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Superparasitism is an adaptive strategy in solitary parasitoids, yet insufficient evidence confirms this in gregarious ones. We here ask whether the gregarious parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii is able to discriminate in attack and progeny allocation between parasitized and unparasitized Plutella xylostella larvae, and how the parasitoid allocates brood size and sex to superparasitized hosts due to some circumstances. We found that female parasitoids preferred unparasitized to parasitized host larvae, and allocated a smaller brood with more males in the later than in the former host. Brood size and sex ratio decreased from superparasitized hosts with a 48 h interval since a previous attack compared with one without an interval; they also declined from the host superparasitized by the parasitoid with oviposition experience compared with one without it. Brood size and sex ratio did not differ between the host superparasitized by the same parasitoid as in the first attack and that by a different one. Our findings suggest that O. sokolowskii females may adjust their oviposition decisions on progeny allocation in response to parasitized P. xylostella larvae to maximize their fitness gains from superparasitism.
In the present study, calcium propionate (CaP) was used as feed additive in the diet of calves to investigate their effects on rumen fermentation and the development of rumen epithelium in calves. To elucidate the mechanism in which CaP improves development of calf rumen epithelium via stimulating the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of G protein-coupled receptors, a total of 54 male Jersey calves (age=7±1 days, BW=23.1±1.2 kg) were randomly divided into three treatment groups: control without CaP supplementation (Con), 5% CaP supplementation (5% CaP) and 10% CaP supplementation (10% CaP). The experiment lasted 160 days and was divided into three feeding stages: Stage 1 (days 0 to 30), Stage 2 (days 31 to 90) and Stage 3 (days 91 to 160). Calcium propionate supplementation percentages were calculated on a dry matter basis. In total, six calves from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered on days 30, 90 and 160 at the conclusion of each experimental feeding stage. Rumen fermentation was improved with increasing concentration of CaP supplementation in calves through the first 30 days (Stage 1). No effects of CaP supplementation were observed on rumen fermentation in calves during Stage 2 (days 31 to 90). Supplementation with 5% CaP increased propionate concentration, but not acetate and butyrate in calves during Stage 3 (days 91 to 160). The rumen papillae length of calves in the 5% CaP supplementation group was greater than that of Con groups in calves after 160 days feeding. The mRNA expression of G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) and GPR43 supplemented with 5% CaP were greater than the control group and 10% CaP group in feeding 160 days calves. 5% CaP supplementation increased the mRNA expression of cyclin D1, whereas did not increase the mRNA expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 compared with the control group in feeding 160-day calves. These results indicate that propionate may act as a signaling molecule to improve rumen epithelium development through stimulating mRNA expression of GPR41 and GPR43.
Suicide-related behaviours are common in schizophrenia and are significantly associated with premature death. The objective of this meta-analysis study was to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide-related behaviours in schizophrenia patients in China.
The relevant literature was searched systematically via the relevant electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Databases and Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database) from their inception until 14 September 2016. Only original studies that reported the prevalence of suicide-related behaviours including suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plan, suicide attempt (SA) and completed suicide were selected.
Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. The pooled lifetime prevalence of SI and SA were 25.8% (95% CI 14.7–41.1%) and 14.6% (95% CI 9.1–22.8%), respectively. The 1-month prevalence of SI was 22.0% (95% CI 18.2–26.4%). Subgroup analyses of lifetime SI and SA showed that gender, sample size, survey year, study location and source of patients have no significant mediating effects on the results.
Suicide-related behaviours are common in Chinese schizophrenia patients. Due to the high mortality risk, regular screening and effective suicide prevention programmes are warranted.
Based on the definition of divisibility of Markovian quantum dynamics, we discuss the Markovianity of tensor products, multiplications and some convex combinations of Markovian quantum dynamics. We prove that the tensor product of two Markovian dynamics is also a Markovian dynamics and propose a new witness of non-Markovianity.
To extrapolate the influence of plant cultivars varying in resistance levels to hosts on parasitoid life history traits, we estimated variation in parasitoid developmental and reproductive performances as a function of resistance in soybean cultivars, which were randomly chosen from a line of resistant genotypes. Our study showed that the parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis varied widely in offspring survival and lifetime fecundity, but varied slightly in development time and adult body size, in response to the soybean cultivars that varied in resistance to the host Spodoptera litura. Furthermore, the variability in survival and lifetime fecundity was different between attacking the 2nd and the 4th instar host larvae, varying more in survival but less in lifetime fecundity when attacking the 4th than 2nd instar larvae. Our study provides further evidence supporting that plant resistance to herbivorous hosts have variable effects on different life history traits of higher trophic level parasitoids.
We present LAMOST observations and radial velocity measurements of about 1500 planetary nebulae (PNe) in M31 and M33. Most of the PNe are previously known, but 36 of them are newly discovered in the outskirts of M31, and the furthest one has a projected distance larger than 50 kpc away from the galaxy center. Eighteen objects in the area of M33 are probably newly discovered PNe, and quite a few of them are associated with previously known clusters. For all the 1500 PNe, homogeneous radial velocities are measured from the LAMOST spectra, with a typical uncertainty of a few km s−1.
Literature supports a strong relationship between childhood maltreatment and mental illness but most studies reviewed are cross-sectional and/or use recall to assess maltreatment and are thus prone to temporality and recall bias. Research on the potential prospective impact of maltreatment reduction on the incidence of psychiatric disorders is scarce.
Electronic databases and grey literature from 1990 to 2014 were searched for English-language cohort studies with criteria for depression and/or anxiety and non-recall measurement of childhood maltreatment. Systematic review with meta-analysis synthesized the results. Study quality, heterogeneity, and publication bias were examined. Initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 199 papers being reviewed. Eight high-quality articles met eligibility criteria. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated potential preventive impact.
The pooled odds ratio (OR) between any type of maltreatment and depression was 2.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37–3.01] and 2.70 (95% CI 2.10–3.47) for anxiety. For specific types of maltreatment and depression or anxiety disorders, the ORs were: physical abuse (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.25–3.19), sexual abuse (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.88–3.75), and neglect (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.35–2.23). PAFs suggest that over one-half of global depression and anxiety cases are potentially attributable to self-reported childhood maltreatment. A 10–25% reduction in maltreatment could potentially prevent 31.4–80.3 million depression and anxiety cases worldwide.
This review provides robust evidence of childhood maltreatment increasing the risk for depression and anxiety, and reinforces the need for effective programs and policies to reduce its occurrence.
This paper presents a method for noise-free recording of the keyboard-based musical instruments. By integrating an r-shaped triboelectric generator (TEG) into the keyboard of a piano, it can produce electric signal while playing music due to the combination of contact electrification and electric induction. We investigated the electric signal and developed a graphical user interface to convert the electric signal back to music. Using the piano and the graphical user interface, active noise-free recording can be realized. Namely, only the sound produced by the piano can be converted and recorded, while other noise in the environment can be filtered automatically.
Little is understood about of the role of coping strategies in psychological well-being (PWB) and distress for the general population and different physical and psychiatric disease groups. A thorough examination of these relationships may provide evidence for the implementation of public mental health promotion and psychiatric disease prevention strategies aimed at improving the use of positive coping approaches or addressing the causes and maintainers of distress. The present study using a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach and nationally representative data on the Canadian population investigates the relationships among PWB, distress and coping strategies and identifies major factors related to PWB for both the general population and diverse-specific disease groups.
Data examined were from the Canadian Community Health Survey of Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2), a large national survey (n = 36 984). We applied exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis and SEM to build structural relationships among PWB, distress and coping strategies in the general population.
Both SEM measurement and structure models provided a good fit. Distress was positively related to negative coping and negatively related to positive coping. Positive coping indicated a higher level of PWB, whereas negative coping was associated with a lower level of PWB. PWB was negatively related to distress. These same relationships were also found in the population subgroups. For the population with diseases (both physical and psychiatric diseases, except agoraphobia), distress was the more important factor determining subjective PWB than the person's coping strategies, whereas, negative coping had a major impact on distress in the general population. Strengths and limitations were also discussed.
Our findings have practical implications for public psychiatric disease intervention and mental health promotion. As previously noted positive/adaptive coping increased the level of PWB, whereas negative/maladaptive coping was positively related to distress and negatively related to PWB. Distress decreased the level of PWB. Our findings identified major correlates of PWB in both the general population and population subgroups. Our results provide evidence for the differential use of intervention tactics among different target audiences. In order to improve the mental health of the general population public mental health promotion should focus on strategies that reduce negative coping at a population level, whereas clinicians treating individual clients should make the reduction of distress their primary target to maintain or improve patients’ PWB.
In 2006 we initiated an enhanced laboratory-based surveillance of Salmonella and Shigella infections in Shanghai, China. A total of 4483 Salmonella and 2226 Shigella isolates were recovered from stool specimens by 2012. In 80 identified Salmonella serovars, Enteritidis (34·5%) and Typhimurium (26·2%) were the most common. Shigella (S.) sonnei accounted for 63·9% of human Shigella infections over the same time period, and replaced S. flexneri to become the primary cause of shigellosis since 2010. Overall, a high level of antimicrobial resistance was observed in Salmonella and Shigella, particularly to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Ciprofloxacin resistance was common in Salmonella Typhimurium (21·0%) and S. flexneri (37·6%). The cephalosporin resistance in both pathogens also increased over the years, ranging from 3·4% to 7·0% in Salmonella, and from 10·4% to 28·6% in Shigella. Resistance to multiple antimicrobials was also identified in a large number of the isolates. This study provides insight into the distribution of Salmonella and Shigella in diarrhoeal diseases.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley (Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae) is one of the major fruit borer pests of litchi and longan in Southern China. Although chemical control is effective, alternative, biorational strategies are preferable, and should be developed. Predators play an important role in the biological control of agricultural pests, but an accurate method for the evaluation of predation in agriculture has not yet been developed. Here, we report a new, specific primer pair to amplify a C. sinensis cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence fragment that can be used to detect consumption of C. sinensis by its predators. C. sinensis DNA was found in several arthropods collected in the field, including the important C. sinensis predators Menochilus sexmaculata (Coccinellidae), Leucauge magnifica (Tetragnathidae), Propylea japonica (Coccinellidae), and Oxyopes sertatus (Oxyopidae). The detection rates of C. sinensis COI DNA in these predators were 39.3, 36.4, 27.3, and 27.2%, respectively. Laboratory consumption and hunting capacity analysis of M. sexmaculata and P. japonica adults indicated that they exhibit a Holling type II functional response on C. sinensis eggs under field temperatures. A polymerase chain reaction digestion analysis of M. sexmaculata and P. japonica adults after consumption of a single C. sinensis egg indicated that positive detection decreased with the extension of digestion time, and estimated prey DNA half-lives were 16.3 h in M. sexmaculata and 6.0 h in P. japonica. These data serve to characterize two major predators of C. sinensis with potential for biological control of C. sinensis in litchi orchards.
The effects of melamine on gas production (GP) kinetics, methane (CH4) production and fermentation of diets differing in forage content (low-forage (LF) diet: 200 g/kg and high-forage (HF) diet: 800 g/kg) by rumen micro-organisms in vitro were studied using batch cultures. Rumen contents were collected from three Simmental×Luxi crossbred beef cattle. Melamine was added to the incubation bottles to achieve final concentration of 0 (control), 2, 6, 18, 54, 162 and 484 mg/kg of each diet. Cumulative GP was continuously measured in an automated gas recording instrument during 72 h of incubation, while fermentation gas end-products were collected to determine molar proportions of carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 and hydrogen gas (H2) in manually operated batch cultures. Differences in GP kinetics and fermentation gases were observed in response to the nature of the diets incubated. Although melamine addition did not affect GP kinetics and fermentation gas pattern compared to the control, the increase of melamine addition stimulated the yield of CH4 by decreasing CO2, especially during the fermentation of the HF diet. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (N), amino acid N and microbial N in culture fluids were greater in the fermentation of LF- than HF diets, and these concentrations were increased by the increase of melamine addition after 72-h fermentation. The concentrations of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) were greater in HF than LF diets. The addition of melamine decreased total VFA concentrations and this response was greater in HF than LF diet fermentations. Melamine addition did not affect molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, propionate and valerate compared with the control; however, branched-chain VFA production, which was lower in the HF than the LF diet, was increased by the melamine addition, especially in the HF diet fermentation. The ratio of non-glucogenic to glucogenic acids was lower in the HF than the LF diet, but it was not affected by melamine addition. In brief, the greater reduction in the rate and extent of rumen fermentation found for the HF diet in comparison with the LF diet suggested that rumen fermentation rate and extent in vitro depended mainly on the nature of the incubated substrate, and that they could be further inhibited by the increase of melamine addition.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
We conducted a retrospective study on non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from patients with diarrhoea in Shanghai, China, 2006–2010. A total of 1484 isolates of 70 Salmonella serovars were recovered from about 18 000 stool specimens. Serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most prevalent with isolation rates of 27·6% and 25·5%, respectively. The majority (1151, 77·6%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 598 (40·3%) to more than three antimicrobials. Approximately half (50·9%) of the isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and other resistance rates were sulfisoxazole (47·9%), streptomycin (37·6%), ampicillin (31·3%) and tetracycline (30·5%). Co-resistance to fluoroquinolones and the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins was also identified.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
A study was conducted to evaluate the main effects of dietary nitrate adaptation by cattle and alfalfa cell wall to starch ratio in in vitro substrates on nitrate disappearance and nitrite and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, as well as hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) accumulations. Rumen fluid from steers fed diets containing urea or nitrate was added into in vitro incubations containing sodium nitrate as the sole nitrogen source and 20 cell wall : 80 starch or 80 cell wall : 20 starch as the carbohydrate source. The results showed that during 24 h incubation, rumen fluid inoculums from steers adapted to dietary nitrate resulted in more rapid nitrate disappearance by 6 h of incubation (P < 0.01), no significant effect on nitrite concentration and diminished CH4 accumulation (P < 0.05). Cell wall to starch ratio did not affect nitrate disappearance, CH4 accumulation and total VFA concentration. The higher cell wall ratio had the lower total gas production and H2 concentration (P < 0.05). Ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration increased because of adaptation of donors to nitrate feeding (P < 0.05). Nitrate adaptation did not alter total VFA concentration, but increased acetate, and decreased propionate and butyrate molar proportions (P < 0.01).
We present a study of the photoluminescence and lasing characteristics of individual single-crystal zinc sulfide nanoribbons. We show that ZnS presents optical gain at the near band gap emission of ∼338 nm. Optical gain together with the optical cavity defined by the perfect crystallographic structure with a rectangular cross section results in lasing activity at optical pumping power densities of ∼ 50 kW/cm2. Small collection angle measurements show that nanoribbons form excellent optical cavities and gain medium with record (FWHM<0.1nm) lasing modes free of PL background. Large collection angles (as previously employed for nanowire measurements) add a broad, non-resonant PL component and obscure the original high-quality lasing of the nanowires/nanoribbons.