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The “Fast track” protocol is an early extubation strategy to reduce ventilator-associated complications and induce early recovery after open-heart surgery. This study compared clinical outcomes between operating room extubation and ICU extubation after open-heart surgery in patients with CHD.
We retrospectively reviewed 215 patients who underwent open-heart surgery for CHDs under the scheduled “Fast track” protocol between September 2016 and April 2022. The clinical endpoints were post-operative complications, including bleeding, respiratory and neurological complications, and hospital/ICU stays.
The patients were divided into operating room extubation (group O, n = 124) and ICU extubation (group I, n=91) groups. The most frequently performed procedures were patch closures of the atrial septal (107/215, 49.8%) and ventricular septal (89/215, 41.4%) defects. There were no significant differences in major post-operative complications or ICU and hospital stay duration between the two groups; however, patients in group I showed longer mechanical ventilatory support (0.0 min vs. 59.0 min (interquartile range: 17.0–169.0), p < 0.001). Patients in Group O showed higher initial lactate levels (3.2 ± 1.7 mg/dL versus 2.5 ± 2.0 mg/dL, p = 0.007) and more frequently used additional sedatives and opioid analgesics (33.1% versus 19.8%, p = 0.031).
Extubation in the operating room was not beneficial for patients during post-operative ICU or hospital stay. Early extubation in the ICU resulted in more stable hemodynamics in the immediate post-operative period and required less use of sedatives and analgesics.
We prove that the alpha invariant of a quasi-smooth Fano 3-fold weighted hypersurface of index $1$ is greater than or equal to $1/2$. Combining this with the result of Stibitz and Zhuang [SZ19] on a relation between birational superrigidity and K-stability, we prove the K-stability of a birationally superrigid quasi-smooth Fano 3-fold weighted hypersurfaces of index $1$.
The transnational circulation of persistent racial types that are attached to Asian/American women have shaped Asian-focused narratives and roles on Broadway. The King and I (2015) and KPOP (2022) exemplify Asian/American women’s performative labor and the tensions embedded in and disruptive of the contested political arena of Broadway musical theatre.
To avoid rhythm disturbance, sutures for ventricular septal defect closure have been traditionally placed 2∼5 mm or more away from the edge of the ventricular septal defect. However, the traditional suturing method appears to induce right bundle branch block and tricuspid valve regurgitation after ventricular septal defect closure more than our alternative technique, shallow suturing just at the edge of the ventricular septal defect (shallower bites at the postero-inferior margin). We aimed to verify our clinical experience of perimembranous ventricular septal defect repair.
The alternative shallow suturing method has been applied since 2003 at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 556 isolated perimembranous ventricular septal defect patients who underwent surgical closure from 2000 to 2019. We investigated the postoperative occurrence of right bundle branch block or progression of tricuspid regurgitation and analysed risk factors for right bundle branch block and tricuspid regurgitation.
Traditional suturing method (Group T) was used in 374 cases (66.8%), and alternative suturing method (Group A) was used in 186 cases (33.2%). The right bundle branch block occurred more frequently in Group T (39.6%) than in Group A (14.9%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, Group T and patch material were significant risk factors for late right bundle branch block. More patients with progression of tricuspid regurgitation were found in Group T.
Shallow suturing just at the edge of the ventricular septal defect may reduce the rate of right bundle branch block occurrence and tricuspid regurgitation progression without other complications.
Substantial evidence indicates structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), although their clinical implications remain unclear. Previous case-control studies have investigated group-level differences in structural abnormalities, although the study design cannot account for interindividual differences. Recent research has focused on the association between the heterogeneity of the cerebral cortex morphometric features and clinical heterogeneity.
We used neuroimaging data from 420 healthy controls and 695 patients with SCZ from seven studies. Four cerebral cortex measures were obtained: surface area, gray matter volume, thickness, and local gyrification index. We calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) and person-based similarity index (PBSI) scores and performed group comparisons. Associations between the PBSI scores and cognitive functions were evaluated using Spearman's rho test and normative modeling.
Patients with SCZ had a greater CV of surface area and cortical thickness than those of healthy controls. All PBSI scores across cortical measures were lower in patients with SCZ than in HCs. In the patient group, the PBSI scores for gray matter volume and all cortical measures taken together positively correlated with the full-scale IQ scores. Patients with deviant PBSI scores for gray matter volume and all cortical measures taken together had lower full-scale IQ scores than those of other patients.
The cerebral cortex in patients with SCZ showed greater regional and global structural variability than that in healthy controls. Patients with deviant similarity of cortical structural profiles exhibited a lower general intelligence than those exhibited by the other patients.
There is growing evidence for the use of acceptance-commitment therapy (ACT) for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few fully implemented ACT have been conducted on the neural mechanisms underlying its effect on OCD. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the neural correlates of ACT in patients with OCD using task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Patients with OCD were randomly assigned to the ACT (n = 21) or the wait-list control group (n = 21). An 8-week group-format ACT program was provided to the ACT group. All participants underwent an fMRI scan and psychological measurements before and after 8 weeks.
Patients with OCD showed significantly increased activation in the bilateral insula and superior temporal gyri (STG), induced by the thought-action fusion task after ACT intervention. Further psycho-physiological interaction analyses with these regions as seeds revealed that the left insular–left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) connectivity was strengthened in the ACT group after treatment. Increased resting-state functional connectivity was also found in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, and lingual gyrus after ACT intervention Most of these regions showed significant correlations with ACT process measures while only the right insula was correlated with the obsessive-compulsive symptom measure.
These findings suggest that the therapeutic effect of ACT on OCD may involve the salience and interoception processes (i.e. insula), multisensory integration (i.e. STG), language (i.e. IFG), and self-referential processes (i.e. PCC and precuneus). These areas or their interactions could be important for understanding how ACT works psychologically.
The invention of the MP3 and its distribution on the internet affected the South Korean music industry in multifarious ways, instigating a sharp decrease in CD sales but also contributing to K-pop’s shift from audio to visual culture. Because many scholars contend that K-pop is driven by the visual, academic analysis has been dominated by discussions of visual aesthetics; other aspects of K-pop, especially its use of acoustic techniques and vocalization, have largely been neglected. Drawing on R. Murray Schafer’s definition of “soundscape” – where sound is the combination of layers of culture, place, acoustic space, and technology – this chapter provides an overview of K-pop’s soundscapes over the past thirty years. The industry has responded to new recording technologies and new media, which are linked to specific aspects of South Korean time and space. The mediation of sound in studio recording booths, where K-pop singers give literal voice to their self-expression, has become an integral component of the sonic form. In addition to the vocal styles of K-pop artists, the chapter addresses the auditory practices of recording artists ranging from singer-songwriters to K-pop boy bands as well as the interventions of sound engineers and producers in the recording process.
Predicting the course of depression is necessary for personalized treatment. Impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) was introduced as a promising depression biomarker, but no consensus was made. This study aimed to predict IGM at the time of depression diagnosis and examine the relationship between long-term prognosis and predicted results.
Clinical data were extracted from four electronic health records in South Korea. The study population included patients with depression, and the outcome was IGM within 1 year. One database was used to develop the model using three algorithms. External validation was performed using the best algorithm across the three databases. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine the model’s performance. Kaplan–Meier and Cox survival analyses of the risk of hospitalization for depression as the long-term outcome were performed. A meta-analysis of the long-term outcome was performed across the four databases.
A prediction model was developed using the data of 3,668 people, with an AUC of 0.781 with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression. In the external validation, the AUCs were 0.643, 0.610, and 0.515. Through the predicted results, survival analysis and meta-analysis were performed; the hazard ratios of risk of hospitalization for depression in patients predicted to have IGM was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.41, p = 0.027) at a 3-year follow-up.
We developed prediction models for IGM occurrence within a year. The predicted results were related to the long-term prognosis of depression, presenting as a promising IGM biomarker related to the prognosis of depression.
Mood disorders require consistent management of symptoms to prevent recurrences of mood episodes. Circadian rhythm (CR) disruption is a key symptom of mood disorders to be proactively managed to prevent mood episode recurrences. This study aims to predict impending mood episodes recurrences using digital phenotypes related to CR obtained from wearable devices and smartphones.
The study is a multicenter, nationwide, prospective, observational study with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder I, and bipolar II disorder. A total of 495 patients were recruited from eight hospitals in South Korea. Patients were followed up for an average of 279.7 days (a total sample of 75 506 days) with wearable devices and smartphones and with clinical interviews conducted every 3 months. Algorithms predicting impending mood episodes were developed with machine learning. Algorithm-predicted mood episodes were then compared to those identified through face-to-face clinical interviews incorporating ecological momentary assessments of daily mood and energy.
Two hundred seventy mood episodes recurred in 135 subjects during the follow-up period. The prediction accuracies for impending major depressive episodes, manic episodes, and hypomanic episodes for the next 3 days were 90.1, 92.6, and 93.0%, with the area under the curve values of 0.937, 0.957, and 0.963, respectively.
We predicted the onset of mood episode recurrences exclusively using digital phenotypes. Specifically, phenotypes indicating CR misalignment contributed the most to the prediction of episodes recurrences. Our findings suggest that monitoring of CR using digital devices can be useful in preventing and treating mood disorders.
The COVID-19 pandemic poses a major threat to mental health and is associated with an increased risk of suicide. An understanding of suicidal behaviours during the pandemic is necessary for establishing policies to prevent suicides in such social conditions.
We aimed to investigate vulnerable individuals and the characteristics of changes in suicidal behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with suicide attempts who visited the emergency department from February 2019 to January 2021. We analysed the demographic and clinical characteristics, risk factors and rescue factors of patients, and compared the findings between the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods.
In total, 519 patients were included. During the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, 303 and 270 patients visited the emergency department after a suicide attempt, respectively. The proportion of suicide attempts by women (60.1% v. 69.3%, P = 0.035) and patients with a previous psychiatric illness (63.4% v. 72.9%, P = 0.006) increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, patients’ rescue scores during the pandemic were lower than those during the pre-pandemic period (12 (interquartile range: 11–13) v. 13 (interquartile range: 12–14), P < 0.001).
Women and people with previous psychiatric illnesses were more vulnerable to suicide attempts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Suicide prevention policies, such as continuous monitoring and staying in touch with vulnerable individuals, are necessary to cope with suicide risk.
There has been increasing evidence of hormonal changes during reproductive events that lead to mood changes. However, studies on the severity of psychological problems according to the menopausal stage are limited. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between menopausal stages, depression and suicidality.
A total of 45 177 women who underwent regular health check-ups between 2015 and 2018 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital were included. Participants were stratified into four groups (pre-menopause, early transition, late transition and post-menopause) based on the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop Criteria. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CESD) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the degree of depressive symptoms was classified as moderate (CESD score 16–24) or severe (CESD score ⩾ 25). To measure suicide risk, we administered questionnaires related to suicidal ideation.
Overall, the prevalence of CESD scores of 16–24 and ⩾ 25 was 7.6 and 2.8%, respectively. Menopausal stages were positively associated with depressive symptoms in a dose-dependent manner. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs, 95% confidence intervals) for CESD scores of 16–24 comparing the stages of the early menopausal transition (MT), late MT and post-menopause to pre-menopause was 1.28 (1.16–1.42), 1.21 (1.05–1.38) and 1.58 (1.36–1.84), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted PRs for CESD scores ⩾ 25 comparing the stages of the early MT, late MT and post-menopause to pre-menopause were 1.31 (1.11–1.55), 1.39 (1.12–1.72), 1.86 (1.47–2.37), respectively. In addition, the multivariable-adjusted PRs for suicidal ideation comparing the early MT, late MT and post-menopause stages to the pre-menopause stage were 1.24 (1.12–1.38), 1.07 (0.93–1.24) and 1.46 (1.25–1.70) (p for trend <0.001), respectively.
These findings indicate that the prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation increases with advancing menopausal stage, even pre-menopause.
It has been suggested that psychosocial factors are related to survival time of inpatients with cancer. However, there are not many studies examining the relationship between spiritual well-being (SWB) and survival time among countries. This study investigated the relationship between SWB and survival time among three East Asian countries.
This international multicenter cohort study is a secondary analysis involving newly admitted inpatients with advanced cancer in palliative care units in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. SWB was measured using the Integrated Palliative Outcome Scale (IPOS) at admission. We performed multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model to identify independent prognostic factors.
A total of 2,638 patients treated at 37 palliative care units from January 2017 to September 2018 were analyzed. The median survival time was 18.0 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.5–19.5) in Japan, 23.0 days (95% CI 19.9–26.1) in Korea, and 15.0 days (95% CI 13.0–17.0) in Taiwan. SWB was a significant factor correlated with survival in Taiwan (hazard ratio [HR] 1.27; 95% CI 1.01–1.59; p = 0.04), while it was insignificant in Japan (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.00–1.22; p = 0.06), and Korea (HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.77–1.35; p = 0.89).
Significance of results
SWB on admission was associated with survival in patients with advanced cancer in Taiwan but not Japan or Korea. The findings suggest the possibility of a positive relationship between spiritual care and survival time in patients with far advanced cancer.
Sarcopenic obesity is defined as the presence of high fat mass and low muscle mass combined with low physical function, and it is closely related with the onset of cardiovasular diseases (CVD). The existing anthropometric indices, which are being utilised in clinical practice as predictors of CVD, may also be used to screen sarcopenic obesity, but their feasibility remained unknown. Using cross-sectional data of 2031 participants aged 70–84 years (mean age, 75·9 ± 3·9 years; 49·2 % women) from the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study, we analysed the association of anthropometric indices, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and weight-adjusted waist index (WWI) with sarcopenic obesity. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Higher WWI, WHtR and WC quartiles were associated with higher risk of sarcopenic obesity; the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenic obesity were highest in the fourth quartile of the WWI (OR: 10·99, 95 % CI: 4·92–24·85, Pfor trend < 0·001). WWI provided the best diagnostic power for sarcopenic obesity in men (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0·781, 95 % CI: 0·751–0·837). No anthropometric indices were significantly associated with sarcopenic obesity in women. WWI was the only index that was negatively correlated with physical function in both men and women. WWI showed the strongest association with sarcopenic obesity, defined by high fat mass and low muscle mass combined with low physical function only in older men. No anthropometric indices were associated with sarcopenic obesity in older women.
The risk factors of environmental contamination by SARS-CoV-2 are largely unknown. We analyzed 1,320 environmental samples obtained from COVID-19 patients over 1 year. The risk factors for contamination of COVID-19 patients’ surrounding environment were higher viral load in the respiratory tract and shorter duration from symptom onset to sample collection.
There is growing evidence that the side of brain lesions results in distinct upper extremity deficits in motor control, movement behavior, and emotional and cognitive function poststroke. We investigated self-evaluation errors, which are the differences in scores between patient self-evaluation and clinician evaluations, and compared patients with left hemisphere damage (LHD) and right hemisphere damage (RHD) poststroke.
Twenty-eight patients with chronic stroke (LHD = 16) performed the actual amount of the test twice with a one-week interval. We videotaped the participants' movements, and participants with stroke and evaluators graded the quality of movement scores by watching video recordings.
Self-evaluation errors were significantly lower in patients with LHD than in those with RHD (t = 2.350, p = .019). Interestingly, this error did not change after the clinician provided the correct score as feedback. Chi-squared analysis revealed that more patients with LHD underestimated their movements (χ2 = 9.049, p = .002), while more patients with RHD overestimated (χ2 = 7.429, p = .006) in the send evaluation. Furthermore, there were no correlations between self-evaluation error and age, cognitive function, physical impairment, ability to control emotions, or onset months poststroke.
Patients with stroke and therapists evaluated the same movements differently, and this can be dependent on hemispheric damage. Therapists might need to encourage patients with LHD who underestimate their movement to ensure continuous use of their more-affected arm. Patients with RHD who overestimate their movement might need treatment to overcome impaired self-awareness, such as video recordings, to protect from unexpected dangerous situations.
This study investigated the characteristics of transmission routes of COVID-19 cluster infections (⩾10 linked cases within a short period) in Gangwon Province between 22 February 2020 and 31 May 2021. Transmission routes were divided into five major categories and 35 sub-categories according to the relationship between the infector and the infectee and the location of transmission. A total of 61 clusters occurred during the study period, including 1741 confirmed cases (55.7% of all confirmed cases (n = 3125)). The the five major routes of transmission were as follows: ‘using (staying in) the same facility (50.7%), ‘cohabiting family members’ (23.3%), ‘social gatherings with acquaintances’ (10.8%), ‘other transmission routes’ (7.0%), and ‘social gatherings with non-cohabiting family members/relatives’ (5.5%). For transmission caused by using (staying in) the same facility, the highest number of confirmed cases was associated with churches, followed by medical institutions (inpatient), sports facilities, military bases, offices, nightlife businesses, schools, restaurants, day-care centres and kindergarten, and service businesses. Our analysis highlights specific locations with frequent transmission of infections, and transmission routes that should be targeted in situations where adherence to disease control rules is difficult.
There are growing concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of older adults. We examined the effect of the pandemic on the risk of depression in older adults.
We analyzed data from the prospective cohort study of Korean older adults, which has been followed every 2 years. Among the 2308 participants who completed both the third and the fourth follow-up assessments, 58.4% completed their fourth follow-up before the outbreak of COVID-19 and the rest completed it during the pandemic. We conducted face-to-face diagnostic interviews using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and used Geriatric Depression Scale. We performed generalized estimating equations and logistic regression analyses.
The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased depressive symptoms in older adults [b (standard error) = 0.42 (0.20), p = 0.040] and a doubling of the risk for incident depressive disorder even in euthymic older adults without a history of depression (odds ratio = 2.44, 95% confidence interval 1.18–5.02, p = 0.016). Less social activities, which was associated with the risk of depressive disorder before the pandemic, was not associated with the risk of depressive disorder during the pandemic. However, less family gatherings, which was not associated with the risk of depressive disorder before the pandemic, was associated with the doubled risk of depressive disorder during the pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly influences the risk of late-life depression in the community. Older adults with a lack of family gatherings may be particularly vulnerable.
This study aims to identify factors associated with divorce following breast cancer diagnosis and measures the impact of divorce on the quality of life (QoL) of patients.
We used cross-sectional survey data collected at breast cancer outpatient clinics in South Korea from November 2018 to April 2019. Adult breast cancer survivors who completed active treatment without any cancer recurrence at the time of the survey (N = 4,366) were included. The participants were classified into two groups: “maintaining marriage” and “being divorced,” between at the survey and at the cancer diagnosis. We performed logistic regression and linear regression to identify the factors associated with divorce after cancer diagnosis and to compare the QoL of divorced and nondivorced survivors.
Approximately 11.1/1,000 of married breast cancer survivors experienced divorce after cancer diagnosis. Younger age, lower education, and being employed at diagnosis were associated with divorce. Being divorced survivors had significantly lower QoL (Coefficient [Coef] = −7.50; 95% CI = −13.63, −1.36), social functioning (Coef = −9.47; 95% CI = −16.36, −2.57), and body image (Coef = −8.34; 95% CI = −6.29, −0.39) than survivors who remained married. They also experienced more symptoms including pain, insomnia, financial difficulties, and distress due to hair loss.
Identifying risk factors of divorce will ultimately help ascertain the resources necessary for early intervention.