs explained 89.8% of the total variance. All unsaturated and cyclopropyl PLFAs except C12:0 and C15:0 were highly weighted on the first PC. The first and second PC also explained 87.1% of the total variance among all fertilization treatments. There was no difference in the first and second PC between RF and HOM treatments. The results indicated that long-term combined application of straw residue or organic manure with chemical fertilizer practices improved soil microbial community structure more than the mineral fertilizer treatment in double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China.
This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.
Bacillary dysentery continues to be a major health issue in developing countries and ambient temperature is a possible environmental determinant. However, evidence about the risk of bacillary dysentery attributable to ambient temperature under climate change scenarios is scarce. We examined the attributable fraction (AF) of temperature-related bacillary dysentery in urban and rural Hefei, China during 2006–2012 and projected its shifting pattern under climate change scenarios using a distributed lag non-linear model. The risk of bacillary dysentery increased with the temperature rise above a threshold (18·4 °C), and the temperature effects appeared to be acute. The proportion of bacillary dysentery attributable to hot temperatures was 18·74% (95 empirical confidence interval (eCI): 8·36–27·44%). Apparent difference of AF was observed between urban and rural areas, with AF varying from 26·87% (95% eCI 16·21–36·68%) in urban area to −1·90% (95 eCI −25·03 to 16·05%) in rural area. Under the climate change scenarios alone (1–4 °C rise), the AF from extreme hot temperatures (>31·2 °C) would rise greatly accompanied by the relatively stable AF from moderate hot temperatures (18·4–31·2 °C). If climate change proceeds, urban area may be more likely to suffer from rapidly increasing burden of disease from extreme hot temperatures in the absence of effective mitigation and adaptation strategies.
Fosfomycin has become a therapeutic option in urinary tract infections. We identified 57 fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli from 465 urine-derived extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates from a Chinese hospital during 2010–2014. Of the 57 fosfomycin-resistant isolates, 51 (89·5%) carried fosA3, and one carried fosA1. Divergent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles and multi-locus sequence typing results revealed high clonal diversity in the fosA3-positive isolates. Conjugation experiments showed that the fosA3 genes from 50 isolates were transferable, with IncFII or IncI1 being the most prevalent types of plasmids. The high prevalence of fosA3 was closely associated with that of blaCTX-M. Horizontal transfer, rather than clonal expansion, might play a central role in dissemination. Such strains may constitute an important reservoir of fosA3 and blaCTX-M, which may well be readily disseminated to other potential human pathogens. Since most ESBL-producing E. coli have acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones worldwide, further spread of fosA3 in such E. coli isolates should be monitored closely.
With the aid of the Green's function method and complex function method, the scattering problem of SH-wave by a cylindrical inclusion and a semi-cylindrical hollow in the bi-material half space is considered to obtain the steady state response. Firstly, by the means of the image method, the essential solution of displacement field as well as Green's function is constructed which satisfies the stress free on the horizontal boundary in a right-angle space including a cylindrical inclusion and a semi-cylindrical hollow and bearing a harmonic out-plane line source force at any point on the vertical boundary. Secondly, the bi-material half space is divided into two parts along the vertical interface, and the first kind of Fredholm integral equations containing undetermined anti-plane forces at the linking section is established by “the conjunction method” and “the crack-division method”, the integral equations are reduced to the algebraic equations consisting of finite items by effective truncation. Finally, dynamic stress concentration factor around the edge of cylindrical inclusion and dynamic stress intensity factor at crack tip are calculated, and the influences of effect of interface and different combination of material parameters, etc. on dynamic stress concentration factor and dynamic stress intensity factor are discussed.
The present study investigated alteration of brain resting-state activity induced by antidepressant treatment and attempted to investigate whether treatment efficacy can be predicted at an early stage of pharmacological treatment.
Forty-eight first-episode medication-free patients diagnosed with major depression received treatment with escitalopram. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was administered prior to treatment, 5 h after the first dose, during the course of pharmacological treatment (week 4) and at endpoint (week 8). Resting-state activity was evaluated in the course of the 8-week treatment and in relation to clinical improvement.
Escitalopram dynamically modified resting-state activity in depression during the treatment. After 5 h the antidepressant induced a significant decrease in the signal in the occipital cortex and an increase in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and middle cingulate cortex. Furthermore, while remitters demonstrated more obvious changes following treatment, these were more modest in non-responders suggesting possible tonic and dynamic differences in the serotonergic system. Changes after 5 h in the caudate, occipital and temporal cortices were the best predictor of clinical remission at endpoint.
This study revealed the possibility of using the measurement of resting-state neural changes a few hours after acute administration of antidepressant to identify individuals likely to remit after a few weeks of treatment.
Twenty Small Tailed Han (STH) and 20 Ujumqin (UJU) ewes naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly assigned to one of four treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, receiving anthelmintic treatment (AT) or non-anthelmintic treatment (NonAT) prior to lambing. After lambing, the effects of AT on feed intake, digestion and milk yield in ewes, and the growth rates of lambs fed their mother's milk were assessed for 28 days. Faecal samples were collected to determine faecal egg counts (FECs), milk was collected to measure milk yield and ewes and lambs were weighed to quantify daily body weight change. The results showed that AT significantly increased ewe dry matter intake (2411 g/d for AT and 2209 g/d for NonAT) and decreased FECs (50 eggs/g for AT and 2655 eggs/g for NonAT). All ewes lost weight after lambing, but body weight loss in the AT (43 g/d) was significantly less than in NonAT (84 g/d), and STH ewes (70 g/d) lost more weight than UJU ewes (58 g/d). Anthelmintic-treated ewes produced more milk for their lambs to consume. However, the extent of these positive effects of AT differed between STH and UJU ewes. The average daily body weight gain of lambs in AT was higher than those in NonAT. In conclusion, effective AT in ewes before lambing benefits subsequent lactation in ewes and growth rate in lambs.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a serious hospital and community-acquired infection and some strains are associated with greater severity. We investigated the clinical variability and molecular characteristics of MRSA infections in Shenzhen, China through a study at nine sentinel hospitals from January to December 2014. MRSA infections were classified as community-associated (CA-MRSA), healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA), and healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO-MRSA). In total, 812 MRSA isolates were collected and 183 of these were selected for further study. Patients with HA-MRSA infections were generally of greater age compared to other groups. Distinct body site and clinical presentations were evident in infected patients, e.g. CA-MRSA (skin and soft tissue, 53%), HA-MRSA (respiratory tract, 22%; surgical site, 20%; trauma wounds, 20%) and HACO-MRSA (mastitis, 47%). In contrast to HA-MRSA, other categories of strains were significantly more susceptible to gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and tetracycline. No resistance to vancomycin or linezolid was recorded. The predominant clonal lineage within each strain category was CC59-t437-SCCmec IV/V-agr I (CA, 51·4%; HA, 28·9%; HACO, 52·9%) which exhibited characteristics of a traditional CA clone together with agr I which is more often associated with HA clones. In conclusion, for the three categories of MRSA infections, there were significant differences in clinical characteristics of patients, but the predominant clone in each category shared a similar genetic background which suggests that transmission of MRSA strains has occurred between the community and hospitals in Shenzhen.
We present a scheme of electron beam radiography to dynamically diagnose the high energy density (HED) matter in three orthogonal directions simultaneously based on electron Linear Accelerator. The dynamic target information such as, its profile and density could be obtained through imaging the scattered electron beam passing through the target. Using an electron bunch train with flexible time structure, a very high temporal evolution could be achieved. In this proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 1010 frames/second in one experimental event, and the temporal resolution can go up to 1 ps, spatial resolution to 1 µm. Successful demonstration of this concept will have a major impact for both future inertial confinement fusion science and HED physics research.
The genetic influences in human brain structure and function and impaired functional connectivities are the hallmarks of the schizophrenic brain. To explore how common genetic variants affect the connectivities in schizophrenia, we applied genome-wide association studies assaying the abnormal neural connectivities in schizophrenia as quantitative traits.
We recruited 161 first-onset and treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia and 150 healthy controls. All the participants underwent scanning with a 3 T-magnetic resonance imaging scanner to acquire structural and functional imaging data and genotyping using the HumanOmniZhongHua-8 BeadChip. The brain-wide association study approach was employed to account for the inherent modular nature of brain connectivities.
We found differences in four abnormal functional connectivities [left rectus to left thalamus (REC.L–THA.L), left rectus to right thalamus (REC.L–THA.R), left superior orbital cortex to left thalamus (ORBsup.L–THA.L) and left superior orbital cortex to right thalamus (ORBsup.L–THA.R)] between the two groups. Univariate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association revealed that the SNP rs6800381, located nearest to the CHRM3 (cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3) gene, reached genomic significance (p = 1.768 × 10−8) using REC.L–THA.R as the phenotype. Multivariate gene-based association revealed that the FAM12A (family with sequence similarity 12, member A) gene nearly reached genomic significance (nominal p = 2.22 × 10–6, corrected p = 0.05).
Overall, we identified the first evidence that the CHRM3 gene plays a role in abnormal thalamo-orbital frontal cortex functional connectivity in first-episode treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia. Identification of these genetic variants using neuroimaging genetics provides insights into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help us determine the mechanisms of dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Fe-Co-B was identified as a potential candidate for the development of high-frequency sensors and high-frequency actuators. To fabricate high-frequency magnetostrictive resonators, Fe-Co-B magetostrictive thin films were prepared by combining electrochemical deposition and microfabrication processes. It is crucial to obtain thin films with proper microstructure and composition. Results showed that Fe-rich Fe-Co-B thin films exhibited better resonance behavior than those with Co-rich and equiatomic Fe and Co compositions. It is also found that the deposition condition plays an important role on the performance of the films. Fe55Co28B17 thin films were fabricated under the same current density for different times. The films exhibited nanocrystalline structure, circular nodules as surface morphology and good resonance behavior. Fe/Co ratio on surface and cross section slightly decreased with increasing the deposition time. The resonance frequency slightly increased and the Q value was found to decrease with increasing deposition time.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
The summer and autumn migrations of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) were observed in Southern China with a millimetric scanning entomological radar and a searchlight trap supplemented with capture in field cages, field surveys, and dissections of females. Nilaparvata lugens took off at dusk and dawn in summer, but in autumn there was sometimes only a dusk take-off. The variation of the area density of the radar targets indicated that flight durations were about 9–10 h. In summer, planthopper-size targets generally flew below 1800 m above ground level (AGL), although some insects reached 2000 m AGL; in autumn, they flew lower, generally below 1100 m although some insects reached 1700 m AGL. Multiple layer concentrations were seen every night in both summer and autumn. The depths of these layers in autumn were less than in summer. Nilaparvata lugens flew in strong winds; wind shear may be the main factor causing them to accumulate and form dense layers at certain heights. Nilaparvata lugens emigrating in summer from the vicinity of the radar site in the Northeastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and carried by the prevailing southwesterly wind, would have travelled northeastwards and reached Northern Hunan Province. In autumn, with the prevailing northeasterly wind, emigrants would have reached overwintering areas (south of 21°N).
This study analysed the spatio-temporal distribution and propagation of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in Shenzhen from 2008 to 2010. Specifically, we examined the epidemiological data, temporal distribution and spatial distribution, and then the relationship between meteorological, social factors and the number of reported HFMD cases was analysed using Spearman's rank correlation. Finally, a geographically weighted regression model was constructed for the number of reported HFMD cases in 2009. It was found that three independent variables, i.e. the number of reported HFMD cases in 2008 and, annual average temperature and precipitation, had different spatial impacts on the number of reported HFMD cases in 2009. In addition, these variables accounted for the propagation mechanism of HFMD in the centre and east of Shenzhen, where the high incidence rate areas are located. These results will be of great help in understanding the spatio-temporal distribution of HFMD and developing approaches to prevent this disease.
To investigate different strategies for displaying the hypopharynx and oesophageal entrance during laryngoscopy for hypopharyngeal cancer.
Patients and methods:
A total of 113 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent laryngoscopy prior to surgery. The hypopharynx was displayed by: (1) pulling the anterior cervical skin; (2) having the patient perform the Valsalva balloon-blowing manoeuvre; and (3) injecting oxygen through the biopsy channel to expose the oesophageal entrance. The effect of these methods on visualisation of primary tumour size and extent was assessed.
During pronunciation of the letter ‘e', the hypopharynx was displayed in only 33 patients (29.2 per cent); with anterior cervical skin traction plus the balloon-blowing manoeuvre, the hypopharynx was displayed in 106 patients (93.8 per cent; p < 0.001). The combined strategy was superior especially when judging the extent of posterior pharyngeal wall and postcricoid invasion. Oesophageal entrance involvement was visible in 33 patients upon injecting oxygen through the laryngoscopic biopsy channel, and in 25 patients during radiological examination; laryngoscopy was superior to radiological examination in determining the extent of oesophageal entrance invasion (p = 0.003).
Adequate laryngoscopic display of the hypopharynx could increase the accuracy of pre-treatment hypopharyngeal cancer staging.