Tillage is used in sugarcane to control weeds, eliminate ruts caused by harvest, destroy residue from the previous crop, and incorporate fertilizer. The effect of weed control and tillage programs on sugarcane growth and yield and on economics was evaluated over two growing seasons. In the first study, weeds were effectively controlled with a March application of hexazinone at 0.59 kg ai/ha plus diuron at 2.10 kg ai/ha either banded or broadcast. When tillage of row shoulders and middles in March was eliminated, soil temperature in the sugarcane drill early in the season was equal to that where March tillage was performed. Sugarcane early and late season stalk population and sugarcane and sugar yield were each equivalent for the full season tillage (tillage of row shoulders and middles in March and in May) and the no-till programs. Elimination of a single tillage operation reduced cost $16.28/ha, and herbicide applied as a band rather than broadcast reduced cost $30.49/ ha. For the no-till program, with herbicide banded in March, net return was increased $32.56/ha. In a subsequent study conducted at five locations, weed control was excellent when either pendimethalin at 2.77 kg ai/ha plus metribuzin at 1.26 kg ai/ha or hexazinone plus diuron at 0.59 kg/ha and 2.10 kg/ha was used. When the March tillage was eliminated, sugar yield was increased 8.6% (620 kg/ ha), and net return was increased $152.68/ha compared with March tillage. When the May tillage was eliminated sugar yield was increased 8% (580 kg/ha), and net return was increased $143.88/ha compared with May tillage. A reduction in tillage cost accounted for only $16.28 of the increase in net return per hectare, with the remainder due to increased yield with the elimination of the tillage operation.