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CompStat emerged in the mid 1990s and quickly came to be seen as a major innovation in American policing. By the turn of the century it had received national awards from Harvard University and former Vice President Gore, and was featured prominently along with William Bratton (the police administrator who created the program) in the national news media. Its originators and proponents gave CompStat credit for impressive reductions in crime and improvements in neighborhood quality of life in a number of cities that had adopted the program (Silverman, 1996; Remnick, 1997; Gurwitt, 1998; Bratton, 1999). And while CompStat was first introduced only in 1994 in New York City, police departments around the country had begun to adopt it or variations of it by the first decade of the new century (Law Enforcement News, 1997; Maas, 1998; McDonald, 1998; Weisburd et al., 2003; Willis, Mastrofski & Kochel, 2010a). Indeed, in a Police Foundation survey conducted only six years after CompStat emerged on the scene in New York City, more than a third of American police agencies with 100 or more sworn officers claimed to have implemented a CompStat-like program (Weisburd et al., 2001). By 2006, Willis, Mastrofski, and Kochel (2010b) reported that about 60 percent of large police agencies had adopted CompStat, and a Police Executive Research Forum membership survey in 2011 reported that 85 percent of 166 responding member agencies reported having adopted or plans to adopt CompStat (Bureau of Justice Assistance & Police Executive Research Forum, 2013). Drawing on this survey and the comments of police leaders, researchers, and others attending a conference on CompStat in 2013, a report on the meeting offered a uniformly positive assessment of CompStat’s performance to date, as well as its future potential: “Regardless of how it develops in the future, it is clear that Compstat has become an integral part of policing in the United States by helping agencies become more productive, agile, and effective” (BJA & PERF, 2013: 30).
Thin film samples represent ideal samples for analysis using X-ray fluorescence in that they tend to be flat, smooth and homogeneous. However, before a sample can be characterized using XRF, several questions must be answered.
The use of empirical analysis techniques for the simultaneous determination of the thickness and composition of thin film samples usually requires a suite of well characterized similar type standards. While this may be adequate for a quality control application, this requirement severely limits the utility of X-ray fluorescence in the analysis of thin films in a service lab or research environment.
The use of fundamental parameters in the analysis of thin films allows the simultaneous determination of the thickness and composition of single and multiple layer thin film unknown samples without the use of similar type standards.
We present VELOCIraptor, a massively parallel galaxy/(sub)halo finder that is also capable of robustly identifying tidally disrupted objects and separate stellar halos from galaxies. The code is written in C++11, use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and OpenMP Application Programming Interface (API) for parallelisation, and includes python tools to read/manipulate the data products produced. We demonstrate the power of the VELOCIraptor (sub)halo finder, showing how it can identify subhalos deep within the host that have negligible density contrasts to their parent halo. We find a subhalo mass-radial distance dependence: large subhalos with mass ratios of ≳10−2 are more common in the central regions than smaller subhalos, a result of dynamical friction and low tidal mass loss rates. This dependence is completely absent in (sub)halo finders in common use, which generally search for substructure in configuration space, yet is present in codes that track particles belonging to halos as they fall into other halos, such as hbt+. VELOCIraptor largely reproduces the dependence seen without tracking, finding a similar radial dependence to hbt+ in well-resolved halos from our limited resolution fiducial simulation.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study seeks to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) treatment for chronic pain patients in a primary care clinic METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Primary care patients aged 18 years and older with at least 1 pain condition for 12 weeks or more in duration will be recruited. Patients will be randomized into (a) ACT intervention or (b) control group. Participants in the ACT arm will attend 1 individual visit with an integrated behavioral health provider, followed by 3 weekly ACT classes and a booster class 2 months later. Control group will receive enhanced primary care that includes patient education handouts informed by cognitive behavioral science. Data analysis will include 1-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), multiple regression with bootstrapping. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The overall hypothesis is that brief ACT treatment reduces physical disability, improves functioning, and reduces medication misuse in chronic pain patients when delivered by an integrated behavioral health provider in primary care. In addition, it is anticipated that improvements in patient functioning will be mediated by patient change in pain acceptance and patient engagement in value-consistent behaviors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot study will establish preliminary data about the effectiveness of addressing chronic pain in a generalizable integrated primary care setting. Data will help support a larger trial in the future. Findings have potential to transform the way chronic pain is currently managed in primary care settings, with results that could decrease disability and improve functioning among patients suffering from chronic pain.
The word of God is in my hands and everything has changed. In many ways this idea is at the heart of the Protestant literary imagination. While Protestants may imagine their origins from Luther and his forerunners, the origins of their literary sensibilities lay closer in spirit to William Tyndale with both his vernacular translations and his theological vision expressed in works such as The Obedience of a Christian Man. Tyndale articulated two abiding sensibilities: first, that the word of God may be placed in the everyday language of the people and, second, that all our words and thoughts may be soaked in a scriptural imagination such that we need no ecclesiastical or political ruler to hear God's voice and know the divine dictums. Such sensibilities grew like a swelling tide that covered over countless women and men, drenching them in a biblical world the contours and extent of which many were never able to escape, even if they wanted to, even if they disavowed all claims to any real connection between human words and God's voice. The drenching was complete.
The Protestant literary imagination is a storied imagination, imbued with the compelling narratives of the Bible and a compellingly biblical way of narrating life. The Bible came to life – living, breathing, and moving – and this is what constituted the Protestant. Of course, there is a central element of theological protest against a lax Catholicism in the origination of Protestantism, but biblical literacy is the birth parent who taught Protestants the stories of their lives and which became the story of their life. Like so many others, the Bible was the book that introduced me to the book. It was the pedagogue that guided me in the joy of reading, writing, and discovery. Biblical literacy gave birth to literacy for me, but not only for me but also for much of the Protestant world. The Protestant story is the story of literacy in unanticipated hands, but with mixed consequences and mangled results. This chapter considers those mixed consequences and mangled results and their legacy in the literary vision of those who carry the imprint of its effects.
The following list presents dates on a portion of the samples measured at ISOTOPES during 1967 and 1968 and measurements made previously for which either complete sample data has been recently received, or, in some cases, deferred due to the editorial load in preparing the definitive list.
The measurements presented in this date list were made in the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Teledyne Isotopes during 1969–70. Samples were analyzed by techniques described in R., 1968, v. 10, p. 246. Methods and references to sample pretreatment are provided in R., 1970, v. 12, p. 87. Errors associated with the age determinations are calculated by combining standard deviations from oxalic acid standard, background, and actual sample data. Samples which approach modern or background are reported with at least 2σ limits. Counting time for calculation of errors of background and standard is the same as that used for the sample. The error associated with the De Vries effect and the uncertainty of the half-life are not included.
Previously, it has been shown that strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) supplementations, when fed to rats from 19 to 21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenols, including decreased stress signalling, increased neurogenesis, and increased signals involved in learning and memory. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine these mechanisms in aged animals by administering a control, 2 % SB- or 2 % BB-supplemented diet to aged Fischer 344 rats for 8 weeks to ascertain their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioural and neuronal function. The results showed that rats consuming the berry diets exhibited enhanced motor performance and improved cognition, specifically working memory. In addition, the rats supplemented with BB and SB diets showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, although the improvements in working memory performance could not solely be explained by these increases. The diverse polyphenolics in these berry fruits may have additional mechanisms of action that could account for their relative differences in efficacy.
The Center for Functional Nanoscale Materials (CFNM), an NSF Center for Research Excellence in Science and Technology, at Clark Atlanta University has partnered with ACS (American Chemical Society) Project SEED. The ACS project SEED program is recognized nationally as providing hands-on research opportunities to disadvantaged high school students who historically lack exposures to scientific careers. The University is a minority serving institution (MSI) and has an excellent relationship with Atlanta area school systems, which serve the African American community. Students entering their junior and senior years in high school were selected based on their academic performance, an essay and letters of recommendation for participation the Center’s eight week summer nanoscholar Program. Professors served as advisors and/or mentors and graduate students and doctoral fellows served as mentors. The Program included a variety of enrichment activities. All summer nanoscholars had personal research projects that were integral to the research programs of their advisors, and they presented their work in the form of a symposium at the end of the Program. We have completed three summers as an ACS Project SEED site. So far we have had one SEED scholar submit a major manuscript, two were invited to present at ACS National Meetings and one was awarded an eight year Gates-Millennium fellowship. Evaluation of the project strongly suggests that our approach is effective for opening doors for the economically disadvantaged students and tapping the best and the brightest for careers in the sciences and engineering. In the words of one of our young scholars “I realized that research is a continuous learning process. You can never know everything. Even a professor has credentials but they’re still continuing to learn.”
A new technology to size nanoparticles in liquids is presented. The technique is based on aerosol technology coupled to a nanoparticle nebulizer. This allows number concentration measurements in the size range ca. 5 to 500 nm with high peak resolution.
The large piezoelectric constants of GaN suggest possible application of GaN-based materials in piezoelectric sensors, among other areas. GaN's wide band gap implies that these sensors will fare well over a broad temperature range and/or in a harsh environment.
In this work, films of gallium nitride approximately 0.75 micron thick and grown by MOCVD were subject to an externally-imposed radial stress condition. Deposition was performed in a commercial MOCVD reactor (CVD, Inc.) at 1323K using trimethylgallium and ammonia as the chemical precursors. The substrate was one-inch diameter silicon (111). After deposition, titanium dots were deposited in various locations, including the wafer center, by evaporation. Stress was applied to the film/substrate system using a modified micrometer head (Mitutoyo) mounted to an Ionic Systems Basic Stressgauge (model 30285). Stress levels were calculated based on the magnitude of the imposed deflection as read from the micrometer head display, and the piezoelectric response at any particular dot with respect to the center dot was measured by measuring the voltage difference using a digital multimeter (Keithley 175). The micrometer head impinged on the center dot and served as one electrical contact point.
Effective piezoelectric coefficients were measured as a function of imposed radial stress. Applied stresses in the range of 1 to 5 GPa resulted in effective piezoelectric coefficients ranging from –0.6 to –2.0 × 10-5 C/m2
Fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to study the miscibility of methyl silsesquioxane (MSSQ)/poly(methyl methacrylate-co-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) [P(MMA-co-DMAEMA)] hybrid nanocomposites, which are useful in fabricating the next generation of spin-on, ultra-low dielectric constant materials in the microelectronic industries. In this work, we have attached the pyrene group into the PMMA side chains. MSSQ with different amount of initial -SiOH (silanol) endgroups are used to study the effect of endgroup functionality on the phase separation behavior of the hybrid nanocomposites. Pyrene excimer fluorescence results reveal that MSSQ is miscible with P(MMA-co-DMAEMA) only up to 6 wt% P(MMA-co-DMAEMA) loading level, thus establishing an upper limit on local miscibility with MSSQ. As the P(MMA-co-DMAEMA) loading level increases, the excimer to monomer ratios also increase, suggesting that the MSSQ/P(MMA-co-DMAEMA) hybrid nanocomposites move toward greater immiscibility. This ratio approaches that of the neat polymer for domain sizes > 5 nm (SAXS, SANS). The fluorescence results also show that, the lower the amount of initial silanol groups in MSSQ, the greater the immiscibility of the MSSQ and porogen, which ultimately translates into larger pores upon porogen burnout.
Proton radiography using laser-driven sources has been developed as a diagnostic since the beginning of the decade, and applied successfully to a range of experimental situations. Multi-MeV protons driven from thin foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, offer, under optimal conditions, the possibility of probing laser-plasma interactions, and detecting electric and magnetic fields as well as plasma density gradients with ~ps temporal resolution and ~ 5–10 µm spatial resolution. In view of these advantages, the use of proton radiography as a diagnostic in experiments of relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion is currently considered in the main fusion laboratories. This paper will discuss recent advances in the application of laser-driven radiography to experiments of relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion. In particular we will discuss radiography of hohlraum and gasbag targets following the interaction of intense ns pulses. These experiments were carried out at the HELEN laser facility at AWE (UK), and proved the suitability of this diagnostic for studying, with unprecedented detail, laser-plasma interaction mechanisms of high relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion. Non-linear solitary structures of relevance to space physics, namely phase space electron holes, have also been highlighted by the measurements. These measurements are discussed and compared to existing models.