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There is no report about the new theory of gene multiple hits. Which is identified through a MEDLINE search.
The result of new discovery: explanation of the gene multiple hits theory
We have known that cancer development is caused by the long time carcinogens' effects. The carcinogens include psychological, social, behavioral, emotional and spiritual issues factors and hereditary factors, et al. After all, the author may say in this way that before the cancer development, there are many different proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressive genes suffer from many different carcinogens' hits and damages, that is gene multiple hits. And finally, after the genes are hit many times by the environmental or chemical factors; biological factors; physical factors and hereditary factors, et al., the cancer are developed.
The major previous theory for cancer development mechanism is the gene two hits theory. It is clear that this old theory can not fully explain all the findings for cancer development mechanism. Only can the gene multiple hits theory explain fully all the scientific findings for the cancer development mechanism. Therefore, the new theory is very scientific.
The significances of the gene multiple hits theory.
The new theory not only fully explain the research findings for cancer development mechanism. But also summarizes the huge lots of different scientific research findings and using the single new theory represents the whole related scientific research findings.
The mankind is striving for peace and health. Because the social and politic influence can cause diseases. The unstable world has been causing bad impact on the health level. The differences of philosophy have been bringing out the unstable world and bad health.
There is a new breakthrough politics theory, all the countries are communism beded, was first concluded by the author. The new theory is being supported by lots of facts. The new theory may prevent worldwide war and bleeding and promote health, peace and development around the world. The world has been being divided and confronted by communism and capitalism. It is known to all that the politic system of China is so called mainly communism. But lots of facts indicate that the Americans led developed countries have been behaving communisms. So as the other developed countries.
Though the Americans led developed countries do not consider communism as their philosophy. In fact, they are the new types of communism countries. The new breakthrough politics theory can pave the way for peace and development around the world and prevent worldwide from war and bleeding. If we adopted to the new politics theory. The world would be better and better. The constantly bad social and politic influence on health of mankind could be prevented and cured. The united new politics theory could cure the mankind and safeguard the health world. The author is urging the policymakers, politicians around the world adopt the united new politics theory, cure the mankind!
The paper is to improve the quality of life and health of the peoples of the world by fostering and maintaining high standards of care in general practice/family medicine and other clinicians.
By comparing the general practitioners/family physicians with the other clinicians of specialities, summarizing the shortcomings of present health care services of clinicians of specialities, the proposals for promoting health care services and the working model of doctors around the world were suggested.
The article initiates that the values of general practice/family medicine should be fostered into other clinicians when all the clinicians take care of the patients in any conditions, critical or ordinary, by adopting to the values of general practice/family medicine. While the clinicians also take into account of their own specialities. The author outlines how the working model of doctors will be changed.
In applying these proposals, a healthy world and high quality of life of the peoples of the world will come soon after the working model of doctors is changed into right. So the quality of life and health of the peoples of the world can be promoted and enhanced.
This article implicates that doctors must know the Over Warming Syndrome in Adults’ harmful effects, its clinical managements, imperative importance to prevent other critical diseases attacks. So that the doctors can do patient and normal people education, counsel about the new syndrome, enhance people's health level and quality of life.
Name a new kind of syndrome, in order to provide new methods of thinking and behavior for doctors to well diagnose, prevent, and treat the syndrome and other diseases and for doctors to do patient education and counseling.
Summarize author of this paper the self-experiences about this syndrome's clinical medicine.
The etiology, clinical symptoms, mechanism, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this new syndrome are easy to understand by the doctors. Which like the symptoms of the dehydration caused by over warming.
It is very important to name and understand this new syndrome for enhancing the human-being's health level and quality of life, preventing the human-being from development of other critical diseases. which is much too worth to be spread.
To investigate the difference of visual pattern memory among first-episode treatment-naive patients with deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia.
199 first-episode treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia, and 148 controls were recruited. Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) was used to categorize the patients into deficit or nondeficit subtype. Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM) was used to test the immediate and delayed mode of visual pattern memory. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale PANSS was used to assess the degree of patients symptoms.
The PRM immediate mode and delayed mode percent correct was significant lower and time latency was significant longer in two subtypes of patients. There were no significant difference in the performance of immediate mode of PRM between deficit and nondeficit patients[(86.49 ± 15.34) vs. (87.28 ± 16.00), P=0.960]. But the impairment was more severe in patients with deficit schizophrenia [percent correct (63.10 ± 19.17) vs. (70.69 ± 15.34), P< 0.001 time latency 5086.80 ± 7528.54 vs. 3527.40 ± 3649.08 P=0.024] in the delayed mode. and PRM has no significant correlation with the negative symptoms of deficit schizophrenia.
There were significant difference in the performance of immediate and delayed mode of PRM between patients and controls. The difference between first-episode treatment-naïve deficit schizophrenia and nondeficit schizophrenia was only in delayed mode of PRM, and has no correlation with the primary negative symptoms. The deficit schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia with unique impairment of cognitive functions.
Tuberculosis (TB) is generally considered a disease that principally afflicts the low-income segments of a population. In the Nanshan District of Shenzhen, China, with the economic transformation and a new Headquarters Economy (HE) emerging, there are now more cases in office workers than in manufacturing workers. To illustrate this trend, we describe a small TB outbreak in an office building located in the centre of the rapidly growing HE district. Two active pulmonary tuberculosis cases were found in workers who shared an office, and whole genome sequencing showed that the genetic distance between the strains of the two cases was just one single nucleotide polymorphism, consistent with intra-office transmission. Investigation of 30 other workers in the same or adjacent offices with interviews, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) and chest X-rays, identified one new TB case and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in 40.0% (12/30) of the contacts. The offices were under-ventilated. None of the IGRA positive, asymptomatic contacts agreed to receive treatment for LTBI, presumably due to TB stigma, and over the next 2 years 69.0% (20/29) of the contacts were lost to follow-up. Treatment for LTBI and stigma of TB remain challenges here. Office workers in the HE of rapidly economic developing areas should be targeted with increased vigilance by TB control programmes.
The effect of hot streaks from a gas turbine combustor on the thermodynamic load of internally air-cooled nozzle guide vanes (NGVs) and shrouds has been numerically investigated under flight conditions. The study follows two steps: one for the high-fidelity 60° combustor sector with simplified ten NGVs and three thermocouples attached; and the other for the NGV sectors where each sector consists of one high-fidelity NGV (probe NGV) and nine dummy NGVs. The first step identifies which NGV has the highest thermal load and provides the inlet flow boundary conditions for the second step. In the second step, the flow fields and thermal loads of the probe NGVs are resolved in detail.
With the systematically validated physical models, the two-phase flowfield of the combustor-NGVs sector has been successfully simulated. The predicted mean and maximum temperature at the combustor sector exit are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which provides a solid basis for the hot-streak effect investigation. The results indicate that the second NGV, looking upstream from left, has the highest thermal load. Its maximum surface temperature is 8.4% higher than that for the same NGV but with the mean inlet boundary conditions, and 14.1% higher than the ninth NGV. The finding is consistent with the field-observed NGV damage pattern. To extend the service life of these vulnerable NGVs, some protection methods should be considered.
Sufficient amino acid (AA) transport is essential to ensure the normal physiological function and growth of growing animals. The processes of AA sensing and transport in humans and murine animals, but rarely in goats, have been arousing great interest recently. This study was conducted to investigate the messenger RNA expression patterns of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5 (LPAR5), guanine nucleotide-binding protein α-transducing 3 (GNAT3) and important partial AA transporters in digestive tracts, metabolic organs and muscles of growing goats. The results showed that these genes were widely expressed in goats, and had different expression patterns. LPAR5, GNAT3, solute carrier (SLC38A2), SLC7A7, SLC7A1 and SLC3A1 were rarely expressed in the rumen, but were highly expressed in the abomasum and intestine which are the main sites of AA absorption. GNAT3, SLC38A1, SLC38A2, SLC6A19, SLC7A7 and SLC7A1 showed comparatively high expression in the pancreas and the vital digestive glands, and the relatively high expression of these nine genes were noted in the tibialis posterior, the active muscle in energy metabolism. The correlation analysis showed that there were certain positive correlation among most genes. The current results indicate that the AA sensing and transport occur extensively in the abomasum and small intestine, metabolic organs and muscle tissues of ruminants, and that related genes have tissue specificity.
We present the results from the abundance analysis of 21 primary stars in Sirius-like systems with various masses of white dwarf companions and orbital separation to understand the origin and nature of Ba stars. Three new Ba dwarfs are found for which masses are relatively low compared to Ba giants. Large fraction of the sample are found to be non-Ba stars, however, some of them have required WD mass and/or close orbital separation. Observed s-process abundances in Ba dwarfs are in good agreement with AGB models of respective WD companion mass, however, it required different pollution factors.
This study aims to investigate the climate–malaria associations in nine cities selected from malaria high-risk areas in China. Daily reports of malaria cases in Anhui, Henan, and Yunnan Provinces for 2005–2012 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Generalized estimating equation models were used to quantify the city-specific climate–malaria associations. Multivariate random-effects meta-regression analyses were used to pool the city-specific effects. An inverted-U-shaped curve relationship was observed between temperatures, average relative humidity, and malaria. A 1 °C increase of maximum temperature (Tmax) resulted in 6·7% (95% CI 4·6–8·8%) to 15·8% (95% CI 14·1–17·4%) increase of malaria, with corresponding lags ranging from 7 to 45 days. For minimum temperature (Tmin), the effect estimates peaked at lag 0 to 40 days, ranging from 5·3% (95% CI 4·4–6·2%) to 17·9% (95% CI 15·6–20·1%). Malaria is more sensitive to Tmin in cool climates and Tmax in warm climates. The duration of lag effect in a cool climate zone is longer than that in a warm climate zone. Lagged effects did not vanish after an epidemic season but waned gradually in the following 2–3 warm seasons. A warming climate may potentially increase the risk of malaria resurgence in China.
Seed shape (SS) affects the yield and appearance of soybean seeds significantly. However, little detailed information has been reported about the quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting SS, especially SS components such as seed length (SL), seed width (SW) and seed thickness (ST), and their mutual ratios of length-to-weight (SLW), length-to-thickness (SLT) and weight-to-thickness (SWT). The aim of the present study was to identify QTL underlying SS components using 129 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Dongnong46 and L-100. Phenotypic data were collected from this population after it was grown across nine environments. A total of 213 simple sequence repeat markers were used to construct the genetic linkage map, which covered approximately 3623·39 cM, with an average distance of 17·01 cM between markers. Five QTL were identified as being associated with SL, five with SW, three with ST, four with SLW, two with SLT and three with SWT. These QTL could explain 1·46–22·16% of the phenotypic variation in SS component traits. Three QTL were identified in more than six tested environments three for SL, two for SW, one for ST, two for SLW and one for SLT. These QTL have great potential value for marker-assistant selection of SS in soybean seeds.
Lutein benefits human health significantly, including that of the eyes, skin and heart. Therefore, increasing lutein content in soybean seeds is an important objective for breeding programmes. However, no information about soybean lutein-related quantitative trait loci (QTL) has been reported, as of 2016. The aim of the present study was to identify QTLs underlying the lutein content in soybean seeds. A population including 129 recombinant inbred lines was developed from the cross between ‘Dongnong46’ (lutein 13·10 µg/g) and ‘L-100’ (lutein 23·96 µg/g), which significantly differed in seed lutein contents. This population was grown in ten environments including Harbin in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015; Hulan in 2013, 2014 and 2015; and Acheng in 2013, 2014 and 2015. A total of 213 simple sequence repeat markers were used to construct the genetic linkage map, which covered approximately 3623·39 cM, with an average distance of 17·01 cM between markers. In the present study, eight QTLs associated with lutein content were found initially, which could explain 1·01–19·66% of the observed phenotypic variation in ten different tested environments. The phenotypic contribution of qLU-1 (located near BARC-Satt588 on chromosome 9 (Chr 9; linkage group (LG) K)) was >10% across seven tested environments, while qLU-2 (located near Satt192 of Chr 12 (LG H)) and qLU-3 (located near Satt353 of Chr12 (LGH)) could explain 5–10% of the observed phenotypic variation in more than seven environments, respectively. qLU-5, qLU-6, qLU-7 and qLU-8 could be detected in more than four environments. These eight QTLs were novel, and have considerable potential value for marker-assistant selection of higher lutein content in soybean lines.
With more users, more mobile phones and tablets, more connections to homes and offices, and richer content sharing over wireless communication networks, the industry is facing an exponential increase in mobile broadband traffic in the frequency spectrum from 700 MHz to 2.6 GHz. To meet this demanding challenge, an intuitive idea is to add more licensed spectrum, which would ensure predictable performance in terms of mobility. However, for various reasons, it is possible that sufficient additional licensed spectrum will not be available in the near future. On the other hand, the amount of unlicensed spectrum already assigned or planned to be assigned is comparable or even more than the licensed spectrum. By taking full advantage of the unlicensed spectrum, the burden on the licensed spectrum can be relieved. Unlicensed spectrum has already been utilized in multiple technologies, such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, and now there is a new member of the unlicensed family at 5 GHz for mobile broadband. By extending the benefits of Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) to the unlicensed spectrum, we can boost the capacity, while maintaining seamless mobility and predictable performance.
Although it has great potential, LTE-Unlicensed is still in its infancy and faces some major challenges. Only by careful design can the LTE-Unlicensed technique truly benefit us with tremendous advantages. Thus, in this chapter, we give a comprehensive introduction to the benefits and design principles of LTE-Unlicensed. In addition, two specific implementation cases are provided for illustration purposes. This chapter is organized as follows. In Section 20.1, the motivation for proposing the LTE-Unlicensed technique will be stated. Then the design challenges in and potential solutions for LTE-Unlicensed will be discussed in Section 20.2. Two distributed resource allocation applications utilizing matching-based approaches will be introduced in Section 20.3. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 20.4.
Currently, technologies such as IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), 802.15.1 (Bluetooth), and 802.15.4 (ZigBee) are implemented in the 2.4 GHz ISM (Industry, Scientific, and Medical) and 5 GHz U-NII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure) bands, more commonly referred to as the unlicensed bands. Some operators have deployed a large number of Wi-Fi access points (APs) to offload cellular traffic to the unlicensed spectrum. Wi-Fi offloading strikes a trade-off between capacity and performance.
Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li–S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon–sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon–sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li–S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.
Omics research has indicated that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a potential biomarker of meat quality. However, the specific changes and the potential role of HSP70 in postmortem meat quality development need to be further defined. In this study, Arbor Acres broiler chickens (n=126) were randomly categorized into three treatment groups of unstressed control (C), 0.5-h transport (T) and subsequent water shower spray following transport (T/W). Each treatment consisted of six replicates with seven birds each. The birds were transported according to a designed protocol. The pectoralis major (PM) muscles of the transport-stressed broilers were categorized as normal and pale, soft and exudative (PSE)-like muscle samples according to L* and pH24 h values to test the expression and location of HSP70. Results revealed that the activities of plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased significantly (P<0.05) in normal and PSE-like muscle samples after transportation. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in normal muscle samples increased significantly (P<0.05) compared with that in the controls after stress. The protein expression of HSP70 increased significantly in normal muscle samples and decreased significantly (P<0.05) in PSE-like muscles. Immuno-fluorescence showed that HSP70 was present in the cytoplasm and on surface membranes of PM muscle cells in the normal samples following stress. Meanwhile, HSP70 was present on the surface membranes and extracellular matrix but was barely visible in the cytoplasm of the PSE-like samples. Principal component analysis showed high correlations between HSP70 and meat quality and stress indicators. In conclusion, this research suggests that the variation in HSP70 expression may provide a novel insight into the pathways underlying meat quality development.
The ultimate goal of poultry hatching is to increase the hatching rate and to produce healthy hatched birds. In the incubation process, temperature is the most important factor for the egg hatching rate, the growth performance and offspring phenotype. This not only affects the early development of the offspring, but also has a continued influence on the physical characteristics of the birds, such as final body weight and meat quality. This article reviews the importance of incubation temperature on offspring phenotype, sex differentiation, organism immunity and the development of muscle fibre in poultry.
It is widely accepted that binary interactions are responsible for the shaping of planetary nebula. However, these binary interactions and evolutionary channels are poorly understood. Our recent study revealed a newly discovered population of low-luminosity, low-metallicity, likely binaries in the Magellanic Clouds: dusty post-RGB stars. They are likely to have evolved off the RGB via binary interaction. In this paper we present preliminary results of the first radial velocity monitoring of the post-RGB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the implications on stellar (binary) evolution. We also investigate their link, if any, to the planetary nebulae systems.
We present the results of a long-term search (25 yrs) for radial velocity variability in a sample of seven bright proto-planetary nebulae showing axial symmetry. They all vary in velocity due to periodic pulsations. However, only marginal evidence is found for multi-year variations that might be due to a binary companion.