Behavioral genetic research has been conducted at the University of Warsaw for the past 20 years. The work done at the University focuses primarily on the origins of individual differences in temperament and other personality traits. In particular, research is directed toward the traits postulated in the Regulative Theory of Temperament. We also focused on the heritability of socio-political attitudes, risk factors for human health, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The majority of the research that has been carried out is grounded in twin and family studies, although recent work based on molecular techniques has also been developed. This article reviews the most important directions and findings of behavioral genetics research at the University of Warsaw.