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Political sociology is a large and expanding field with many new developments, and The New Handbook of Political Sociology supplies the knowledge necessary to keep up with this exciting field. Written by a distinguished group of leading scholars in sociology, this volume provides a survey of this vibrant and growing field in the new millennium. The Handbook presents the field in six parts: theories of political sociology, the information and knowledge explosion, the state and political parties, civil society and citizenship, the varieties of state policies, and globalization and how it affects politics. Covering all subareas of the field with both theoretical orientations and empirical studies, it directly connects scholars with current research in the field. A total reconceptualization of the first edition, the new handbook features nine additional chapters and highlights the impact of the media and big data.
The early Holocene in North Africa remains a poorly known period, documented unequally by region. Eastern Algeria and Tunisia have the greatest number of deposits, but most were excavated decades ago without the controls and recording required for modern interpretation. The chronological framework is based on radiocarbon (14C) dates that are also old, for the most part. Recent work on Mesolithic lithic industries of Western Europe has enabled us to revive the hypothesis of the existence of contacts between the northern and southern shores of the western Mediterranean at least by the 6th millennium cal BC. A collective research program was conducted in 2016–2017 to test this hypothesis with a particular focus on documenting the technological traditions in the lithic industry and situating them precisely in time. We have 46 new radiocarbon dates that were recently carried out on previously excavated Algerian sites, some of which contain several levels, allowing the construction of Bayesian models. These new measures reinforce the hypothesis of contacts between Europe and Africa by demonstrating the contemporaneity of similar technological processes. Above all, they make it possible to accurately refine the chronology of the main cultural entities of the Maghreb at the beginning of the Holocene.
In addition to human, animal, and artificial intelligence, there is another important kind of intelligence on our planet: the collective intelligence of groups of individuals acting collectively in ways that seem intelligent. This chapter analyzes collective intelligence in terms of what tasks are being done, who is doing them, and why and how the tasks are being done. For instance, the chapter shows how groups can have both specialized and general collective intelligence and how the collective intelligence of a group can depend on the task-relevant abilities of group members, their interpersonal abilities, their diversity, and their intrinsic or extrinsic motivations. The chapter also analyzes the factors involved in group-level processes such as deciding, creating, remembering, sensing, learning, and coordinating. Just as studying the neural basis for intelligence links neural processes to cognitive psychology, studying collective intelligence links cognitive psychology to higher-level social, organizational, and economic processes.
The climate crisis requires nations to achieve human well-being with low national levels of carbon emissions. Countries vary from one another dramatically in how effectively they convert resources into well-being, and some nations with low levels of emissions have relatively high objective and subjective well-being. We identify urgent research and policy agendas for four groups of countries with either low or high emissions and well-being indicators. Least studied are those with low well-being and high emissions. Understanding social and political barriers to switching from high-carbon to lower-carbon modes of production and consumption, and ways to overcome them, will be fundamental.
For the problem of horizontal convection the Nusselt number based on entropy production is bounded from above by
as the horizontal convective Rayleigh number
for some constant
(Siggers et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 517, 2004, pp. 55–70). We re-examine the variational arguments leading to this ‘ultimate regime’ by using the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin method to solve the variational problem in the
limit and exhibiting solutions that achieve the ultimate
scaling. As expected, the optimizing flows have a boundary layer of thickness
pressed against the non-uniformly heated surface; but the variational solutions also have rapid oscillatory variation with wavelength
along the wall. As a result of the exact solution of the variational problem, the constant
is smaller than the previous estimate by a factor of
for no-slip and
for no-stress boundary conditions. This modest reduction in
indicates that the inequalities used by Siggers et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 517, 2004, pp. 55–70) are surprisingly accurate.
Although Kant’s final work in moral philosophy, Die Metaphysik der Sitten, currently attracts much scholarly attention, there is still a lot to explore. This article is an attempt to get to grips with a particular, often neglected passage of the Rechtslehre, namely §35. Here Kant defends the view that not only can a person’s good reputation can be tarnished after his death, but also that this constitutes a violation of this dead person’s property. Here I will not be able to fully clarify what Kant means when he holds that persons can be harmed after their death, but I will put Kant’s view in a few perspectives.
Foodborne salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the United States. In the summer of 2017, we investigated four multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with Maradol papayas imported from four Mexican farms. PulseNet initially identified a cluster of Salmonella Kiambu infections in June 2017, and early interviews identified papayas as an exposure of interest. Investigators from Maryland, Virginia and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected papayas for testing. Several strains of Salmonella were isolated from papayas sourced from Mexican Farm A, including Salmonella Agona, Gaminara, Kiambu, Thompson and Senftenberg. Traceback from two points of service associated with illness sub-clusters in two states identified Farm A as a common source of papayas, and three voluntary recalls of Farm A papayas were issued. FDA sampling isolated four additional Salmonella strains from papayas sourced from Mexican Farms B, C and D. In total, four outbreaks were identified, resulting in 244 cases with illness onset dates from 20 December 2016 to 20 September 2017. The sampling of papayas and the collaborative work of investigative partners were instrumental in identifying the source of these outbreaks and preventing additional illnesses. Evaluating epidemiological, laboratory and traceback evidence together during investigations is critical to solving and stopping outbreaks.
Precise radiocarbon (14C) dating of sedimentary sequences is important for developing robust chronologies of environmental change, but sampling of suitable components can be challenging in highly dynamic landscapes. Here we investigate radiocarbon determinations of different peat size fractions from six peat sites, representing a range of geomorphological contexts on the South Atlantic subantarctic islands of the Falklands and South Georgia. To investigate the most suitable fraction for dating, 112 measurements were obtained from three components within selected horizons: a fine fraction <0.2 mm, a coarse fraction >0.2 mm, and bulk material. We find site selection is critical, with locations surrounded by high-ground and/or relatively slowly accumulating sites more susceptible to the translocation of older carbon. Importantly, in locations with reduced potential for redeposition of material, our results show that there is no significant or systematic difference between ages derived from bulk material, fine or coarse (plant macrofossil) material, providing confidence in the resulting age model. Crucially, in areas comprising complex terrain with extreme relief, we recommend dating macrofossils or bulk carbon rather than a fine fraction, or employing comprehensive dating of multiple sedimentary fractions to determine the most reliable fraction(s) for developing a robust chronological framework.
Though theory suggests that individual differences in neuroticism (a tendency to experience negative emotions) would be associated with altered functioning of the amygdala (which has been linked with emotionality and emotion dysregulation in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), results of functional neuroimaging studies have been contradictory and inconclusive. We aimed to clarify the relationship between neuroticism and three hypothesized neural markers derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging during negative emotion face processing: amygdala activation, amygdala habituation, and amygdala-prefrontal connectivity, each of which plays an important role in the experience and regulation of emotions. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between trait neuroticism and the hypothesized neural markers in a large sample of over 500 young adults. Although neuroticism was not significantly associated with magnitude of amygdala activation or amygdala habituation, it was associated with amygdala–ventromedial prefrontal cortex connectivity, which has been implicated in emotion regulation. Results suggest that trait neuroticism may represent a failure in top-down control and regulation of emotional reactions, rather than overactive emotion generation processes, per se. These findings suggest that neuroticism, which has been associated with increased rates of transdiagnostic psychopathology, may represent a failure in the inhibitory neurocircuitry associated with emotion regulation.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) metric was created by the American Heart Association with the goal of educating the public on seven modifiable factors that contribute to heart health. While it is well documented that these ideal health behaviors lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, the association between the LS7 ideal health metrics and end stage renal disease (ESRD) risk has not been examined in a lower socioeconomic population at high risk for both ESRD and CVD. Our objective is to examine the association between the LS7 score and incident ESRD in a cohort of white and black men and women in the southeastern US, where rates of CVD and ESRD are high. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Southern Community Cohort Study recruited ~86,000 low-income blacks and whites in the southeastern US (2002-2009). Utilizing a nested case-control design, our analysis included 1628 incident cases of ESRD identified via linkage of the cohort with the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from January 1, 2002 to March 31, 2015. Controls (n = 4884) were individually matched 3:1 with ESRD cases based on age, sex, and race. Demographic, medical, and lifestyle information were obtained via baseline questionnaire. The AHA definitions for ideal health were used for non-smoking (never or quit >12 months), body mass index (BMI<25kg/m2) and physical activity (>75 min/week of vigorous physical activity or >150min/week of moderate/vigorous activity). Modified definitions were used for consuming a healthy diet [Healthy Eating Index (HEI10) score>70] and for blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol, based on self-reported no history of diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia, respectively. The number of ideal health parameters were summed to generate the LS7 score, which ranged from 0-7 with higher scores indicating more ideal health. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident ESRD associated with LS7 score were calculated using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for income and education. The SCCS ESRD case-cohort dataset will be available by TS 2019 and analyses will be completed to adjust for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a marker of kidney function and to examine whether eGFR modifies the relationship between LS7 and incident ESRD. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: At baseline, mean age was 54 years, 55% (3600) of participants were women, and 87% (5656) were black. A total of 58% (943) of ESRD cases were non-smokers compared to 54% (2633) of controls. ESRD cases had higher prevalence of BMI>25 kg/m2 (81% vs. 74%), hypertension (84% vs. 59%), hypercholesterolemia (48% vs. 34%), and diabetes (66% vs. 22%) compared to controls. A total of 18% (839) of controls and 12% (194) of ESRD cases met ideal exercise recommendations, and 20% of either cases (302) or controls (916) had a HEI10 score above 70. The median LS7 score for controls and ESRD cases was 3 and 2, respectively, and 17% (983) of participants had a low score (0-1) while 2% (105) met 6 or 7 ideal health metrics. Higher LS7 score was associated with lower odds of ESRD (P-trend<0.001). Participants with LS7 score >3 (above median) had 75% reduced odds of ESRD (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.22, 0.29) compared to those with a score of 2 or less. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In the SCCS population, the presence of any 3 or more ideal health behaviors is associated with reduced odds of developing ESRD. The components of the LS7 represent important modifiable risk factors that may be targets for future interventions driven by the patient. The attributable risk due to each factor is needed to dissect which ideal behaviors are the most beneficial.
The rotation rate of a planet is a fundamental parameter, no less than its mass or composition, and planetary investigators require this rate to assess various other phenomena such as planetary wind speeds, internal and atmospheric models, ring dynamics and so forth. Saturn presents a conundrum, however, because none of its various planetary periods indicates the “true” rotation of the planet. Thus, although the planet displays an abundance of periodicities near 10.7 hours, the exact rotation period of Saturn is unknown. In the magnetosphere, “planetary-period oscillations” (PPOs) appear in charged particles, magnetic fields, energetic neutral atoms, radio emissions and motions of the plasma sheet and magnetopause. In Saturn’s rings, the spoke phenomenon can exhibit periodicities near 10.7 hours, and ring phenomena themselves may be related to the interior rotation of the planet. In the high-latitude ionosphere, modulations near this period appear in auroral motions and intensities. In the upper atmosphere, some cloud features rotate near this period, although wind speeds are generally faster, and the well-known polar hexagon rotates with a period close to 10.7 hours. Some of the magnetospheric/ionospheric oscillations differ in the northern and southern hemispheres and their periods do not remain constant, sometimes varying on long time scales of a year or longer and sometimes on much shorter time scales. These variations in the period argue against a cause related to changes interior to Saturn, and because the magnetic and spin axes of Saturn are reported to be axisymmetric (unlike those of any other known planet), Saturn’s periodicities cannot be explained as “wobble” caused by a geometric tilt or by a nondipolar magnetic anomaly. Several models have been proposed to account for the observed periodicities, including rotating atmospheric vortices, periodic plasma releases and a flapping magnetodisk, but none can satisfactorily explain all of Saturn’s periodicities nor their common origin, and none can determine the exact rotation rate of the planet. This chapter reviews Saturn’s periodicities, theories thereof, and how they might be used to determine the elusive rotation rate of the planet.