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A disruption database characterizing the current quench of disruptions with ITER-like tungsten divertor has been developed on EAST. It provides a large number of plasma parameters describing the predisruptive plasma, current quench time, eddy current, and mitigation by massive impurity injection, which shows that the current quench time strongly depends on magnetic energy and post-disruption electron temperature. Further, the energy balance and magnetic energy dissipation during the current quench phase has been well analysed. Magnetic energy is also demonstrated to be dissipated mainly by ohmic reheating and inductive coupling, and both of the two channels have great effects on current quench time. Also, massive gas injection is an efficient method to speed up the current quench and increase the fraction of impurity radiation.
Feathers play a critical role in thermoregulation and directly influence poultry production. Poor feathering adversely affects living appearance and carcass quality, thus reducing profits. However, producers tend to ignore the importance of feather development and do not know the laws of feather growth and development. The objective of this study was to fit growth curves to describe the growth and development of feathers in yellow-feathered broilers during the embryonic and posthatching periods using different nonlinear functions (Gompertz, logistic and Bertalanffy). Feather mass and length were determined during the embryonic development and posthatching stages to identify which growth model most accurately described the feather growth pattern. The results showed that chick embryos began to grow feathers at approximately embryonic (E) day 10, and the feathers grew rapidly from E13 to E17. There was little change from E17 to the day of hatching (DOH). During the embryonic period, the Gompertz function (Y = 798.48e−203 431exp(−0.87t), Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) = −0.950 × 103, Bayesian information criterion (BIC) = −0.711 × 103 and mean square error (MSE) = 559.308) provided the best fit for the feather growth curve compared with the other two functions. After hatching, feather mass and length changed little from the DOH to day (D) 14, increased rapidly from D21 to D91 and then grew slowly after D91. The first stage of feather molting occurred from 2 to 3 weeks of age when the down feathers were mostly shed and replaced with juvenile feathers, and the second stage occurred at approximately 13 to 15 weeks of age. The three nonlinear functions could overall fit the feather growth curve well, but the Bertalanffy model (Y = 116.88 × (1−0.86e−0.02t)3, AIC = 1.065 × 105, BIC = 1.077 × 105 and MSE = 11.308) showed the highest degree of fit among the models. Therefore, the Gompertz model exhibited the best goodness of fit for the feather growth curve during the embryonic development, while the Bertalanffy model was the most suitable model due to its accurate ability to predict the growth and development of feathers during the growth period, which is an important commercial characteristic of yellow-feathered chickens.
Previous studies have demonstrated that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) could be triggered by an early childhood infection. Whether maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with T1DM in offspring is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to study the association using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen studies including 4304 cases and 25 846 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were synthesised using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of associations. Overall, the pooled analysis yielded a statistically significant association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07–1.62). Furthermore, six studies that tested maternal enterovirus infection showed a pooled OR of 1.54 (95% CI 1.05–2.27). Heterogeneity from different studies was evident (I2 = 70.1%, P < 0.001) and was mainly attributable to the different study designs, ascertaining methods and sample size among different studies. This study provides evidence for an association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM.
To examine factors potentially contributing to acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus initiation using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory.
Sixty acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus out-patients were divided into two groups depending on whether hearing loss was aggravated or stable during tinnitus exacerbation. Total Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores and scores for the three subscales (assessing functional limitations, emotional attitudes and catastrophic thoughts) were analysed.
Total Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores did not differ between groups. In patients with acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus and aggravated hearing loss, functional subscale scores were significantly higher after acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus than at baseline, but catastrophic and emotional subscale scores did not change. In patients with acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus and stable hearing loss, emotional subscale scores were significantly higher after acutely exacerbated chronic tinnitus than at baseline, but catastrophic and functional subscale scores did not change.
Elevated Tinnitus Handicap Inventory functional subscale scores might indicate further hearing loss, whereas elevated emotional subscale scores might be associated with negative life or work events.
This study aimed to investigate the validity and feasibility of cervical oesophagostomy as a treatment for patients with severe dysphagia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
The study retrospectively analysed the clinical data, symptoms, physical signs, treatment and outcomes of 12 patients treated with cervical oesophagostomy for severe dysphagia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, from 2006 to 2010.
In all 12 cases, the oesophageal stoma remained stable, without any complications such as pharyngeal fistula or inflammation. No oesophageal stricture or granuloma growth was observed. All patients reported significant improvement in their nutritional status and quality of life after the oesophagostomy surgery.
Cervical oesophagostomy is a valid and feasible method of treating severe dysphagia following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Oesophagostomy shows specific advantages over nasogastric tubing, gastrostomy and jejunostomy. Patients' nutrition and quality of life can be improved significantly if cervical oesophagostomy is executed in a timely fashion, especially in cases with severe trismus and multiple radiation-induced cranial nerve palsies unresponsive to rehabilitation.
Most knowledge regarding the effects of antidepressant drugs is at the receptor level, distal from the nervous system effects that mediate their clinical efficacy. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the effects of escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on resting-state brain function in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Fourteen first-episode drug-naive MDD patients completed two fMRI scans before and after 8 weeks of escitalopram therapy. Scans were also acquired in 14 matched healthy subjects. Data were analyzed using the regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach.
Compared to controls, MDD patients before treatment demonstrated decreased ReHo in the frontal (right superior frontal gyrus), temporal (left middle and right inferior temporal gyri), parietal (right precuneus) and occipital (left superior occipital gyrus and right cuneus) cortices, and increased ReHo in the left dorsal medial prefrontal gyrus and left anterior lobe of the cerebellum. Compared to the unmedicated state, ReHo in the patients after treatment was decreased in the left dorsal medial prefrontal gyrus, the right insula and the bilateral thalamus, and increased in the right superior frontal gyrus. Compared to controls, patients after treatment displayed a ReHo decrease in the right precuneus and a ReHo increase in the left anterior lobe of the cerebellum.
Successful treatment with escitalopram may be associated with modulation of resting-state brain activity in regions within the fronto-limbic circuit. This study provides new insight into the effects of antidepressants on functional brain systems in MDD.
Helianthus tuberosus L. is regarded as one of the most important bioenergy crops because of its tolerance to arid conditions and its high biomass production. Future breeding programmes will rely on the available germplasm, thus necessitating a critical assessment of genetic diversity and differentiation in the species. The germplasm diversity and regional differentiation of H. tuberosus L. was assessed for 60 accessions collected from East Asia and Europe by means of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), phenotypic traits and chemical analysis. The analysis did not reveal separate clusters for accessions from East Asia and Europe, with 5% for genetic and 0·27% for phenotypic variability, although some regional accessions were closely related to each other with respect to morphological, chemical and genetic variation. Both phenotypic and genetic relationships showed a moderate correlation with colour of tubers, which can be used as an important criterion for germplasm management of the crop. Three major genetic groups were identified from the accessions. Within the groups derived from the genetic data, both morphological and chemical traits were very variable. The most important features of Groups I, II and III were: Group I, strong sexual reproduction, higher above-ground biomass and nutrient content; Group II, longer vegetative growth; Group III, higher tuber yield and total sugar content. High diversity was found in both European and East Asian accessions as well as within each genetic group, suggesting that there is a strong base for future breeding from these plants.
Canine influenza virus (CIV) is an emerging pathogen that causes acute respiratory disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenicity of A/canine/Jiangsu/06/2010 (H3N2) virus isolated in China. Nine dogs were inoculated intranasally with 107·95 of 50% egg infectious dose (EID50) of the virus. The onset of clinical signs and virus shedding was observed on day 1 post-infection (p.i.). The peak clinical score occurred between days 4 and 6 p.i. The experimentally infected dogs were found to shed virus not only via the respiratory tract but also via the digestive tract. Viral RNA could be detected in multiple organs including the trachea, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, brain and duodenum. All the sampled organs from infected dogs showed significant lesions and viral antigen staining. The results differed from those reporting using previous CIV strains; the Chinese isolate could induce extrapulmonary infection and cause extensive lesions in dogs.
We investigated the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in livestock in northern China. Of the 163 clinical samples selected for this study, 20 were from throat swabs of dairy cows, and 143 were tissue samples (including lung tissue from one reindeer, hilar lymph node tissue from 55 cows, and liver tissue from 87 sheep). A total of 41 mycobacterial isolates were identified including two isolates of M. caprae and 39 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profiles of the two M. caprae isolates proved to be unique. This is the first report of M. caprae isolates from livestock in China. This study also confirms previous reports that NTM is common in livestock in northern China.
A cluster dynamics model based on rate theory has been developed to describe the accumulation and diffusion processes of helium in tungsten under helium implantation alone or synergistic irradiation with neutron, by involving different types of objects, adopting up-to-date parameters and complex reaction processes as well as considering the diffusion process along with depth. The calculated results under different conditions are in good agreement with experiments much well. The model describes the behavior of helium in tungsten within 2D space of defect type/size and depth on different ions incident conditions (energies and fluences) and material conditions (system temperature and existent sinks), by including the synergistic effect of helium-neutron irradiations and the influence of inherent sinks (dislocation lines and grain boundaries). The model, coded as IRadMat, would be universally applicable to the evolution of defects for ions/neutron irradiated on plasma-facing materials.
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) supplement on reproductive performance and immune function of the male mice challenged with pseudorabies virus (PRV). Kun-Ming male mice were assigned randomly to four groups with different Thr levels (0.70%, 0.88%, 1.10% and 1.30%). Half of the mice in each group were injected with PRV or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) after 5 weeks’ adaptation to diets. The second experiment examined the effects of dietary Thr level on copulation rate, pregnancy rate and average number per litter of PRV- or PBS-challenged male mice that copulated with adult female mice on the 9th day post PRV challenge. Sperm quality and testosterone of mice were decreased after PRV infection, but this effect was attenuated by increasing Thr levels. Copulation and conception rates were increased with increasing Thr levels (P = 0.14), but litter size was not affected (P > 0.05). In the PBS and PRV groups, mice fed higher levels of Thr had increased immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA and IgM concentrations. The PRV-specific antibody level, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentration in PRV groups enhanced with increasing Thr levels; however, there was no difference in PBS groups. Furthermore, higher toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR9 expressions in testis were observed by PRV challenge compared with PBS groups, and higher Thr supplement attenuated PRV-challenged induced the upregulation effect of TLR2 and TLR9 mRNA expression in testis (P < 0.05). These data suggest that higher Thr consumption was recommended in order to counteract the deleterious effects of virus invasion, possibly through the downregulated expression of TLRs, and thus to improve immunity and reproduction performance of male mice challenged with PRV.
Five tropical multi-purpose tree species (MPTS), Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Moringa oleifera, Millettia griffoniana, Pterocarpus santalinoides and Treculia Africana, and one exotic species (Leucaena leucocephala), which acted as the control, planted in a randomized complete block design, were selected to evaluate the potentials as feed supplements for herds in dry seasons of south-western Nigeria. Samples of the MPTS leaves were collected in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008, weighed, dried and milled for estimation of biomass production, chemical analysis and measurement of in vitro gas production. Results showed significant differences (P < 0·001) in the biomass production of the MPTS. E. cyclocarpum consistently recorded the highest biomass production, height and collar diameter throughout the experimental period. There were also differences (P ⩽ 0·001) in dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and ash contents of the MPTS across species and years after planting. M. oleifera recorded the highest CP content of 240 g/kg DM. Interactions were observed between species and year for neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), acid detergent fibre (ADFom) and lignin contents of the MPTS. M. griffoniana and M. oleifera had lower tannin contents, whereas E. cyclocarpum, P. santalinoides, T. africana and L. leucocephala had higher tannin contents. The values reported for mineral contents showed that their levels in the MPTS were adequate for ruminants and there were no differences in the contents of most minerals. In vitro gas production results showed that the potential gas production ‘b’ was highest in M. griffoniana and lowest in P. santalinoides and there were species and year interactions (P ⩽ 0·001) for volatile fatty acid profiles of the supernatant after 96 h incubation. The estimated organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) of the MPTS were generally high. The high biomass production, CP and low fibre contents, as well as in vitro fermentation characteristics found for the MPTS evaluated in the current study suggest that these are better alternatives in comparison with L. leucocephala. It can be concluded that the MPTS evaluated have potential as sources of feed supplements for ruminants in dry seasons, especially in south western Nigeria.
The pathogenesis of angiostrongyliasis, resulting from Angiostrongylus cantonensis invasion of the human central nervous system, remains elusive. Anthelmintics are usually used to kill worms, although dead worms in the brain may cause severe inflammation which will lead to central nervous system damage. Therefore, combination therapy with anthelmintics and anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of human angiostrongyliasis needs further study. To evaluate the efficacy of albendazole combined with a marine fungal extract (m2-9) in A. cantonensis infection, BALB/c mice infected by the third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis were divided into three groups: mice treated with albendazole or m2-9 alone or in combination from day 5 post-inoculation (PI). Several efficacy parameters were recorded, including weight change, worm recovery, neurological function, behavioural analysis, eosinophil and leucocyte counts. The results showed that combination therapy increased body weight, reduced worm burden, improved learning ability, memory and action, decreased neurological dysfunction and leucocyte response in these mice. The combination of albendazole and m2-9 treatment significantly decreased leucocyte response and increased the frequency of rearing, compared to infected mice treated with either drug alone. Therefore, m2-9 is a natural product with potentially significant therapeutic value for angiostrongyliasis and is worthy of further study.
We retrospectively analysed the epidemiological data of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases from the largest paediatric infectious diseases centre in Shanghai between 2007 and 2010. A total of 28 058 outpatients were diagnosed with HFMD, of which 3948 (14·07%) were hospitalized, 730 (2·60%) had complications with neurological disorders and pulmonary oedema/haemorrhage, and 11 (0·04%) died. The peak season was the summer months. Boys were more affected than girls. Since 2008, the major population group affected has shifted from native Shanghainese children attending preschool to migrant children and younger children cared for at home. Children aged 1–4 years constituted 82·27% of cases. EV-A71 was tested in clinical samples taken from severe cases in 2009 and 2010, and from most inpatients in 2010. EV-A71 was positive in 99·17% and 86·31% of severe cases, respectively in 2009 and 2010. All 12 cases with pulmonary oedema or haemorrhage were infected with EV-A71. Ten (90·90%) of 11 fatal cases were attributable to EV-A71 infection. In 2010, EV-A71-positive cases accounted for 54·12% of inpatients. The dominant circulation of EV-A71 led to the outbreak of HFMD and occurrence of severe and fatal cases.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhoea in neonatal and postweaning pigs. F41 is one of ETEC fimbriae that adhere to the small intestinal epithelium and lead to development of diarrhoea. The genetic architecture of susceptibility to ETEC F41 remains elusive in pigs. In this study, we determined the in vitro adhesion phenotypes of ETEC F41 in a total of 835 F2 animals from a White Duroc × Erhualian intercross, and performed a genome scan using both F2 and half-sib analyses with 183 microsatellite markers to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for porcine susceptibility to ETEC F41. The two analyses consistently revealed a 1% genome-wide significant QTL on pig chromosome 4. Moreover, we determined F41 adhesion phenotypes in 14 purebred Erhualian and 14 White Duroc pigs. The results showed that both the founder breeds are segregating for the F41 adhesion phenotype, while less percentage of Erhualian pigs were adhesive to ETEC F41 compared to White Duroc pigs.
Pentobarbital and ketamine are commonly used in animal experiments, including studies on the effects of ageing on the central nervous system. The electroencephalogram is a sensitive measure of brain activity. The present study investigated, under anaesthesia induced by the two drugs, whether cortical electroencephalogram in aged rats differs from that in young rats.
Electroencephalogram was recorded for young (2–3 months) and aged (15–17 months) rats before and during pentobarbital (40 mg kg−1) or ketamine (100 mg kg−1) anaesthesia. The relative power in five frequency bands (delta: 2–4 Hz; theta: 4–8 Hz; alpha: 8–12 Hz; beta: 12–20 Hz; gamma: 20–100 Hz) was analysed, and then compared between the two age groups.
In both age groups, pentobarbital anaesthesia induced an increase in relative power in alpha and beta bands and a decrease in the theta band, but the degree of these power variations was more marked in aged rats. Ketamine anaesthesia increased relative power in the delta band and decreased that in the theta band; these effects were significantly different between the two age groups, with aged rats showing more markedly decreased power in the theta band.
(a) Pentobarbital and ketamine modified cortical electrical activity in a different manner as a function of age; (b) the modification of electroencephalogram relative power with anaesthesia was identical in young and aged rats but quantitatively more marked in aged rats. These findings will be useful in designing experiments that assess pathological changes in the central nervous system during ageing.
This paper emphasizes on determining the mechanical and electrical damages of piezoelectric ceramics with periodically distributed ellipsoidal or spherical microvoids. Based on the unit cell method, detailed three-dimensional finite element analyses are carried out to acquire the effective electromechanical properties of voided PZT-7A materials, and then the mechanical and electrical damages are determined through the relations between the damage variables and the effective properties in the continuum piezoelectric damage constitutive theory. The quantitative connections between the damages and microstructure parameters, including the microvoid volume fraction and the microvoid aspect ratio, are analyzed in detail. Some interesting conclusions are obtained.