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A wall-resolved large-eddy simulation of a symmetric Joukowski aerofoil with a 12 % thickness at a Reynolds number of 250 000, a Mach number of 0.4 and zero incidence angle is performed in order to investigate the effect of using a serrated trailing edge on the acoustic feedback event that generates a tonal noise. The acoustic feedback is investigated in detail to emphasise the interaction between the upstream travelling acoustic expansion wave and the laminar separation bubble. The simulation shows that the serrated trailing edges may result in a significant reduction of the tonal noise. This paper provides detailed investigations into the noise reduction mechanisms. The main finding is that the presence of a serrated trailing edge decreases the amplitude of the acoustic source pressure in the transitional region and gives rise to destructive phase interference in the wall pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing edge which weakens the acoustic feedback loop.
Early replacement of a new central venous catheter (CVC) may pose a risk of persistent or recurrent infection in patients with a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). We evaluated the clinical impact of early CVC reinsertion after catheter removal in patients with CRBSIs.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients with confirmed CRBSIs in 2 tertiary-care hospitals over a 7-year period.
To treat their infections, 316 patients with CRBSIs underwent CVC removal. Among them, 130 (41.1%) underwent early CVC reinsertion (≤3 days after CVC removal), 39 (12.4%) underwent delayed reinsertion (>3 days), and 147 (46.5%) did not undergo CVC reinsertion. There were no differences in baseline characteristics among the 3 groups, except for nontunneled CVC, presence of septic shock, and reason for CVC reinsertion. The rate of persistent CRBSI in the early CVC reinsertion group (22.3%) was higher than that in the no CVC reinsertion group (7.5%; P = .002) but was similar to that in the delayed CVC reinsertion group (17.9%; P > .99). The other clinical outcomes did not differ among the 3 groups, including rates of 30-day mortality, complicated infection, and recurrence. After controlling for several confounding factors, early CVC reinsertion was not significantly associated with persistent CRBSI (OR, 1.59; P = .35) or 30-day mortality compared with delayed CVC reinsertion (OR, 0.81; P = .68).
Early CVC reinsertion in the setting of CRBSI may be safe. Replacement of a new CVC should not be delayed in patients who still require a CVC for ongoing management.
The 14C peak in AD 775 (M12) has been measured and confirmed globally in several studies since it was first measured in annual tree rings by Miyake et al. (2012). However, M12 data measurements in early- and latewood are limited. This paper presents the Δ14C values in early- and latewood from AD 762–776 Zelkova serrata tree rings from Bangu-dong, Ulsan, South Korea (35°33′N, 129°20′E). The results indicate no early rise in Δ14C values in the latewood of AD 774 in this sample located at mid-latitude. A comparison of the results of this and previous studies suggests latitude dependence (Büntgen et al. 2018); that is, the early rise of Δ14C in AD 774 was not observed at mid-latitudes in South Korea but was observed at high latitudes in Finland. The half-oxidation time of 14C was estimated from a detailed analysis of a small bomb peak in AD 1962. Based on the half-oxidation time, the Δ14C rise in the latewood, but not in the earlywood, of AD 774 in Finland, and the absence of a Δ14C rise in both the early- and latewood of AD 774 in South Korea, the 14C spike was estimated to have been produced from late April to mid-June in AD 774.
Migraine with aura is one of the causes of stroke mimics. We retrospectively reviewed the 10-year medical records of patients who were treated with acute stroke management protocol. We analyzed the frequency and characteristics of patients with a final diagnosis of migraine with aura. Among the 1355 patients with stroke mimics, migraine with aura was the final diagnosis in 36 patients (2.7%). The most common auras included sensory and brainstem auras followed by motor, visual, and speech/language auras. One patient manifested transient atrial fibrillation during the migraine attack, which can be a link with acute stroke.
The cycling endurance of phase-change memory is one of the last hurdles to overcome to enable its adoption in the larger market for persistent memory products. Phase-change memory cycling endurance failures, whether they are stuck-SET (caused by elemental segregation) or stuck-RESET (caused by void formation), are caused by atomic migration. Various driving forces responsible for the atomic migration have been identified, such as hole-wind force, electrostatic force, and crystallization-induced segregation. We introduce several strategies to improve cycling endurance based on an understanding of driving forces and interactions among them. Utilizing some of these endurance-improving techniques, record-high phase-change memory cycling endurance at around 1012 cycles has been recently reported using a confined phase-change memory cell with a metallic liner.
A new design method of an ultra-wideband circularly-polarized planar multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna is presented in this paper. The proposed MIMO antenna consists of four unit cell antennas, being comprised of a microstrip feed line and a square slotted ground plane. In the proposed unit cell design, a circular stub is protruded from the ground plane strip for achieving circular polarization. The unit cell of the MIMO antenna is optimized by adjusting design parameters. The compact four-port MIMO antenna prototype is designed on the FR4 substrate with the overall dimensions of 45 × 45 × 1.6 mm3. The proposed four-port MIMO antenna design provides an impedance bandwidth (S11 < −10 dB) of 112% (3.1–11 GHz) and a 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 36% (4.8–6.9 GHz). The performance of the fabricated MIMO antenna shows good agreement between the EM simulation and measurement results.
Existing studies suggest that wavy leading edges (WLEs) offer substantial reduction of broadband noise generated by an aerofoil undergoing upstream vortical disturbances. In this context, there are two universal trends in the frequency spectra of the noise reduction which have been observed and reported to date: (i) no significant reduction at low frequencies followed by (ii) a rapid growth of the noise reduction that persists in the medium-to-high frequency range. These trends are known to be insensitive to the aerofoil type and flow condition used. This paper aims to provide comprehensive understandings as to how these universal trends are formed and what the major drivers are. The current work is based on very-high-resolution numerical simulations of a semi-infinite flat-plate aerofoil impinged by a prescribed divergence-free vortex in an inviscid base flow at zero incidence angle, continued from recent work by the authors (Turner & Kim, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 811, 2017, pp. 582–611). One of the most significant findings in the current work is that the noise source distribution on the aerofoil surface becomes entirely two-dimensional (highly non-uniform in the spanwise direction as well as streamwise) at high frequencies when the WLE is involved. Also, the sources downstream of the LE make crucial contributions to creating the universal trends across all frequencies. These findings contradict the conventional LE-focused one-dimensional source analysis that has widely been accepted for all frequencies. The current study suggests that the universal trends in the noise-reduction spectra can be properly understood by taking the downstream source contributions into account, in terms of both magnitude and phase variations. After including the downstream sources, it is shown in this paper that the first universal trend is due to the conservation of total (surface integrated) source energy at low frequencies. The surface-integrated source magnitude that decreases faster with the WLE correlates very well with the noise-reduction spectrum at medium frequencies. In the meantime, the high-frequency noise reduction is driven almost entirely by destructive phase interference that increases rapidly and consistently with frequency, explaining the second universal trend.
In order to investigate the origin of multiple populations in globular clusters (GCs), we have constructed new chemical evolution models for proto-GCs where the supernova blast waves undergo blowout without expelling the ambient gas. Chemical enrichments in our models are then dictated by the winds of massive stars together with the asymptotic-giant-branch stars ejecta. We find that the observed Na-O anti-correlation can be reproduced when multiple episodes of starburst and enrichment are allowed to continue in proto-GCs. The “mass budget problem” is mostly resolved by our models without ad-hoc assumptions on star formation efficiency, initial mass function, and significant loss of first-generation stars. Interestingly, ages and chemical abundances predicted by this chemical evolution model are in good agreements with those independently obtained from our stellar evolution model for the horizontal-branch. We also discuss observational evidence for the GC-like multiple populations in the Milky Way bulge.
Recent analyses of Lee et al. (2018, 2019) have confirmed that Galactic bulge consists of stellar populations originated from Milky Way globular clusters (MWGCs). Motivated by this, here we present the evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) for the Galactic bulge and early-type galaxies (ETGs) with the realistic treatment of individual variations in light elements observed in the MWGCs. We have utilized our model with GC-origin populations to explain the CN spread observed in ETGs, and the results show remarkable matches with the observations. We further employ our model to estimate the age of ETGs, which are considered as good analogs for the MW bulge. We find that, without the effect of our new treatments, EPS models will almost always underestimate the true age of ETGs. Our analysis indicates that the EPS with GC-origin populations is an essential constraint in determining the ETG formation epoch and is closely related to understanding the evolution of the Universe.
Recent investigations of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) suggest that the horizontal-branch (HB) morphology and mean period of type ab RR Lyrae variables are mostly sensitive to helium abundance, while the star formation timescale has the greatest effect on our chemical evolution model constructed to reproduce the Na-O anti-correlation of GCs. Therefore, by combining the results from synthetic HB model with those from chemical evolution model, we could put better constraints on star formation history and chemical evolution in GCs with multiple populations. From such efforts made for four GCs, M4, M5, M15, and M80, we find that consistent results can be obtained from these two independent models.
This paper presents an analytic solution for the sound generated by an unsteady gust interacting with a semi-infinite flat plate with a serrated leading edge in a background steady uniform flow. Viscous and nonlinear effects are neglected. The Wiener–Hopf method is used in conjunction with a non-orthogonal coordinate transformation and separation of variables to permit analytical progress. The solution is obtained in terms of a modal expansion in the spanwise coordinate; however, for low- and mid-range incident frequencies only the zeroth-order mode is seen to contribute to the far-field acoustics, therefore the far-field noise can be quickly evaluated. The solution gives insight into the potential mechanisms behind the reduction of noise for plates with serrated leading edges compared to those with straight edges, and predicts a logarithmic dependence between the tip-to-root serration height and the decrease of far-field noise. The two mechanisms behind the noise reduction are proposed to be an increased destructive interference in the far field, and a redistribution of acoustic energy from low cut-on modes to higher cut-off modes as the tip-to-root serration height is increased. The analytic results show good agreement in comparison with experimental measurements. The results are also compared against nonlinear numerical predictions where good agreement is also seen between the two results as frequency and tip-to-root ratio are varied.
This article presents evidence for prehistoric rice cultivation on the island of Jeju (Jejudo), Korea. It also discusses sociopolitical contexts in which the people of this island decided to incorporate rice into their lifeways. Although Jejudo is culturally closely related to the southern region of the Korean peninsula, the nearest landmass to the island, their environmental conditions are radically different. Jejudo is not suitable for intensive rice cultivation. Archaeobotanical research at Yerae-dong nonetheless confirmed that rice was consumed earlier than the emergence of institutionalized social hierarchy on the island. The evidence for status competition and exchange networks contemporaneous with rice remains raises the suggestion that rice was initially incorporated as an exotic and luxurious food, rather than a daily necessity. The earliest rice on Jejudo is unlikely to have been transferred to the island as a result of tributary trade between ancient states. Rather, this study demonstrated that the main agents of rice cultivation were the emergent local elites who attempted to express status and consolidate hierarchy with foreign objects.
Spirituality is what gives people meaning and purpose in life, and it has been recognized as a critical factor in patients’ well-being, particularly at the ends of their lives. Studies have demonstrated relationships between spirituality and patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life and mental health. Although a number of studies have suggested that spiritual belief can be associated with mortality, the results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine whether spirituality was related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea.
For this multicenter study, we recruited adult advanced cancer inpatients who had been admitted to seven palliative care units with estimated survival of <3 months. We measured spirituality at admission using the Korean version of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-sp), which comprises two subscales: meaning/peace and faith. We calculated a Kaplan-Meier curve for spirituality, dichotomized at the predefined cutoffs and medians for the total scale and each of the two subscales, and performed univariate regression with a Cox proportional hazard model.
We enrolled a total of 204 adults (mean age: 64.5 ± 13.0; 48.5% female) in the study. The most common primary cancer diagnoses were lung (21.6%), colorectal (18.6%), and liver/biliary tract (13.0%). Median survival was 19.5 days (95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 23.5, 30.6). Total FACIT-sp score was not related to survival time (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.981, CI95% = 0.957, 1.007), and neither were the scores for its two subscales, meaning/peace (HR = 0.969, CI95% = 0.932, 1.008) and faith (HR = 0.981, CI95% = 0.938, 1.026).
Significance of results
Spirituality was not related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea. Plausible mechanisms merit further investigation.
Cepheus A is the second nearest high mass star-forming region after Orion. It is characterized by the presence of several phenomena, such as a complex molecular outflow, and multiple radio continuum sources, known as HW sources. The radio continuum and water maser emission have been detected toward HW2, HW3b and HW3d regions, and all of them are considered harboring young stellar objects. In 2014, we performed KaVA observations and detected a new bright maser feature, ~700 mas apart from HW3d, which has not been detected with previous VLBI observations. The relative proper motion of the new maser feature is faster than other regions. It can be a clue for a newly forming star. Alternatively, it may be caused by outflow shock from the star-forming regions such as HW3d or HW3c.
VLBI observation of masers is a powerful mean to understand the early evolutionary phase of massive star formation. A few different scenarios of outflow evolution in the massive protostars have been proposed, and cannot be readily examined because the precise timing of appropriate maser phenomena is difficult. In particular, it has been a matter of debate whether a well-collimated or a less-collimated outflow comes first in the very early phase of the massive protostellar evolution. Long-term, multi-epoch VLBI monitoring is probably the most important method to trace the outflow evolution. Such a monitoring of a massive star-forming region W75N(B) has been very successful. Since the first detection of the expanding water maser shell associated with the star-forming region VLA 2 of W75N(B) in 1999, the observations in 2005 and 2007 displayed that the expanding water maser shell has been evolved to well-collimated from a less collimated morphology. Observations in 2012 also confirmed such a transition. It would be a major breakthrough in our knowledge of the formation and evolution of the first stages of massive protostars. We performed multi-epoch VLBI observations in mid-2014. On the contrary to its expansion for 13 years, the maser shell at VLA 2 observed in 2014 is comparable to the size observed in 2012. The quenching of the maser shell size indicates that the previously expanding outflow has been decelerated plausibly due to the interaction with surrounding interstellar medium.
A sediment core (14DH-C01) obtained from the mouth of Gomso Bay, on the west coast of South Korea, was used to obtain high-resolution palynomorph, grain-size, and 14C age data to investigate the Holocene sedimentary environment. The results indicated a transgressive depositional process with four stages controlled by sea-level change, as follows: river-dominated fluvial deposition from the early Holocene to 8.48 cal ka BP; tide-dominated tidal channel fill transgression from 8.48 to 8.08 cal ka BP; tide- to wave-dominated tidal channel fill transgression from 8.08 to 6.98 cal ka BP; and wave-dominated marine transgression from 6.98 cal ka BP to the present. Tidal channel filling was the primary mid-Holocene depositional process, accounting for the high sedimentation rate observed. The different hydrodynamics of the river-dominated, tide-dominated, tide- to wave-dominated, and wave-dominated processes following the changes in sea level may have controlled the transgressive depositional process. This transgressive sedimentary model differs from those of other large river mouth areas (e.g., the Changjiang River) since the mid-Holocene, perhaps resulting from the limited sediment supply in the study area.