Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
To examine the hypothesis that the association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms is dependent upon total cholesterol level in a representative national sample of the South Korean population.
This was a population-based cross-sectional study.
The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010–2012).
We included 7198 adults aged 20–88 years.
The incidence of depressive symptoms in individuals with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) was 1·54-fold (95 % CI 1·20, 1·98) greater than in individuals without vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥20 ng/ml). The relationship was stronger in individuals with normal-to-borderline serum total cholesterol (serum total cholesterol<240 mg/dl; OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·08) and non-significant in individuals with high serum total cholesterol (OR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·52, 1·81) after adjustment for confounding variables (age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking status, regular exercise, income level, education level, marital status, changes in body weight, perceived body shape, season of examination date and cholesterol profiles).
The association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms was weakened by high serum total cholesterol status. These findings suggest that both vitamin D and total cholesterol are important targets for the prevention and treatment of depression.
In the spectrum of the young bipolar planetary nebula M2-9, we detected the He II Raman scattered feature at 6545 Å. However, in the same spectrum the He II emission lines at 6527 Å and 6560 Å are absent, which implies that the He II emission region is hidden from our line of sight and that the H I scattering region is pretty much extended not to be obscured entirely. We perform photoionization computations to estimate the physical size of the He II emission line region ≲ 1015 cm in the presence of hot luminous star with T ≳ 105 K and L ≲ 103L⊙.
The Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS) is a small spectrograph optimized for the observations of diffuse hot interstellar medium in far-ultraviolet wavebands (900–1150Å and 1335–1750Å). The instrument is expected to be sensitive to emission line fluxes an order of magnitude fainter than any previous missions. FIMS is currently under development and is scheduled for launch in 2002.
Building on prior research on management fashion, this paper seeks to understand how management consultants respond to the boom-to-bust cycles of competing management fashion trends. Specifically, we examine how US management consulting firms offering total quality management (TQM) services responded to the rise and fall of the rival management practice, business process reengineering (BPR), with an empirical focus on the adoption of BPR services. We find that a consulting firm offering TQM services was more likely to adopt BPR services if the firm’s organizational capabilities and institutional environments were more connected to BPR’s principles than to TQM’s principles. This suggests that management fashions are not simply bandwagon phenomena, but involve resource- and identity-based decision making. We also find that the significance of organizational capabilities increased while that of network influences decreased as BPR’s boom turned to bust. The reversal of well-established institutional accounts of innovation diffusion is explained by reference to the characteristics of management fashion.
FFQ comprising food items, intake frequency categories and portion sizes have been used in large-scale observational studies to assess long-term dietary exposure. Although gender is an important influence on food choice and portion size, gender differences are not often analysed during FFQ development. This study investigated whether gender differences were considered sufficiently when developing FFQ, which affects the results of validation studies. A PubMed search using combinations of ‘FFQ’, ‘Food Frequency Questionnaire’, ‘Validation’ and ‘Validity’ identified 246 validation studies available in English, published between January 1983 and May 2014, which included healthy male and female adults. The development process of the 196 FFQ used in the 246 validation studies was examined. Of these, twenty-one FFQ (10·7 %) considered gender during item selection or portion size determination, and were therefore classified as gender specific (GS), but 175 (89·3 %) did not consider gender, and were classified as ‘not gender specific (NGS)’. When the ratios between intake levels obtained using the FFQ and a reference method for energy and seven nutrients were compared between the GS group and the NGS group, more significant differences were observed in women than in men (four v. one nutrient). Intake of three nutrients was significantly underestimated in both sexes in the GS group. In the NGS group, nutrient intakes were significantly overestimated more often in women than in men (four v. one). These results indicate that not considering gender in FFQ development causes greater inaccuracy in dietary intake assessment in women than in men. Results of nutritional epidemiological studies should be re-evaluated for their validity, especially if the studies used NGS-FFQ.
Some clinical studies have reported reduced peripheral glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) level in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We verified whether a reduction in plasma GDNF level was associated with MDD.
Plasma GDNF level was measured in 23 healthy control subjects and 23 MDD patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment.
Plasma GDNF level in MDD patients at baseline did not differ from that in healthy controls. Plasma GDNF in MDD patients did not differ significantly from baseline to the end of treatment. GDNF level was significantly lower in recurrent-episode MDD patients than in first-episode patients before and after treatment.
Our findings revealed significantly lower plasma GDNF level in recurrent-episode MDD patients, although plasma GDNF levels in MDD patients and healthy controls did not differ significantly. The discrepancy between our study and previous studies might arise from differences in the recurrence of depression or the ages of the MDD patients.
Decreased hemoglobin levels increase the risk of developing dementia among the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms that link decreased hemoglobin levels to incident dementia still remain unclear, possibly due to the fact that few studies have reported on the relationship between low hemoglobin levels and neuroimaging markers. We, therefore, investigated the relationships between decreased hemoglobin levels, cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD), and cortical atrophy in cognitively healthy women and men.
Cognitively normal women (n = 1,022) and men (n = 1,018) who underwent medical check-ups and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were enrolled at a health promotion center. We measured hemoglobin levels, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) scales, lacunes, and microbleeds. Cortical thickness was automatically measured using surface based methods. Multivariate regression analyses were performed after controlling for possible confounders.
Decreased hemoglobin levels were not associated with the presence of WMH, lacunes, or microbleeds in women and men. Among women, decreased hemoglobin levels were associated with decreased cortical thickness in the frontal (Estimates, 95% confidence interval, −0.007, (−0.013, −0.001)), temporal (−0.010, (−0.018, −0.002)), parietal (−0.009, (−0.015, −0.003)), and occipital regions (−0.011, (−0.019, −0.003)). Among men, however, no associations were observed between hemoglobin levels and cortical thickness.
Our findings suggested that decreased hemoglobin levels affected cortical atrophy, but not increased CSVD, among women, although the association is modest. Given the paucity of modifiable risk factors for age-related cognitive decline, our results have important public health implications.
There is increasing evidence of a relationship between underweight or obesity and dementia risk. Several studies have investigated the relationship between body weight and brain atrophy, a pathological change preceding dementia, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cortical atrophy among cognitively normal participants.
We recruited cognitively normal participants (n = 1,111) who underwent medical checkups and detailed neurologic screening, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the health screening visits between September 2008 and December 2011. The main outcome was cortical thickness measured using MRI. The number of subjects with five BMI groups in men/women was 9/9, 148/258, 185/128, 149/111, and 64/50 in underweight, normal, overweight, mild obesity, and moderate to severe obesity, respectively. Linear and non-linear relationships between BMI and cortical thickness were examined using multiple linear regression analysis and generalized additive models after adjustment for potential confounders.
Among men, underweight participants showed significant cortical thinning in the frontal and temporal regions compared to normal weight participants, while overweight and mildly obese participants had greater cortical thicknesses in the frontal region and the frontal, temporal, and occipital regions, respectively. However, cortical thickness in each brain region was not significantly different in normal weight and moderate to severe obesity groups. Among women, the association between BMI and cortical thickness was not statistically significant.
Our findings suggested that underweight might be an important risk factor for pathological changes in the brain, while overweight or mild obesity may be inversely associated with cortical atrophy in cognitively normal elderly males.
Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD).
We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (≤9 years).
As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD.
Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
Background: Holt–Oram syndrome is characterised by CHD and limb anomalies. Mutations in TBX5 gene, encoding the T-box transcription factor, are responsible for the development of Holt–Oram syndrome, but such mutations are variably detected in 30–75% of patients. Methods: Clinically diagnosed eight Holt–Oram syndrome patients from six families were evaluated the clinical characteristics, focusing on the cardiac manifestations, in particular, and molecular aetiologies. In addition to the investigation of the mutation of TBX5, SALL4, NKX2.5, and GATA4 genes, which are known to regulate cardiac development by physically and functionally interacting with TBX5, were also analyzed. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed to detect exonic deletion and duplication mutations in these genes. Results: All included patients showed cardiac septal defects and upper-limb anomalies. Of the eight patients, seven underwent cardiac surgery, and four suffered from conduction abnormalities such as severe sinus bradycardia and complete atrioventricular block. Although our patients showed typical clinical findings of Holt–Oram syndrome, only three distinct TBX5 mutations were detected in three families: one nonsense, one splicing, and one missense mutation. No new mutations were identified by testing SALL4, NKX2.5, and GATA4 genes. Conclusions: All Holt–Oram syndrome patients in this study showed cardiac septal anomalies. Half of them showed TBX5 gene mutations. To understand the genetic causes for inherited CHD such as Holt–Oram syndrome is helpful to take care of the patients and their families. Further efforts with large-scale genomic research are required to identify genes responsible for cardiac manifestations or genotype–phenotype relation in Holt–Oram syndrome.
Cancer is a leading cause of death, and the dietary pattern in Korea is changing rapidly from a traditional Korean diet to a Westernised diet. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary factors on cancer risk with a prospective cohort study. Among 26 815 individuals who participated in cancer screening examinations from September 2004 to December 2008, 8024 subjects who completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning demographic and lifestyle factors, and a 3 d food record were selected. As of September 2013, 387 cancer cases were identified from the National Cancer Registry System, and the remaining individuals were included in the control group. The hazard ratio (HR) of cancer for the subjects older than or equal to 50 years of age was higher (HR 1·80, 95 % CI 1·41, 2·31; P< 0·0001) than that for the other subjects. Red meat consumption, Na intake and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) were positively associated with overall cancer incidence in men (HR 1·41, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·94; P= 0·0382), gastric cancer (HR 2·34, 95 % CI 1·06, 5·19; P= 0·0365) and thyroid cancer (HR 1·56, 95 % CI 1·05, 2·31; P= 0·0270), respectively. Participants who had at least three dietary risk factors among the high intakes of red meat and Na, low intakes of vegetables and fruits, and obesity suggested by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research at baseline tended to have a higher risk of cancer than the others (HR 1·26, 95 % CI 0·99, 1·60; P= 0·0653). In summary, high intakes of red meat and Na were significant risk factors of cancer among Koreans.
Raman scattering of far UV photons with atomic hydrogen is important in studying the mass loss and accretion processes in many symbiotic stars. We present basic atomic physical properties for the inelastic scattering of He II 949 with a hydrogen atom, which results in Raman scattered He II 4332 blueward of H gamma. At line center of He II 949, the total scattering cross section is computed to be σtot = 2.5 × 10−22 cm2 and the branching ratio into the level 2s is 0.12. It is proposed that comparisons of broad Balmer wings and Raman scattered He II features may provide an important diagnostic of far UV continuum around H I Lyman series.
Maslinic acid is found in various natural sources, most notably in pomace olive oil, and exerts pro-apoptotic activities in various cancer cells in vitro. In the present study, DU145 human prostate cancer cells were cultured with 0–25 μm-maslinic acid to examine the effects of maslinic acid on the metastatic capacity of prostate cancer cells. Maslinic acid significantly (P <0·05) inhibited the basal and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration (27–64 %), invasion (23–60 %) and adhesion (8–40 %) of DU145 cells. Maslinic acid significantly (P <0·05) down-regulated both basal and EGF-stimulated secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 (25–67 %), MMP-2 (50–86 %), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, about 100 %), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, 98–100 %) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, as well as expression of uPA receptor (uPAR), intercellular adhesion molecules (22–33 %), vascular cell adhesion molecules (23–46 %) and E-cadherin, whereas it increased TIMP-2 secretion. Maslinic acid dramatically reduced the levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein and mRNA; the reduction was accompanied by reduced stability, nuclear levels and transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. The levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) were reduced in cells treated with maslinic acid, and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 reduced HIF-1α levels and VEGF secretion. The results show that maslinic acid markedly inhibited the migration, invasion and adhesion of DU145 prostate cancer cells. Suppressing HIF-1α activation by inhibiting Akt and ERK activation may be part of the mechanism by which maslinic acid inhibited uPAR, E-cadherin, VEGF and MMP expression in DU145 cells.
Anthropogenic land use within watersheds has substantial effects on aquatic habitats and biological communities. From September 2006 to December 2008, we investigated the effects of land use on benthic macroinvertebrate communities by comparing Song Stream and Odae Stream, two adjacent mountain streams in Korea whose watersheds have different land use patterns. Song Stream is significantly disturbed by agricultural activities in the watershed, whereas Odae Stream is relatively undisturbed and is surrounded by a well-conserved forest area. Song Stream had significantly higher levels of all nutrients and sediment-related factors due to the adjacent agricultural area. As a result, Song Stream had markedly lower species community indices, such as taxa richness and abundance. In Song Stream, macroinvertebrate scrapers and predators were most adversely affected, whereas collector-gatherers became a dominant group. Based on correlation and multivariate analyses, total dissolved solids had the strongest negative relationship with macroinvertebrate assemblages, followed by electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and pH. The proportion of cobble in stream substrate was positively related to the richness and abundance of macroinvertebrates. Our results indicate that disturbances caused by agricultural land use, particularly sand deposition, had significant adverse effects on macroinvertebrate habitats and on the biotic integrity of benthic macroinvertebrate communities.
SiO2 thin films were prepared on p-type Si (100) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using SiH2Cl2 and O3(1.5 at.%)/O2 as precursors at 300. The growth rate of the deposited films increased linearly with increasing amount of simultaneous SiH2Cl2 and O3 exposures, and was saturated at about 0.35 nm/cycle with the reactant exposures of more than 3.6×109L. A larger amount of O3/O2 than that of SiH2Cl2 was required to obtain a saturated deposition reaction. The composition of the deposited film also varied with O3/O2 exposure at a fixed SiH2Cl2 exposure. The Si/O ratio gradually decreased to 0.5 with increasing amount of O3/O2 exposure. Finally, we also compared the physical and electrical characteristics of the ALD films with those of the films deposited by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. In spite of low process temperature, the SiO2 film prepared by the ALD method was in wet etch rate, surface roughness, leakage current and breakdown voltage superior to that by other several CVD methods.
Monoclinic gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) nanowires were catalytically synthesized by electric arc discharge of GaN powders mixed with a small amount (less than 5 %) of transition metals under a pressure of 500 Torr (80 %-Ar + 20 %-O2). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images showed that the average diameter of the wires were about 30 nm and their lengths were as long as up to one hundred micrometer, resulting in extremely large aspect ratio. Fourier diffractogram was indicative of single crystalline nature of the β-Ga2O3 wire. HRTEM image also showed β-Ga2O3 with twin defects at the center of the wire which might play as nucleation seeds. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and FT-Raman spectra of the wires identified the observed nanowires as monoclinic crystalline gallium oxides.
The effect of controlling the interaction between the erbium atoms and the carriers of the host matrix is investigated using erbium doped Si/SiO2 superlattices. Based on the previous finding that controlling the location of the erbium atoms by doping only the SiO2 layers improves both the Er3+ photoluminescence intensities and the temperature quenching of the Er3+ luminescence, we identify controlling the interaction between erbium atoms and the carriers in the Si layer to be the key point. We demonstrate that by further isolating the erbium atoms from the Si layers by depositing thin buffer layers of pure SiO2 improves the Er3+ photoluminescence by several orders of magnitude while still allowing efficient excitation by carriers to dominate. Finally, we demonstrate that efficient waveguides can be fabricated using such erbium doped Si/SiO2 superlattices.
A nonvolatile memory device with the multi-layered SiC nanocrystals embedded in the SiO2 dielectrics for long-term data storage was fabricated and its electrical properties were evaluated. The SiC nanocrystals were formed by using post thermal annealing process. The transmission electron microscope analysis showed the multi-layered SiC nanocrystals between the tunnel and the control oxide layers. The average size and density of the SiC nanocrystals were approximately 5 nm and 2×1012 cm-2, respectively. The memory window of nonvolatile memory devices with the multi-layered of SiC nanocrystals was about 2.7 V during the operations at ±10 V for 700 ms, and then it was maintained around at 1.1 V after 105 sec.
We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on recovery from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats.
First, we administered a 120-minute left MCAO to male Sprague-Dawley rats and randomly assigned them to one of four groups: no exercise (Group 1), mild exercise (Group 2), moderate exercise (Group 3), and severe exercise (Group 4). Then, we trained the rats for 30 min per day for one week or two weeks. We used a five-point neurological evaluation scale to measure neurological deficits 1-day, 4-days, 7-days, 10-days and 14-days after MCAO and measured infarct volume by use of 2% 2,3,4-triphenyltetrazolium chloride in exercised brains. We also performed immunohistochemistry analysis of the brain to observe reactive astrocytosis at the peri-infarct region.
Neurological examination indicated that Group 2 and 3 recovered better than Group 1 after one week and two weeks (p<0.05). Moreover, Group 2 and 3 had reduced brain infarct volume compared with Group 1 after one week (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between Group 4 and Group 1. The thickness of the peri-infarct astrocytosis was significantly reduced in Group 4 relative to Group 1 after one week. There was a significant negative correlation between the extent of reactive astrocytosis and neurological recovery (r= -0.648, p<0.01).
This study demonstrates that mild to moderate exercise that begins soon after induced cerebral ischemia promotes recovery and that astrocytes may have an important role in the recovery process.