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We investigated potential nosocomial aerosol transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) with droplet precautions. During aerosol generating procedures, SFTSV was be transmitted from person to person through aerosols. Thus, airborne precautions should be added to standard precautions to avoid direct contact and droplet transmission.
The aim of this study is to develop predictive models to predict organ at risk (OAR) complication level, classification of OAR dose-volume and combination of this function with our in-house developed treatment decision support system.
Materials and methods
We analysed the support vector machine and decision tree algorithm for predicting OAR complication level and toxicity in order to integrate this function into our in-house radiation treatment planning decision support system. A total of 12 TomoTherapyTM treatment plans for prostate cancer were established, and a hundred modelled plans were generated to analyse the toxicity prediction for bladder and rectum.
The toxicity prediction algorithm analysis showed 91·0% accuracy in the training process. A scatter plot for bladder and rectum was obtained by 100 modelled plans and classification result derived. OAR complication level was analysed and risk factor for 25% bladder and 50% rectum was detected by decision tree. Therefore, it was shown that complication prediction of patients using big data-based clinical information is possible.
We verified the accuracy of the tested algorithm using prostate cancer cases. Side effects can be minimised by applying this predictive modelling algorithm with the planning decision support system for patient-specific radiotherapy planning.
To examine the hypothesis that the association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms is dependent upon total cholesterol level in a representative national sample of the South Korean population.
This was a population-based cross-sectional study.
The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010–2012).
We included 7198 adults aged 20–88 years.
The incidence of depressive symptoms in individuals with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) was 1·54-fold (95 % CI 1·20, 1·98) greater than in individuals without vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥20 ng/ml). The relationship was stronger in individuals with normal-to-borderline serum total cholesterol (serum total cholesterol<240 mg/dl; OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·08) and non-significant in individuals with high serum total cholesterol (OR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·52, 1·81) after adjustment for confounding variables (age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking status, regular exercise, income level, education level, marital status, changes in body weight, perceived body shape, season of examination date and cholesterol profiles).
The association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms was weakened by high serum total cholesterol status. These findings suggest that both vitamin D and total cholesterol are important targets for the prevention and treatment of depression.
Using variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, we measure the pseudo-dielectric functions of as-deposited and annealed SiO2/SiOx multilayers (MLs). The SiO2(2nm)/SiOx(2nm) MLs have been prepared under various deposition temperature by ion beam sputtering. The annealing at temperatures ≥ 1100°C leads to the formation of Si nanocrystals (nc-Si) in the SiOx layer of MLs. Transmission electron microscopy images clearly demonstrate the existence of nc-Si. We assume a Tauc-Lorentzian lineshape for the dielectric function of nc-Si, and use an effective medium approximation for SiO2/nc-Si MLs as a mixture of nc-Si and SiO2. We successfully estimate the dielectric function of nc-Si and its volume fraction. We find that the volume fraction of nc-Si decreases after annealing, with increasing x in as-deposited SiOx layer. This result is compared to expected nc-Si volume fraction, which was estimated from stoichiometry of SiOx.
Si/SiO2 multilayers (MLs) have been prepared under different deposition temperatures (TS) by ion beam sputtering. The annealing at 1200°C leads to the formation of Si nanocrystals in the Si layer of MLs. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy images clearly demonstrate the existence of Si nanocrystals, which exhibit photoluminescence (PL) in the visible range when TS is ≥ 300°C. This is attributed to well-separation of nanocrystals in the higher-TS samples, which is thought to be a major cause for reducing non-radiative recombination in the interface between Si nanocrystal and surface oxide. The visible PL spectra are enhanced in its intensity and are shifted to higher energy by increasing TS. These PL behaviours are consistent with the quantum confinement effect of Si nanocrystals.
Nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films were directly deposited by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD) and ion beam assisted electron beam deposition (IBAED) method. In the sample deposited by ECR-CVD, the room temperature photoluminescence originated from the nc-Si and the silicon-hydrogen bond were appeared. It was confirmed that the size of the nc-Si could be controlled up to about 3 nm with the low substrate temperature during the deposition process and then the hydrogen atoms play a very important role in the formation of the nc-Si. The IBAED method was also found to an useful technique for nc-Si formation by the control of ion beam power.
To determine the appropriateness of antibiotic prophylaxis regimens for major surgery in Korea.
Retrospective study using a written survey for each patient who underwent arthroplasty, colon surgery, or hysterectomy.
Six tertiary hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province.
From each hospital, a maximum of 150 patients who underwent each type of surgery were randomly chosen for the study.
Of 2,644 eligible patients, 1,914 patients were included in the analysis; 677 of these patients underwent arthroplasty, 578 underwent colon surgery, and 659 underwent hysterectomy. Nineteen patients were excluded from the analyses of the class and number of antibiotics used for prophylaxis because they underwent multiple surgeries at different sites. For each of the 1,895 remaining patients, antibiotic prophylaxis involved a mean ( ± SD) of 2.8 ± 0.9 classes of antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed agents were cephalosporins (prescribed for 1,875 [98.9%] of the patients) and aminoglycosides (1,404 [74.1%]). A total of 1,574 (83.1%) of patients received at least 2 classes of antibiotics simultaneously. Only 15 (0.8%) of 1,895 patients received antibiotic prophylaxis in accordance with published guidelines. Of 506 patients for whom the initial dose of antibiotics was evaluated, 374 (73.9%) received an appropriate initial dose. Of the 1,676 patients whose medical records included information about antibiotic administration relative to the time of surgery, only 188 (11.2%) received antibiotic prophylaxis an hour or less before the surgical incision was made. Of the 1,748 patients whose medical records included information about duration of surgery, antibiotic prophylaxis was discontinued 24 hours or less after surgery for only 3 (0.2%) of the patients.
Most patients who had major surgery in Korea received inappropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Measures to improve the appropriateness of antibiotic prophylaxis are urgently required.
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