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Spatiotemporal analysis is an important tool to monitor changes of tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology, identify high-risk regions and guide resource allocation. However, there are limited data on the contributing factors of TB incidence. This study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of TB incidence and its associated factors in mainland China during 2005–2013. Global Moran's I test, Getis-Ord Gi index and heat maps were used to examine the spatial clustering and seasonal patterns. Generalized Linear Mixed Model was applied to identify factors associated with TB incidence. TB incidence presented high geographical variations with two main hot spots, while a generally consistent seasonal pattern was observed with a peak in late winter. Furthermore, we found province-level TB incidence increased with the proportion of the elderly but decreased with Gross Demographic Product per capita and the male:female ratio. Meteorological factors also influenced TB incidence. TB showed obvious spatial clustering in mainland China and both the demographic and socio-economic factors and meteorological measures were associated with TB incidence. These results provide the related information to identify the high-risk districts and the evidence for the government to develop corresponding control measures.
We investigated the first presence of qnrA among Shigella sonnei clinical isolates in Jiangsu Province, China. The qnrA-positive isolates coexisted with the mutation in gyrA at codon 83, these isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and 22·2% (2 of 9) of them were resistant to norfloxacin.
The E2F transcription factor family is distributed widely in eukaryotes and has been well studied among mammals. In the present study, the E2F transcription factor 4 (E2F4) gene was isolated from fat bodies of Antheraea pernyi and sequenced. E2F4 comprised a 795 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 264 amino acid residues. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (Transetta DE3), and anti-E2F4 antibodies were prepared. The deduced amino acid sequence displayed significant homology to an E2F4-like protein from Bombyx mori L. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that E2F4 expression was highest in the integument, followed by the fat body, silk glands, and haemocytes. The expression of E2F4 was upregulated in larvae challenged by bacterial (Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus), viral (nuclear polyhedrosis virus), and fungal (Beauveria bassiana) pathogens. These observations indicated that E2F4 is an inducible protein in the immune response of A. pernyi and probably in other insects.
Lipases are ubiquitous enzymes in nature, which play a crucial role in fat metabolism by catalyzing the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to free fatty acids and glycerol. However, reports concerning insect lipase are rare. In this study, we studied the expression and activity of a lipase-related protein from Antheraea pernyi (ApLRP). Recombinant ApLRP was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and used to raise rabbit anti-ApLRP polyclonal antibodies. ApLRP mRNA and protein expression were abundant in the midgut and malpighian tubules, respectively. After challenge with four different microorganisms (E. coli, Beauveria bassiana, Micrococcus luteus and nuclear polyhedrosis virus), the expression levels of ApLRP mRNA in midgut were inducted significantly compared with the control. The different pathogens induced different ApLRP gene expression patterns. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme's activity were 35°C and 7.0, respectively. ApLRP activity was stimulated in the presence of Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and b-mercaptoethanol; while Zn2+, Cu2+ and Fe3+ inhibited its activity. Detergents such as SDS, glycerol and Tween-20 increased the lipase activity by 20–30%. Our results indicated that ApLRP might play an important role in the innate immunity of insects.
Deploying resistant cultivars is an economical and essential management method in controlling viral diseases, and there are several mutational resources for tobacco. In the present study, the inoculation of tobacco plants with tobacco viruses was performed in a greenhouse from 2011 to 2014 to identify mutants resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The high-throughput screening included seeding uniformly, transplanting in seedbeds, inoculating by cloth brushes and reporting symptoms based on disease indices. A total of 4000 second generation segregating (M2) mutants of tobacco cultivar Zhongyan100 were screened. Seeds from highly resistant mutant M2 plants were selected and planted separately. The M3 were grown and mutational stability was measured. For TMV, ten highly resistant plants were selected in the M2 generation and the mutation rate was 0·012%. In the M3 generation, there were seven mutants with hereditary high resistance and, according to the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction, the N gene was detected in all seven M3. Two hereditary immune M4 mutants, one of which was a male sterile line, were identified and evaluated in the glasshouse and in the field. For CMV, seven highly resistant plants were selected from the M2 generation and the mutation rate was 0·009%. In the M3 generation, there was one mutant with hereditary high resistance. The results indicate that hereditary mutants may be identified in the M4 generation and back-crossed to wild-type Zhongyan100 to identify anti-viral genes.
In recent years, the effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the cerebrum and neuropsychiatric patients has been increasingly highlighted. However, there is limited information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Shandong province, eastern China. Therefore, through a case-control study, 445 patients hospitalized for diacrisis or treatment in Weihai, eastern China, and 445 control subjects from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii and associated sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics in a population of psychiatric patients. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii in psychiatric patients (77/445, 17·30%) was significantly higher than in control subjects (55/445, 12·36%) (P = 0·038). Fourteen (3·15%) psychiatric patients and 10 (2·25%) control subjects had IgM antibodies to T. gondii (P = 0·408). Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with cats at home and consumption of raw/undercooked meat in psychiatric patients. Considering that most psychiatric patients usually have lower cognitive functioning and additional transmission routes related to their inappropriate behaviours that could enhance the risk of infection, psychiatric patients should be considered as a specific group of T. gondii infection.
Mentoring received by protégés has been shown to play an important role in relieving protégés’ job-related stress. However, literature on the relationship between mentoring and job-related stress has yielded mixed and inconclusive results. Our research seeks to reconcile the conflicting implications by examining protégés’ individual traditionality and trust in mentor as moderators on the relationship between mentoring and job-related stress. We tested the hypotheses with data from a sample of 210 protégés from a large company in China. Results of our two-way and three-way interaction effect tests revealed that: (1) traditionality moderated the negative relationship between mentoring and job-related stress in such a way that the relationship was stronger for protégés with higher rather than lower traditionality; (2) the influence that mentoring had on job-related stress was strongest for protégés with both high traditionality and a high level of trust in mentor.
We studied seasonal patterns of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in China. From 2008 to 2011, 4200 swine bile specimens were collected for the detection of HEV RNA. A total of 92/2400 (3·83%) specimens in eastern China and 47/1800 (2·61%) specimens in southwestern China were positive for HEV. Seasonal patterns differing by geographical area were suggested. In eastern China, the major peak of HEV RNA prevalence was during March–April, with a minor peak during September–October, and a dip during July–August. In southwestern China, the peak was during September–October and the dip during March–April. The majority of subtype 4a cases (63/82, 76·83%) were detected in the first half of the year, while the majority of subtype 4b cases (26/29, 89·66%) were concentrated in the second half of the year, suggesting that different subtypes contribute to different peaks. Our results indicate that the distribution of HEV subtypes is associated with seasonal patterns.
Transoral rigid laryngoscopy with videostroboscopy is the most practical method to visualise the vocal folds. The optimal topical anaesthesia regimen for transoral rigid laryngoscopy has not yet been established.
To compare patient comfort and compliance with various topical anaesthetics for transoral rigid laryngoscopy.
Each of 10 patients received a random topical administration of either 2 per cent lidocaine gel, 1 per cent tetracaine gel or 1 per cent tetracaine solution, 10 minutes before undergoing rigid laryngoscopy with videostroboscopy. During follow-up laryngoscopies, the agent with the lowest mean visual analogue scale score for discomfort was then used to study the timing of topical anaesthetic application: the agent was given to the patient 5, 10 or 15 minutes before laryngoscopy (with the timing randomly selected).
Compared with lidocaine gel or tetracaine gel, laryngoscopy with topical tetracaine solution was more comfortable. There was a statistically significant difference in discomfort score between the 5 and 10 minute application groups, but not between the 10 and 15 minute groups.
In order to investigate the dynamics of Septin4 (Sept4) expression and its function in the formation of fibrotic livers in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum, we constructed the mouse model of S. japonicum egg-induced liver fibrosis for 24 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining, qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of Sept4 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). We found Sept4 localized in the perisinusoidal space where hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) distribute in the periphery of circumoval granulomas and the portal venule. The expression of Sept4 and α-SMA had a similar significant tendency of an up-regulation to a peak at 12 weeks post-infection (p.i.) followed by a down-regulation. At 24 weeks p.i. both were at a low level. These results suggest that Sept4 and α-SMA may interact together in HSCs. Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that Sept4 seems to be involved in the formation of inflammatory granulomata and subsequent liver fibrosis by regulating HSCs activation.
Saunders's Gull Larus saundersi is a breeding endemic of Common Seepweed Suaeda glauca habitats on the east coast of China and south-west coast of South Korea. Much of this habitat has been lost and degraded due to human land use and expansion of the introduced Smooth Cordgrass Spartina alterniflora. Yancheng National Nature Reserve (NNR) is one of three breeding and wintering areas in China. We used satellite images from 1992 to 2007 and visual interpretation combined with ground truthing to classify the land cover and quantify changes in land use and land cover (LULC) in areas of Yancheng NNR used by Saunders's Gull. The Common Seepweed habitat, in which this species nests, decreased in area by 79.1% (27,358 ha) over 15 years, predominantly as a result of conversion to aquaculture ponds (18,929 ha), and is now centred in the south-east of Yancheng NNR. The total population size of Saunders's Gull was maintained at over 900 individuals from 1999 to 2006 in Yancheng NNR, but was only 575 in 2007, and the number of breeding sites decreased from eight in 1992 and 1994 to a single site in 2000–2006 and two sites in 2007. From 1999 to 2007, the breeding population in the core area of Yancheng NNR accounted for 94.93% of the total population, and its nest-site spatial turnover rate was 0.84 ± 0.08 (n = 7 years), but it tended to decrease by about 40% in 2007 because of degradation of the Common Seepweed community. The conversion of Common Seepweed habitats to other habitat types and expansion of introduced Smooth Cordgrass were the major and direct reasons for the loss and degradation of breeding habitats of Saunders's Gull. Smooth Cordgrass habitats increased in area by 321.9% (11,057 ha) during this period and centred on the east, gradually occupying the mudflats, except the beach from Liangduo River to the south of Yancheng NNR, where potential breeding sites for the Saunders's Gull could be located. We discuss the implications of our results for the conservation this species and management of its habitats.
The rise-time of the pulse on the diode of the intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBA) is one of the important factors that affect the quality and characteristic of the output beam current of the IEBA. In this paper, effect of the transition section between the main switch and middle cylinder of strip spiral Blumlein line (SSBL) on the diode voltage of IEBA is analyzed in theory, based on the theoretical analysis of the wave propagation along the Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL), the traveling time of the transition section has a great effect on the rise-time, the plateau-time, and the fall-time of the output voltage at the matching load. Furthermore, the operation of the whole accelerator consisting of the primary energy-storage capacitor, the Tesla transformer, a main switch, the transition section, BPFL, and a resistive load was simulated using a circuit-simulation code called PSpice, and the dependence of the output voltage on the inductance of the main switch and the transition section was obtained. It was found from the wave propagation theory and the circuit simulation using computer results that the wave traveling time of the transition section between the main switch and the middle cylinder of the SSBL influences considerably the rise-time, plateau-time, and fall-time of the voltage waveform at the matching load. In order to get an ideal square pulse voltage waveform at the matching load and to improve the electron beam quality of such an accelerator, the wave traveling time of the transition section should be designed as soon as possible. At last, a couple of contrastive experiments are performed on two kinds of IEBA. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis and simulated results.
The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has a major radius of R0 = 1.75 m and a midplane halfwidth of 0.5 m. It has been operated with a toroidal magnetic field B0 = 2 T and Ip ≤ 500 kA. The evolution of the plasma equilibrium is analysed between discharges by Equilibrium Fitting Code (EFIT). Limiter, single-null and double-null diverted configurations have been produced. A plasma elongation in the range 1.3 ≤ κ ≤ 1.9 and a triangularity in the range 0.1 ≤ δ ≤ 0.55 have been sustained. The operation space of elongated discharges is also presented based on the EAST database.
A matched and serologically confirmed case-control study was carried out to investigate the source of an outbreak of acute hepatitis involving 290000 cases in the suburbs of Shanghai, in January 1988. A total of 132 patients with acute hepatitis from six different hospitals were chosen as cases and the same number of control patients without hepatitis were matched for gender, age, admission date and area of residence. Serum specimens from both case and control patients were detected for specific anti-hepatitis A (HA) IgM antibody and a questionnaire was used to investigate probable risk factors related to the outbreak. The positive rate of anti-HA IgM was 98·48% in the case group and only 0·76% in the control, indicating that the infection was caused by HA virus. The results revealed that the source and mode of transmission were due to the consumption of contaminated and inadequately cooked clams (Anadara subcrenata lischke). There was a highly positive dose-response relationship between the odds ratio of contracting HA and the quantity or frequency of clam consumption. The odds ratios of acquiring HA from clams were up to 62·4–63·4 by both group stratification and multiple unconditional logistic regression analyses.
Combined spinal-epidural analgesia is effective in labour analgesia. Nitric oxide may play important roles in pregnancy and labour and is probably affected by labour pain. The aim of the present study was to explore the alteration in serum levels of nitric oxide metabolites, i.e. nitrate and nitrite, during labour with or without combined spinal-epidural analgesia.
Fifty pregnant women were recruited at the cervical dilatation of 3∼4 cm, 25 received combined spinal-epidural analgesia and 25 served as control. Twenty in the combined spinal-epidural analgesia group and 19 in the control group finished data collection and were included in the analysis. Blood samples were taken at study entry, full cervical dilation and 2 h after delivery. Total serum level of nitrite and nitrate was measured with enzymatic conversion and followed by Griess reaction. Visual analogue pain scores and mean blood pressure were monitored.
After analgesia, pain score and mean blood pressure were significantly lower in the combined spinal-epidural analgesia group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Serum levels of nitric oxide metabolites were not significantly different at study entry (P > 0.05) but significantly different at full cervical dilation and 2 h after delivery (P < 0.05 for both) between the control group and the combined spinal-epidural analgesia group. Serum levels of nitric oxide metabolites decreased significantly at full cervical dilation and 2 h after delivery compared with study entry in the control group (P < 0.05) and this decrease was almost abolished in the combined spinal-epidural analgesia group (P > 0.05).
Combined spinal-epidural analgesia provided effective analgesia and abolished the decrease in nitric oxide metabolites during active labour.
The crystal structure of La0.67Ca0.33Mn0.80Cu0.20O3 (LCMCO) compound was determined from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and refined by the Rietveld method. LCMCO is isostructural with La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO). The crystal data are: La0.64Ca0.36Mn0.82Cu0.18O3.01, Mr=843.80, orthorhombic system, space group Pnma, a=5.4364(1) Å, b=7.6725(2) Å, c=5.4452(1) Å, V=227.124(8)Å3, Z=4, Dx=6.168 g∕cm3. In comparing with the Cu-free compound, subtle structural changes such as bond lengths and bond angles found in the Cu-doped compound may be responsible for the larger effects on the transport and magnetic properties when Cu partially substitutes for Mn in CMCO.
Ge–Si inverted huts, which formed at the Si∕Ge interface of Si∕Ge superlattice grown at low temperatures, have been measured by X-ray diffraction, grazing incidence X-ray specular and off-specular reflectivities, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface of the Si∕Ge superlattice is smooth, and there are no Ge–Si huts appearing on the surface. The roughness of the surfaces is less than 3 Å. Large lattice strain induced by lattice mismatch between Si and Ge is found to be relaxed because of the intermixing of Ge and Si at the Si∕Ge interface.
We present the optical emission line properties of a sample of 155 bright X-ray selected ROSAT Seyfert 1 type AGN. The measured properties are gathered for correlation analysis. The strong correlations between Hβ redshift, flux ratios of Fe II to Hβ broad component and [O III] to Hβ narrow component are found.
Bromine Ion Beam Assisted Etching (Br-IBAE) is shown to be useful in removing GaSb wafer chemical mechanical polish (CMP) surface and subsurface damage; creating microstructure patterns in GaSb surfaces through stencil, photoresist, and oxides masks; and stabilizing the as-etched GaSb surface with a thin, easily thermally desorbed oxide layer. Thus, the Br-IBAE technique is well suited as a GaSb surface final-polish technique in overgrowth applications that require “epi-ready” GaSb (100) surfaces for molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) as well as applications such as quantum wires and dots that require high-quality GaSb/AlInGaSb MBE overgrowth over patterned GaSb (100) surfaces.