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Global challenges ranging from climate change and ecological regime shifts to refugee crises and post-national territorial claims are rapidly moving ecosystem thresholds and altering the social fabric of societies worldwide. This book addresses the vital question of how to navigate the contested forces of stability and change in a world shaped by multiple interconnected global challenges. It proposes that senses of place is a vital concept for supporting individual and social processes for navigating these contested forces and encourages scholars to rethink how to theorise and conceptualise changes in senses of place in the face of global challenges. It also makes the case that our concepts of sense of place need to be revisited, given that our experiences of place are changing. This book is essential reading for those seeking a new understanding of the multiple and shifting experiences of place.
The Art of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is an engaging and authoritative account of the essential skills required to practice child and adolescent psychiatry for all those working in children's mental health, from trainees to experienced professionals in paediatrics, psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. The practical tasks of meeting the child and family, planning treatments, and working with colleagues are all covered, building on existing texts that mainly focus on diagnostic criteria, protocols, and laws. This book respects the evidence base, while also pointing out its limitations, and suggests ways in which to deal with these. Psychiatry is placed within broader frameworks including strategy, learning, management, philosophy, ethics, and interpersonal relations. With over 200 educational vignettes of the authors' vast experience in the field, the book is also highly illustrated. The Art of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is an indispensable guide to thoughtful practice in children's mental health.
The theory and practice of civil disobedience has once again taken on import, given recent events. Considering widespread dissatisfaction with normal political mechanisms, even in well-established liberal democracies, civil disobedience remains hugely important, as a growing number of individuals and groups pursue political action. 'Digital disobedients', Black Lives Matter protestors, Extinction Rebellion climate change activists, Hong Kong activists resisting the PRC's authoritarian clampdown…all have practiced civil disobedience. In this Companion, an interdisciplinary group of scholars reconsiders civil disobedience from many perspectives. Whether or not civil disobedience works, and what is at stake when protestors describe their acts as civil disobedience, is systematically examined, as are the legacies and impact of Henry Thoreau, Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King.
Contemporary monetary institutions are flawed at a foundational level. The reigning paradigm in monetary policy holds up constrained discretion as the preferred operating framework for central banks. But no matter how smart or well-intentioned are central bankers, discretionary policy contains information and incentive problems that make macroeconomic stability systematically unlikely. Furthermore, central bank discretion implicitly violates the basic jurisprudential norms of liberal democracy. Drawing on a wide body of scholarship, this volume presents a novel argument in favor of embedding monetary institutions into a rule of law framework. The authors argue for general, predictable rules to provide a sturdier foundation for economic growth and prosperity. A rule of law approach to monetary policy would remedy the flaws that resulted in misguided monetary responses to the 2007-8 financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the case for true monetary rules is the first step toward creating more stable monetary institutions.
Antislavery writers experimented with the idea that slaves and masters might address each other through direct and formalized literary dialogues. To do so, these activists used pamphlets, a genre that had already enabled differing religious, political, and intellectual points of view to engage each other in eighteenth-century North America. In the deliberately double meaning of “salvation,” both political and religious, for both this world and the next, David Walker’s Appeal brings to bold fruition an idea only incipient in the dialogic experiments of Benjamin Banneker and Daniel Coker, that recognizing and following Black, not white, moral and spiritual leadership was the only hope for a slavery-corrupted America.
South Africa provides a unique vantage point from which to examine the scientific imagination over the last three centuries, when its position on the African continent made it a staging post for Portuguese, Dutch, and British colonialism. In the eighteenth century, South African plants and animals caught the imagination of visiting Europeans. In the nineteenth century, science became central to imperial conquest, devastating wars, agricultural intensification and the exploitation of rich mineral resources. Scientific work both facilitated, and offered alternatives to, the imposition of segregation and apartheid in the twentieth century. William Beinart and Saul Dubow offer an innovative exploration of science and technology in this complex, divided society. Bridging a range of disciplines from astronomy to zoology, they demonstrate how scientific knowledge shaped South Africa's peculiar path to modernity. In so doing, they examine the work of remarkable individual scientists and institutions, as well as the contributions of leading politicians from Jan Smuts to Thabo Mbeki.
In Chapter 10, Katherine Williams consider female songwriters, focusing upon singer-songwriters who write and perform their own material, as opposed to songwriters who compose material for other artists. Concentrating upon four case studies, Williams interrogates the music of Carole King, Joni Mitchell, Kate Bush, and Adele.
This volume is a selection of essays taken from the excellent range of papers presented at the British Legal History Conference hosted by the Institute for Legal and Constitutional Research at the University of St Andrews, 10–13 July 2019. The theme of the conference gives this book its title: ‘comparative legal history’. The topic came easily to the organisers because of their association with the St Andrews-based European Research Council Advanced grant project ‘Civil law, common law, customary law: consonance, divergence and transformation in Western Europe from the late eleventh to the thirteenth centuries’. But the chosen topic was also connected to the fact that this was, we think, the first British Legal History Conference held at a university without a Law faculty. Bearing in mind the question of how far institutional setting determines approach, our hope was that an element of fruitful comparison would stimulate people to think further about the range of approaches to legal history. With its explicit agenda of breaking down barriers, comparative legal history provided a particularly suitable focus for this investigation. After situating the subject matter of comparative legal history, and then discussing the levels of comparison that may be most fertile, this introduction moves on to considering the practical tasks of researching and writing such history, using the essays included in the volume to suggest ways ahead. The introduction groups the essays under certain headings: ‘Exploring legal transplants’; ‘Investigating broader geographical areas’; ‘Case law, precedent and relationships between legal systems’; and ‘Exploring past comparativists and the challenges of writing comparative legal history’. Yet the essays could be kaleidoscopically rearranged under many headings. We hope that the book, like a successful conference, includes many stimulating conversations.
The radical or underlying title of the Crown to all lands in the kingdom is a feature of English common law derived from Anglo-Norman feudal doctrines. When British sovereignty was proclaimed over new plantations or colonies, following the reasoning of William Blackstone, English law was part and parcel of the birthright of British subjects (whether English, Welsh, Scottish or Irish) who settled in ‘uncultivated’ distant lands. Crown title, though, is now said by the Supreme Court of Canada “to be burdened by the pre-existing legal rights of Aboriginal people who occupied and used the land prior to European arrival.” [Tsilhqot’in Nation 2014) Development of what is called the ‘common law doctrine of aboriginal title’ – though not derived from English common law – is a feature of case precedents in Canada, Australia and New Zealand in recent decades. Courts in these jurisdictions have consistently relied on proclamations of British sovereignty as the origin point for the radical title of the Crown, and the Crown’s right to extinguish native title. The comparative aspect of the paper investigates divergent judicial responses to the status and relevance of pre-existing indigenous norms and values. These range from terra nullius outright rejection of their relevance, to limited acceptance of usufructuary and possessory rights, to a broader acceptance that native title must be understood in the light of indigenous understandings.
James VI and I was the first king personally to act as a judge in both Scotland and England. He was also the last king to sit as a judge in either country. Although James did not sit as a judge frequently, he did so on several occasions. James’s ideas about the king as a judge were disseminated in his speeches and printed works. This material has not been used by historians, despite the importance contemporaries attached to some of James’s appearances as a judge. This paper investigates James’s judicial role. It compares both James’s judicial activity in his two realms and James’s ideas of the king as judge to his practice of judging.
Video games are an international phenomenon. That statement is true both in the colloquial sense – games are a tremendously popular media form enjoyed by more than a billion players around the globe – but also in the sense that they are profoundly international. Games on my phone, computer or shelf right now were created in countries including: Canada (Assassin’s Creed), Germany (Risen), Japan (Final Fantasy XV), Poland (The Witcher 3), South Africa (Desktop Dungeons), South Korea (Magna Carta), the United Kingdom (The Room), the United States (Fallout) and Uruguay (Kingdom Rush) – amongst others. Despite this diversity, however, relatively few video games are overtly identified as products of any particular geographic region. Instead, developers often deliberately eliminate or minimize region-specific identifiers through a process called localization, in which aspects of a game are adapted to fit the perceived cultural norms and preferences of a target market.1 This process most obviously includes translation of all game text into different languages, which can be in itself a fraught process. Yet localization also involves a wide range of minor, or possibly major, alterations to game content.2 The economic allure of localization is immense, and well documented. As Rebecca Carlson and Jonathan Corliss have noted, the fundamental concept is that ‘products must appear as if they were manufactured domestically, suggesting that consumers only want goods that feel familiar and “local”’.3 Moreover, in some cases developers must localize games to accommodate legal restrictions, as in the case of Germany, where certain types of imagery and violence are restricted in games.
Psychological research investigating sound and music has increasingly been adapted to the evaluation of soundtracking for games, and is now being considered in the development and design stages of some titles. This chapter summarizes the main findings of this body of knowledge. It also describes the application of emotional measurement techniques and player responses using biophysiological metering and analysis. The distinction between different types of psychophysiological responses to sound and music are explored, with the advantages and limitations of such techniques considered. The distinction between musically induced and perceived emotional response is of particular relevance to future game design, and the use of biophysiological metering presents a unique opportunity to create fast, continuous control signals for gaming and game sound to maximize player experiences. The world of game soundtracking also presents a unique opportunity to explore sound and music evaluation in ways which traditional musicology might not offer (for example, deliberately antagonistic music, non-linear sound design and so on). The chapter concludes with directions for future research based on the paradigm of biofeedback and bio-controlled game audio.