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This study aimed at comparing the factors associated with the natural progression between typical progressors (TPs) and rapid progressors (RPs) in HIV-infected individuals. A retrospective study was conducted on 2095 eligible HIV-infected individuals from 1995 to 2016 in a high-risk area of Henan Province, China. Propensity score matching was used to balance covariates, and the conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors of natural disease progression among HIV infectors. A total of 379 pairs of RPs and TPs were matched. The standardised difference values of all covariates were less than 10%. HIV-infected individuals transmitted through sexual transmission (odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36–0.85) were more likely to progress to AIDS compared with those infected through contaminated blood. Older age at diagnosis of HIV-infected individuals (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58–0.89) exhibited a faster progression to AIDS. HIV-infected individuals identified through a unique survey (OR 7.01, 95% CI 2.99–16.44) were less likely to progress to AIDS compared with those identified through medical institutions. HIV-infected individuals who had higher baseline CD4+T cell counts (OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.59–4.38) had a slower progression to AIDS. These findings provide evidence for natural disease progression from HIV to AIDS between TPs and RPs.
Optimizing the dietary calcium (Ca) level is essential to maximize the eggshell quality, egg production and bone formation in poultry. This study aimed to establish the Ca requirements of egg-type duck breeders from 23 to 57 weeks of age on egg production, eggshell, incubation, tibial, plasma and ovary-related indices, as well as the expression of matrix protein-related genes. Totally, 450 Longyan duck breeders aged 21 weeks of age were allotted randomly into five treatments, each with six replicates of 15 individually caged birds. The data collection started from 23 weeks of age and continued over the following 35 weeks. The five groups corresponded to five dietary treatments containing either 2.8%, 3.2%, 3.6%, 4.0% or 4.4% Ca. The tested dietary Ca levels increased (linear, P <0.01) egg production and egg mass, and linearly improved (P <0.01) the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Increasing the dietary Ca levels from 2.8% to 4.4% increased (P <0.01) the eggshell thickness and eggshell content. The tested Ca levels showed a quadratic effect on eggshell thickness and ovarian weight (P <0.01); the highest values were obtained with the Ca levels 4.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Dietary Ca levels affected the small yellow follicles (SYF) number and SYF weight/ovarian weight, and the linear response (P <0.01) was significant vis-à-vis SYF number. In addition, dietary Ca levels increased (P <0.05) the tibial dry weight, breaking strength, mineral density and ash content. Plasma and tibial phosphorus concentration exhibited a quadratic (P <0.01) response to dietary Ca levels. Plasma calcitonin concentration linearly (P <0.01) increased as dietary Ca levels increased. The relative expression of carbonic anhydrase 2 in the uterus rose (P <0.01) with the increment of dietary Ca levels, and the highest value was obtained with 3.2% Ca. In conclusion, Longyan duck breeders fed a diet with 4.0% Ca had superior eggshell and tibial quality, while those fed a diet with 3.6% Ca had the heaviest ovarian weights. The regression model indicated that the dietary Ca levels 3.86%, 3.48% and 4.00% are optimal levels to obtain maximum eggshell thickness, ovarian weight and tibial mineral density, respectively.
Force-feeding was considered as a traditional high-efficiency approach to improve growth performance and accelerate fat deposition of Pekin ducks. However, force-feeding is a serious violation of international advocacy on animal welfare, because it can induce serious injuries to animals, such as damages to the digestive tract, effects on immunity and even severe oxidative stress. Therefore, it is urgent to stop force-feeding. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of force feeding on immune function, digestive function and oxidative stress in the mucosa of duodenum and jejunum of Pekin ducks. A total of 500 ducks were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was allowed to feed freely on a basal diet. The experimental group was force-fed by inserting a plastic feeding tube 8 to 10 inches long down the esophagus for 6 days. Compared with the control group, there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in serum diamine oxidase, d-lactic acid, endotoxin and corticosterone levels in the force-feeding group. The crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the two groups and the intestinal villus epithelium cell was severely damaged in force-feeding group. Similarly, the activities of digestive enzymes as well as the levels of immune function in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa in the force-feeding group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). However, there was a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels with a marked increase in malondialdehyde level in duodenal and jejunal mucosa (P<0.05). In summary, at the end of the fattening period with force-feeding for 6 days, Pekin ducks experienced an adverse effect on the integrity of their duodenal and jejunal mucosa epithelium cell as well as their immune function and antioxidant capacity of Pekin ducks but also had improvement in digestive enzyme activities.
The distribution of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) must be understood for the control and prevention of cervical cancer. Community-based Papanicolaou and HPV DNA tests were performed on 41 578 women. The prevalences of HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68 were assessed. In total, 10% women were infected/co-infected by these HPVs. The infection rate increased from 7.1% in women aged ⩽30 years to 10.4% in those aged 50–60 years, and then decreased slightly to 9.9% in those aged >60 years. The HPV 16 and 58 positivity rates were significantly higher among women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) than among those with cervicitis/negativity for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) or low-grade SILs (LSILs). The HPV 18, 52 and 68 infection rates were significantly lower in women with HSILs than in those with NILM or LSILs. The proportion of women infected by multiple HPV strains was higher among those with HSILs. The proportions of the five most common genotypes, HPV 16, 18, 33, 52 and 58, increased with the number of co-infecting strains. HPV 16 and 58 were the high-risk HPVs in the Shanghai community and should be the focus in HPV screening and vaccination.
Nasal irrigation is commonly performed in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. This study systematically assessed the clinical efficacy of nasal irrigation from the medical literature.
The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using a comprehensive strategy, limited to English-language articles, published from October 1971 to March 2017, and comprising human subjects.
A total of 824 trials were identified, 5 of which, involving 331 participants, were included in this systematic review. After selection, only three trials were eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Nasal irrigation using normal saline and various solutions was found to be effective in reducing symptom scores and endoscopic scores for chronic rhinosinusitis patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Comparison of outcome measures, such as eosinophil count reduction, revealed that various solutions are more effective than normal saline alone; however, no statistical significance was found in terms of reduced symptom or endoscopic scores.
Based on the current limited evidence, nasal irrigation is an effective therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. However, when comparing various solutions with normal saline, no significant difference was found in symptom scores or endoscopic scores.
The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and reduced the quality of salted yolks.
Lutein benefits human health significantly, including that of the eyes, skin and heart. Therefore, increasing lutein content in soybean seeds is an important objective for breeding programmes. However, no information about soybean lutein-related quantitative trait loci (QTL) has been reported, as of 2016. The aim of the present study was to identify QTLs underlying the lutein content in soybean seeds. A population including 129 recombinant inbred lines was developed from the cross between ‘Dongnong46’ (lutein 13·10 µg/g) and ‘L-100’ (lutein 23·96 µg/g), which significantly differed in seed lutein contents. This population was grown in ten environments including Harbin in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015; Hulan in 2013, 2014 and 2015; and Acheng in 2013, 2014 and 2015. A total of 213 simple sequence repeat markers were used to construct the genetic linkage map, which covered approximately 3623·39 cM, with an average distance of 17·01 cM between markers. In the present study, eight QTLs associated with lutein content were found initially, which could explain 1·01–19·66% of the observed phenotypic variation in ten different tested environments. The phenotypic contribution of qLU-1 (located near BARC-Satt588 on chromosome 9 (Chr 9; linkage group (LG) K)) was >10% across seven tested environments, while qLU-2 (located near Satt192 of Chr 12 (LG H)) and qLU-3 (located near Satt353 of Chr12 (LGH)) could explain 5–10% of the observed phenotypic variation in more than seven environments, respectively. qLU-5, qLU-6, qLU-7 and qLU-8 could be detected in more than four environments. These eight QTLs were novel, and have considerable potential value for marker-assistant selection of higher lutein content in soybean lines.
Over the past 8 years, human enteroviruses (HEVs) have caused 27 227 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Xiamen, including 99 severe cases and six deaths. We aimed to explore the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Xiamen to inform the development of diagnostic assays, vaccines and other interventions. From January 2009 to September 2015, 5866 samples from sentinel hospitals were tested using nested reverse transcription PCR that targeted the HEV 5′ untranslated region and viral protein 1 region. Of these samples, 4290 were tested positive for HEV and the amplicons were sequenced and genotyped. Twenty-two genotypes were identified. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16, A6 and A10 (CA16, CA6 and CA10) were the most common genotypes, and there were no changes in the predominant lineages of these genotypes. EV71 became the most predominant genotype every 2 years. From 2013, CA6 replaced CA16 as one of the two most common genotypes. The results demonstrate the vast diversity of HFMD pathogens, and that minor genotypes are able to replace major genotypes. We recommend carrying-out long-term monitoring of the full spectrum of HFMD pathogens, which could facilitate epidemic prediction and the development of diagnostic assays and vaccines.
Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease globally. Control of DF is limited by barriers to vector control and integrated management approaches. This study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for autochthonous DF transmission and to estimate the threshold effects of high-order interactions among risk factors. A time-series regression tree model was applied to estimate the hierarchical relationship between reported autochthonous DF cases and the potential risk factors including the timeliness of DF surveillance systems (median time interval between symptom onset date and diagnosis date, MTIOD), mosquito density, imported cases and meteorological factors in Zhongshan, China from 2001 to 2013. We found that MTIOD was the most influential factor in autochthonous DF transmission. Monthly autochthonous DF incidence rate increased by 36·02-fold [relative risk (RR) 36·02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 25·26–46·78, compared to the average DF incidence rate during the study period] when the 2-month lagged moving average of MTIOD was >4·15 days and the 3-month lagged moving average of the mean Breteau Index (BI) was ⩾16·57. If the 2-month lagged moving average MTIOD was between 1·11 and 4·15 days and the monthly maximum diurnal temperature range at a lag of 1 month was <9·6 °C, the monthly mean autochthonous DF incidence rate increased by 14·67-fold (RR 14·67, 95% CI 8·84–20·51, compared to the average DF incidence rate during the study period). This study demonstrates that the timeliness of DF surveillance systems, mosquito density and diurnal temperature range play critical roles in the autochthonous DF transmission in Zhongshan. Better assessment and prediction of the risk of DF transmission is beneficial for establishing scientific strategies for DF early warning surveillance and control.
Maximum ellipsoidal magnitude of the droplet is an important basic parameter for calculating drag force, droplets axial-velocity and dispersed-phase pressure gradient in an annular-mist pipe flow. An analytical correlation to predict the maximum ellipsoidal magnitude of a low-viscosity droplet in a parallel gas stream based on energy conservation and volume conservation. Stagnant pressure distribution on droplet surface is revised from Flachsbart's formula. The proposed correlation has clear physical meaning and easy to use. The correlation captures the deformation mechanism with an average absolute percent error of 9.53%. The effect of stagnant pressure distribution on the proposed correlation's accuracy is discussed.
Chitotriosidase, secreted by activated macrophages, is a biomarker of activated macrophages. In this study, we explored whether chitotriosidase could be adopted as a biomarker to evaluate the curative effect on tuberculosis (TB). Five counties were randomly selected out of 122 counties/cities/districts in Hunan Province, China. Our cases were all TB patients who were newly diagnosed or had been receiving treatment at the Centers for Disease Control (CDCs) of these five counties between April and August in 2009. Healthy controls were selected from a community health facility in the Kaifu district of Changsha City after frequency-matching of gender and age with the cases. Chitotriosidase activity was evaluated by a fluorometric assay. Categorical variables were analysed with the χ2 test. Measurement data in multiple groups were tested with analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD). Correlation between chitotriosidase activity and the degree of radiological extent (DRE) was examined by Spearman's rank correlation test. The average chitotriosidase activity levels of new TB cases, TB cases with different periods of treatment (<3, 3–6, >6 months) and the control group were 54·47, 34·77, 21·54, 12·73 and 10·53 nmol/h.ml, respectively. Chitotriosidase activity in TB patients declined along with the continuity of treatment. The chitotriosidase activity of both smear-positive and the smear-negative pulmonary TB patients decreased after 6 months' treatment to normal levels (P < 0·05). Moreover, chitotriosidase activity was positively correlated with DRE (r = 0·607, P < 0·001). Our results indicate that chitotriosidase might be a marker of TB treatment effects. However, further follow-up study of TB patients is needed in the future.
The Boros–Moll polynomials Pm (a) arise in the evaluation of a quartic integral. It has been conjectured by Boros and Moll that these polynomials are infinitely log-concave. In this paper, we show that Pm (a) is 2-log-concave for any m ≥ 2. Let di (m) be the coefficient of ai in Pm (a). We also show that the sequence is log-concave.
For the gate last approach of a high K metal gate scheme used in advanced CMOS technology, various materials were tested as wetting layers to allow Aluminum (Al) gap fill at gate widths of10 to 45 nanometers. In this study, Titanium (Ti) and Cobalt (Co) were investigated as a wetting layer for Al gap fill. It was discovered that Al-Ti and Al-Co alloys were formed during high temperature Al deposition. Alloys were characterized using XRD. Alloy’s impacts on line resistivity and subsequent Al Chemical Mechanical Polish (Al CMP) were also investigated. In addition, a model was established to predict the alloy type and alloy mole% with respect to feature size. The predicted Al mole% by this model correlated very well with 1) line resistivity trend and 2) morphologies. The model also predicted that due to Al lower electro-chemical potential than Ti, Co or its alloys, galvanic corrosion could take place depending on the chemical environment in the Al CMP slurry. Different slurry or cleaning chemical may reduce or increase the risk of galvanic corrosion. The knowledge gained with the help of the model provides clear directions on selection criteria for wetting layers, optimization for deposition processes and Al CMP consumable design to meet the challenges.
Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum. We cloned and characterized the CRT gene in an important marine food fish species Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). The full-length DNA of the CRT gene was 2194 bp, including a complete open reading frame encoding 420 amino acid residues, a 113 bp 5′-untranslated region and an 818 bp 3′-untranslated region. The CRT gene contained nine exons and eight introns covering a total of 2772 bp genomic DNA from the start to stop codon. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in introns and an exon in six individuals collected from five different locations. The CRT gene was assigned to linkage group 4 of the linkage map of Asian seabass. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the CRT gene was highly expressed in liver at the age of 1, 3 and 7 months under normal conditions, whereas its expression in liver reduced sharply after 0.5 to 2 h cold challenge at 16°C, and then increased slowly. A preliminary association analysis showed a significant (P < 0.001) association between the SNP6 in the CRT gene and the mortality after cold challenge at 16°C. Our results suggest that the CRT gene is associated with cold tolerance of Asian seabass and further investigation will be necessary to illustrate the underlying mechanisms.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the ovary and vertical transmission of HBV. HBV DNA and HBV cccDNA were assayed in the ovaries of 33 pregnant women who were positive for HBV DNA. The HBVM (HBV markers, including HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcAb) level and the HBV DNA content in peripheral blood of infants were measured. The overall positive rate of HBV DNA and HBV cccDNA in samples was 51·52% (17/33). The intrauterine infection rate of the infants was 12·12% (4/33). When HBV DNA and HBV cccDNA were both positive, the intrauterine infection rate of infants was significantly higher than when they were both negative (P<0·05). Levels of HBV cccDNA and the rate of positive samples were significantly higher in mothers with infants with intrauterine infection than in those without (P<0·01 and P<0·05, respectively). HBV can infect the human ovary and may transmit to the filial generation via the ovum.
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China?
Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview.
Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD.
Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
A simple and effective method is presented to fabricate
surface-roughened InGaN/GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) epistructure
using annealing-formed, random-distributed Au particle arrays as dry etching
mask. The shapes of GaN nanoislands, with horizontal diameters of 100–500 nm and vertical depths up to 140 nm, are determined by Au mask particles.
Importantly, this roughened surface exhibits strong photoluminescence (PL)
light-output enhancement by a factor of more than 1.6 orders of magnitude.
This method will put forward new promising applications in the
electroluminescent devices, especially in solid state lighting.
It is proposed that single attosecond pulses be generated via electron's Thomson scattering of two counter-propagating laser pulses. In the case of linear polarization, the generation of a single attosecond pulse is highly sensitive to the carrier envelope phase (CEP). However, in the case of circular polarization, it is completely independent on the CEP, which will make circular polarization favorable to generate a stable attosecond X-ray pulse. For either linear or circular polarization, the radiation obtained by using two counter-propagating pulses can be much more intense than that obtained by only using one of these two pulses.
We examined the effects of dual silencing of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors on the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in nude mice; we also assessed potential side effects in these animals.
Short hairpin ribonucleic acid expression vectors targeting epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors were constructed. Short hairpin ribonucleic acid plasmids targeting one or both receptors were transfected into human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in nude mice. We then assessed epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor expression and also cellular apoptosis. Peripheral blood was collected and subjected to haematological and biochemical analysis.
The findings demonstrated that transfection with dual plasmids (targeting both epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) resulted in tumour cell growth inhibition of 84.78 per cent, and a significant increase in the number of necrotic and apoptotic cells, compared with single plasmid treatment. The short hairpin ribonucleic acid had no significant side effects on the heart, liver, kidney, spleen or blood system in this experimental model.
These results indicate that, in nude mice, dual silencing of both epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors results in more apoptosis and greater nasopharyngeal cancer cell growth inhibition, compared with silencing of either epidermal growth factor receptor alone or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alone. This occurred without significant side effects in the experimental animals.
By investigating properties from the infrared (IR) to the optical of IR-selected QSOs (IR QSOs), optically selected QSOs (PG QSOs), and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) in the local Universe, we find that the IR excess in IR QSOs is mostly in the far-IR, and their IR spectral indices suggest that the excess emission is caused by starbursts rather than AGNs. The ratio of the star formation rate and the accretion rate is about several hundred for IR QSOs, but decreases with the central black hole mass. We also study an optically selected QSO sample at high redshift with hyper-luminous far-IR luminosities. We find that similar to IR QSOs at low redshift, these high redshift QSOs have a far-IR excess also, which should be due to the contribution of starbursts heating the dust. But the ratio of star formation rate to accretion rate for QSOs at high redshift is typically smaller than that for IR QSOs at low redshift, which hints at the relatively faster growth of black holes at early epochs.