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To investigate the executive function and learning ability of the patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and its relationship with the patients’ clinical symptoms.
50 schizophrenia patients and 50 healthy controls were tested by the Tower of London (TOL). All the subjects received two phases of the test of TOL continuously, with a break of 1 minute. And Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the clinical symptoms of the patients.
Compared with the control group, the number of reply during the 1st phase (x1) and the 2nd phase (x2)of the patients group, was lower (P<0.01); the reaction time during the 1st phase (t1) and the 2nd phase (t2) was longer (P<0.01); while the rate of correct answer during the 1st phase (p1) and the 2nd phase (p2) do not differ. For the control group, x2 was higher than x1 (P<0.01), and t2 was shorter than t1 (P<0.01). However, for the schizophrenia group, there were no difference between x1 and x2, t1 and t2. The value of x1, p1, x2 of the patients were correlated negatively with the PANSS negative subscale score (P< 0.05), and t1 and t2 were correlated positively with the the negative subscale score (P< 0.01). The performance of the TOL did not correlated with the PANSS positive subscale score and general psychopathology subscale score.
The executive function and learning ability of the schizophrenics are impaired and the impairment of the cognitive function is significantly correlated with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia patients.
Cognitive dysfunction was thought to be one of the core features of schizophrenia. And the executive function of the patients was paid more attention by more and more researchers and clinicians.
To investigate the executive function and the learning ability of the patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and their relationships with psychiatric symptoms.
Fifty cases of first-episode schizophrenia patients and fifty age- and gender-matched healthy controls were tested by a computerized version of Tower of London (TOL) test. The scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS) in the group of schizophrenia patients were over 60.
The numbers of the correct answer [x1 :(14.62 ± 4.12), x2: (14.80 ± 4.70)] during the first session and the second session of the TOL test of the patients group were significantly lower than that of the control group [x1: (17.48 ± 3.79), x2:(18.68 ± 3.19)], and the reaction times [t1: (9.27 ± 4.37) seconds, t2: (9.51 ± 5.58) seconds] of the two sessions of TOL were longer than the control group [t1: (7.28 ± 2.04) seconds, t2: (6.67 ± 1.51) seconds], P < 0.01. For the control group, x2 was significantly greater than x1, and t2 shorter than t1 (P < 0.01), while for the patients group, there was no difference between the performances of the first session and the second session. The scores of TOL in the schizophrenia patients were correlated with the negative symptom score of PANSS (P < 0.05) and were not correlated with the scores of other subscales of PANSS (P > 0.05).
The executive function and the learning ability of schizophrenia are impaired and the cognitive dysfunction is correlated with negative symptoms.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is the most common postoperative complication after gynecological laparoscopic surgery. It is unknown whether the occurrence of PONV is associated with the preoperative psychological status.
To explore the effects of preoperative psychological status on the incidence of PONV following gynecological laparoscopic surgery.
To analyze the possible risk factors in order to prevent and treat PONV after gynecological laparoscopic surgery.
101 cases patients who underwent gynecological laparoscopic surgery were enrolled. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to assess the preoperative psychological state. Visual analog scale nausea (NVAS) was used to evaluate the occurrence of PONY within the postoperative 24 hours.
101 patients completed NVAS and 72 patients completed SAS and SDS. The incidence of PONV was 45.5%. The standard score of SAS (49.14±8.01) in PONV group was significantly higher than that in Non-PONV group (44.54±7.58) t=2.505, P < 0.05. The ratio of preoperative anxiety patients(SAS≥50) in PONV group(57%) was higher than that in Non-PONV group (30%) (χ2=5.513, P < 0.05). It showed that the occurrence of PONV was positively correlated with preoperative anxiety (r=0.277, P < 0.05). There was no difference in the scores of SDS between two groups. No correlation was found between PONV and preoperative depression.
Higher level of anxiety before surgery may increase the risk of PONV. The patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery should reduce the level of anxiety with appropriate psychological counseling or prophylactic anti-anxiety drugs.
Recently, a triple-network model suggested the abnormal interactions between the executive-control network (ECN), default-mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN) are important characteristics of addiction, in which the SN plays a critical role in allocating attentional resources toward the ECN and DMN. Although increasing studies have reported dysfunctions in these brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD), interactions between these networks, particularly in the context of the triple-network model, have not been investigated in IGD. Thus, we aimed to assess alterations in the inter-network interactions of these large-scale networks in IGD, and to associate the alterations with IGD-related behaviors.
DMN, ECN and SN were identified using group-level independent component analysis (gICA) in 39 individuals with IGD and 34 age and gender matched healthy controls (HCs). Then alterations in the SN-ECN and SN-DMN connectivity, as well as in the modulation of ECN versus DMN by SN, using a resource allocation index (RAI) developed and validated previously in nicotine addiction, were assessed. Further, associations between these altered network coupling and clinical assessments were also examined.
Compared with HCs, IGD had significantly increased SN-DMN connectivity and decreased RAI in right hemisphere (rRAI), and the rRAI in IGD was negatively associated with their scores of craving.
These findings suggest that the deficient modulation of ECN versus DMN by SN might provide a mechanistic framework to better understand the neural basis of IGD and might provide novel evidence for the triple-network model in IGD.
At present, the number of people with tuberculosis in China is second only to India and ranks second in the world. Under such a severe case of tuberculosis in China, prevention and control of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed. This study aimed to study the temporal and geographical relevance of the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis and the factors affecting the incidence of tuberculosis. Spatial autocorrelation model was used to study the spatial distribution characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis from a quantitative level. The research results showed that the overall incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (IPT) in China was low in the east, high in the west and had certain seasonal characteristics. We use Spatial Lag Model to explore influencing factors of pulmonary tuberculosis. It indicates that the IPT is high in areas with underdeveloped economics, poor social services and low average smoking ages. Additionally, the IPT is high in areas with high AIDS prevalence. Also, compared with Classical Regression Model and Spatial Error Model, our model has smaller values of Akaike information criterion and Schwarz criterion. Besides, our model has bigger values of coefficient of determination (R2) and log-likelihood (log L) than the other two models. Apart from that, it is more significant than Spatial Error Models in the spatial dependence test for the IPT.
Previously, we reported a phylogenetic study of 98 Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates from Hainan, China. Here, we update the B. pseudomallei strain library with 52 strains from newly identified cases dating from 2014 to 2017, analysed by multilocus sequence typing. Twenty-two sequence types (STs) were identified from the 52 cases, illustrating high genetic diversity; five of them (ST1480, ST1481, ST1482, ST1483 and ST1484) were novel. ST46, ST50 and ST58 predominated (34.6%) as was the case in the previous study (35.7%). An e-BURST map of the ST profiles of the two collections of isolates showed their genetic foundation to be largely unchanged. Neighbour-joining tree analysis was suggestive of a close phylogenetic relationship between the novel STs from this series and those first reported from Hainan (ST1105, ST1099, ST55 and ST1095). Moreover, the two novel STs (1481 and 1483) showed close similarity to ST58 which originated in Thailand indicating a close relationship between B. pseudomallei strains from both countries. The previously described allele profiles gmhD-36 and lepA-68 were found for the first time in our strain collections. Our study emphasises the importance of monitoring the epidemiological status and evolutionary trends of B. pseudomallei in China.
Anti-organic fouling performance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be enhanced by extending its light absorption and photocatalytic capability from ultra-violet to the visible range through hydrogenation. In this work, we aim at studying the impact of hydrogenation on the performance of both electron beam-deposited TiO2 thin films and hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanostructures on titanium substrates. Hydrogenation of these TiO2-deposited titanium substrates (TiO2/Ti) are achieved in relatively low-temperature low-pressure chemical vapor deposition chamber without any noble diatomic hydrogen dissociation catalyst, such as platinum. Our study shows that these hydrogenated TiO2/Ti have better light absorption ability and the titanium substrate itself serves as the active catalyst for hydrogen dissociation and diffusion. By applying hydrogenation to the TiO2 nanostructures, we can enhance photocatalytic performance by 50% through methylene blue degradation experiments. We have also evaluated the effect of hydrogenation on carrier density and mobility in TiO2/Ti. We recommend the hydrogenation of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanostructure on titanium substrates for scalable photocatalytic applications.
Previous studies showed that spermine could protect the organism from oxidative damage in vivo. However, in vivo information on the antioxidant-related underlying molecular mechanism of spermine is limited. In this experiment, we further evaluated the effects of spermine supplementation and extended spermine administration on the antioxidant status and antioxidant-related signaling molecules gene expression in the liver and longissimus dorsi of piglets. A total of 80 piglets were randomly distributed to two groups, that is, those with adequate nutrient intake administrated with spermine (0.4 mmol/kg BW) or those with restricted nutrient intake supplemented by saline. The piglets were fed in pairs for 7 h or 3, 6, or 9 days. The results are as follows: (1) spermine can promote the antioxidant capacity by increasing enzymatic antioxidant capacity, glutathione content and clearance of oxygen radicals; (2) spermine significantly increased the mRNA levels of enzymatic antioxidant substances, NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, and the mammalian target of rapamycin but decreased the mRNA levels of ribosomal p70 S6 kinase in the liver and longissimus dorsi of the piglets.
The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe, is one of the most serious pests in tea growing areas. This study investigated the roles played by olfaction and vision in host orientation behavior. The compound eye of E. vitis was found to be a photopic eye; few olfactory sensilla were found on the antennae, while abundant gustatory sensilla were recorded on the mouthparts. Three opsin genes (EV_LWop, EV_UVop, EV_Bop) were isolated and found to be mainly expressed in the compound eye compared with other parts of the body. Immunolocalization indicated that the opsins mainly located in the different regions of rhabdom. The transcription levels of EV_LWop, EV_Bop and EV_UVop were reduced by 77.3, 70.0 and 40.0%, respectively, by RNA interference induced by being fed a special RNA-rich diet for 6 days. The rate of tropism to host color was effectively impaired by 67.6 and 29.5% in the dsEV_LWop and dsEV_Bop treatment groups, but there was no significant change in the dsEV_UVop group. The determination of the cause of the tropism indicated that odors from the host over long distances were unable to attract E. vitis and were only detected when the insects were close to the host. The developed compound eye of E. vitis plays a leading role in host location, and the long-wavelength opsin significantly affects the tropism to host color; the lack of olfactory sensilla results in long-distance odors not being able to be detected until the insect is near to the host-plant. The understanding of these behavioral mechanisms, especially the importance of opsin genes is expected to be useful for pest management.
Longan County is considered a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). The plasma-derived vaccine has been used in newborns in this area since 1987. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this vaccine. In total, 1634 participants born during 1987–1993 and who had received a series of plasma-derived HB vaccinations at ages 0, 1, and 6 months were enrolled. Serological HBV markers were detected and compared with previous survey data. Overall the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in all participants was 3·79%; 3·47% of subjects who had received the first dose within 24 h were HBsAg positive, and 8·41% of subjects who had received a delayed first dose were also HBsAg positive. There were 1527 subjects identified who had received the first dose within 24 h and whose HBsAg and anti-HBc prevalence increased yearly after immunization, while the anti-HBs-positive rate and vaccine effectiveness declined. The geometric mean concentration of antibody in the anti-HB-positive participants was 55·13 mIU/ml and this declined after immunization. Fewer than 2·0% of participants had anti-HB levels ⩾1000 mIU/ml. The data show that the protective efficacy of the plasma-derived vaccinations declined and administration of HB vaccine within 24 h of birth was very important. To reduce the risk of HBV infection in this highly endemic area, a booster dose might be necessary if anti-HBs levels fall below 10 mIU/ml after age 18 years. Furthermore, studies on the immune memory induced by plasma-derived HB vaccine are needed.
Materials processing and additive manufacturing afford exciting opportunities in biomedical research, including the study of cell-material interactions. However, some of the most efficient materials for microfabrication are not wholly suitable for biological applications, require extensive post-processing or exhibit high mechanical stiffness that limits the range of applications. Conversely, materials exhibiting high cytocompatibility and low stiffness require long processing times with typically decreased spatial resolution of features. Here, we investigated the use of hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), a classic and efficient polymer for stereolithography, for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) culture. We developed composite HDDA-polyethylene glycol acrylate hydrogels that exhibited high biocompatibility, mechanical stiffness in the range of muscle tissue, and high printing efficiency at ∼5 μm resolution.
HBsAg reappearance may constitute not only a risk for liver disease but also an infectious source. We aimed to determine whether HBsAg may reappear after spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance. A cohort of 2999 HBsAg-positive subjects aged 30–55 years was recruited in Guangxi, China in 2004. HBsAg was tested every 6 months from July 2004 to June 2007, then, one more time in December 2013. The results showed that spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance occurred in 41 subjects in the first 3 years, giving a 0·54% annual seroclearance rate. Thirteen of the 41 subjects were randomly tested for HBsAg in 2013. Four subjects became HBsAg positive. S gene sequences of HBV were analysed from serum collected before seroclearance and after reappearance, respectively, for subject QS840 (11 and 12 clones), subject TN98 (13 and 13 clones) and subject WX227 (10 and 8 clones). Serotype, subgenotype and amino-acid substitution pattern in each sample collected after reappearance was observed in the sample collected before HBsAg seroclearance. Nucleotide similarity between the two sequences from each subject was >99% and five sequences from subject TN98 were the same. In conclusion, following reactivation, HBsAg may reappear in individuals with spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance many years previously.
Background: Stroke is often preceded by transient symptoms. Although global stroke rates have been shown to be declining, previous studies have reported inconsistent temporal trends of transient ischemic attacks (TIA). The objective of the current study is to report the temporal trends of TIA admissions and outcomes in Canada over the last 11 years. Methods: We conducted a complete population cohort study using a national administrative database to study the temporal trend of age- and sex-adjusted TIA admission rates in Canada from 2003 to 2013. We also determined the rates of TIA and stroke diagnoses in the emergency department in the province of Ontario during the same period. We used multivariable analyses to study discharge location after acute hospitalization as well as 90-day stroke and/or TIA readmission rates. Results: Of 425,799 admissions to an acute care hospital for all stroke and TIA, 71,443 (16.8%) were TIA. The age- and sex-standardized rates of TIA admission decreased significantly during the study period from 30.0 to 20.6 per 100,000 (p<0.0001). In Ontario, decreasing TIA admissions is mirrored by decreasing rates of TIA directly discharged from the emergency department (55.1 to 46.8 per 100,000, p = 0.002). The odds of 90-day readmission rates for stroke or TIA are also decreasing (adjusted odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-0.99). Conclusions: We show that TIA admission rates have declined in the past 11 years in Canada, reflecting improved vascular risk reduction and stroke care. Future studies to confirm our findings on improved stroke or TIA recurrence rates are necessary.
The fast stellar winds can blow bubbles in the circumstellar material ejected from previous phases of stellar evolution. These are found at different scales, from planetary nebulae (PNe) around stars evolving to the white dwarf stage, to Wolf-Rayet (WR) bubbles and up to large-scale bubbles around massive star clusters. In all cases, the fast stellar wind is shock-heated and a hot bubble is produced. Processes of mass evaporation and mixing of nebular material and heat conduction occurring at the mixing layer between the hot bubble and the optical nebula are key to determine the thermal structure of these bubbles and their evolution. In this contribution we review our current understanding of the X-ray observations of hot bubbles in PNe and present the first spatially-resolved study of a mixing layer in a PN.
We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 μm that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ≃ 900 ±70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar iii], [S iv], and [Ne ii] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases.
We present deep optical spectroscopy of seven planetary nebulae (PNe) in the substructures of M31, three in the Northern Spur and four associated with the Giant Stream. The spectra were obtained with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the 10.4 m GTC. The detection of the [O iii] λ4363 auroral line in all PNe of our sample enables reliable abundance determinations. Our targets have low N/O (<0.5) and He/H ratios, indicating that they are probably Type II PNe. The PNe in our sample have rather homogeneous oxygen abundances, with an average value of 8.56±0.10. Based on the abundances as well as the spatial and kinematical information of our targets, we speculate that the Northern Spur and the Giant Stream might have the same origin. We raise a hypothesis that the dwarf satellite M32 might be responsible for these two substructures. New observations have recently been made to assess this hypothesis.
Twenty Small Tailed Han (STH) and 20 Ujumqin (UJU) ewes naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly assigned to one of four treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, receiving anthelmintic treatment (AT) or non-anthelmintic treatment (NonAT) prior to lambing. After lambing, the effects of AT on feed intake, digestion and milk yield in ewes, and the growth rates of lambs fed their mother's milk were assessed for 28 days. Faecal samples were collected to determine faecal egg counts (FECs), milk was collected to measure milk yield and ewes and lambs were weighed to quantify daily body weight change. The results showed that AT significantly increased ewe dry matter intake (2411 g/d for AT and 2209 g/d for NonAT) and decreased FECs (50 eggs/g for AT and 2655 eggs/g for NonAT). All ewes lost weight after lambing, but body weight loss in the AT (43 g/d) was significantly less than in NonAT (84 g/d), and STH ewes (70 g/d) lost more weight than UJU ewes (58 g/d). Anthelmintic-treated ewes produced more milk for their lambs to consume. However, the extent of these positive effects of AT differed between STH and UJU ewes. The average daily body weight gain of lambs in AT was higher than those in NonAT. In conclusion, effective AT in ewes before lambing benefits subsequent lactation in ewes and growth rate in lambs.
Flour whiteness (FW) is an important factor in assessing flour quality and determining the end product quality. It is an integrated sensory indicator reflecting flour colour and is negatively correlated with protein content. In order to dissect the genetic relationship between FW and its five related traits at the quantitative trait locus (QTL)/gene level, a recombinant inbred line population was evaluated under three environments. Quantitative trait loci for FW were analysed by unconditional and conditional QTL mapping. Four unconditional additive QTLs and 16 conditional additive QTLs were detected across the three environments. Of these QTLs, only one major additive QTL (Qfw1D1-1) was consistently identified using both unconditional and conditional QTL analysis. This QTL was independent of flour colour a* (a function of red-green with a positive a* for redness and negative for greenness) and b* (a green-blue value with positive value for yellowness and negative for blueness) and was only slightly affected by flour protein content. A minor additive QTL (Qfw4A-4) was also detected using these two QTL mapping methods, being independent of flour colour a* and b*. Five unconditional and ten conditional epistatic minor QTLs were detected, from which only one pair (Qfw3A-10/Qfw6B-6) was identified by both unconditional and conditional QTL mapping, also independent of flour colour a* and b*. The major QTL (Qfw1D1-1) identified in the current study for the first time can be used for improving wheat FW in marker-assisted breeding.
The objective of this study was to determine if a moderate or high reduction of dietary CP, supplemented with indispensable amino acids (IAA), would affect growth, intestinal morphology and immunological parameters of pigs. A total of 40 barrows (initial BW=13.50±0.50 kg, 45±2 day of age) were used in a completely randomized block design, and allocated to four dietary treatments containing CP levels at 20.00%, 17.16%, 15.30% and 13.90%, respectively. Industrial AA were added to meet the IAA requirements of pigs. After 4-week feeding, blood and tissue samples were obtained from pigs. The results showed that reducing dietary CP level decreased average daily gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration and relative organ weights of liver and pancreas (P<0.01), and increased feed conversion ratio (P<0.01). Pigs fed the 13.90% CP diet had significantly lower growth performance than that of pigs fed higher CP at 20.00%, 17.16% or 15.30%. Moreover, reducing dietary CP level decreased villous height in duodenum (P<0.01) and crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P<0.01). The reduction in the dietary CP level increased plasma concentrations of methionine, alanine (P<0.01) and lysine (P<0.05), and decreased arginine (P<0.05). Intriguingly, reducing dietary CP level from 20.00% to 13.90% resulted in a significant decrease in plasma concentration of IgG (P<0.05), percentage of CD3+T cells of the peripheral blood (P<0.01), also down-regulated the mRNA abundance of innate immunity-related genes on toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (P<0.01) and nuclear factor kappa B (P<0.05) in the ileum. These results indicate that reducing dietary CP level from 20.00% to 15.30%, supplemented with IAA, had no significant effect on growth performance and had a limited effect on immunological parameters. However, a further reduction of dietary CP level up to 13.90% would lead to poor growth performance and organ development, associated with the modifications of intestinal morphology and immune function.