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Background: Previous analyses describing the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Staphylococcus aureus have focused on hospital-onset S. aureus infections occurring during COVID-19 hospitalizations. Because most invasive S. aureus (iSA) infections are community-onset (CO), we characterized CO iSA cases with a recent positive SARS-CoV-2 test (coinfection). Methods: We analyzed CDC Emerging Infections Program active, population- and laboratory-based iSA surveillance data among adults during March 1–December 31, 2020, from 11 counties in 7 states. The iSA cases (S. aureus isolation from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident) were considered CO if culture was obtained <3 days after hospital admission. Coinfection was defined as first positive SARS-CoV-2 test ≤14 days before the initial iSA culture. We explored factors independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection versus no prior positive SARS-CoV-2 test among CO iSA cases through a multivariable logistic regression model (using demographic, healthcare exposure, and underlying condition variables with P<0.25 in univariate analysis) and examined differences in outcomes through descriptive analysis. Results: Overall, 3,908 CO iSA cases were reported, including 138 SARS-CoV-2 coinfections (3.5%); 58.0% of coinfections had iSA culture and the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test on the same day (Fig. 1). In univariate analysis, neither methicillin resistance (44.2% with coinfection vs 36.5% without; P = .06) nor race and ethnicity differed significantly between iSA cases with and without SARS-CoV-2 coinfection (P = .93 for any association between race and ethnicity and coinfection), although iSA cases with coinfection were older (median age, 72 vs 60 years , P<0.01) and more often female (46.7% vs 36.3%, P=0.01). In multivariable analysis, significant associations with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection included older age, female sex, previous location in a long-term care facility (LTCF) or hospital, presence of a central venous catheter (CVC), and diabetes (Figure 2). Two-thirds of co-infection cases had ≥1 of the following characteristics: age > 73 years, LTCF residence 3 days before iSA culture, and/or CVC present any time during the 2 days before iSA culture. More often, iSA cases with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection were admitted to the intensive care unit ≤2 days after iSA culture (37.7% vs 23.3%, P<0.01) and died (33.3% vs 11.3%, P<0.01). Conclusions: CO iSA patients with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection represent a small proportion of CO iSA cases and mostly involve a limited number of factors related to likelihood of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 and iSA. Although CO iSA patients with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection had more severe outcomes, additional research is needed to understand how much of this difference is related to differences in patient characteristics.
To provide comprehensive population-level estimates of the burden of healthcare-associated influenza.
Retrospective cross-sectional study.
US Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) during 2012–2013 through 2018–2019 influenza seasons.
Laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations in an 8-county catchment area in Tennessee.
The incidence of healthcare-associated influenza was determined using the traditional definition (ie, positive influenza test after hospital day 3) in addition to often underrecognized cases associated with recent post-acute care facility admission or a recent acute care hospitalization for a noninfluenza illness in the preceding 7 days.
Among the 5,904 laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations, 147 (2.5%) had traditionally defined healthcare-associated influenza. When we included patients with a positive influenza test obtained in the first 3 days of hospitalization and who were either transferred to the hospital directly from a post-acute care facility or who were recently discharged from an acute care facility for a noninfluenza illness in the preceding 7 days, we identified an additional 1,031 cases (17.5% of all influenza-related hospitalizations).
Including influenza cases associated with preadmission healthcare exposures with traditionally defined cases resulted in an 8-fold higher incidence of healthcare-associated influenza. These results emphasize the importance of capturing other healthcare exposures that may serve as the initial site of viral transmission to provide more comprehensive estimates of the burden of healthcare-associated influenza and to inform improved infection prevention strategies.
Background: Incidence of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the United States during 2012–2017 has been reported to have been stable for hospital-onset BSIs and to have increased 3.9% per year for community-onset BSIs. We sought to determine whether these trends continued in more recent years and whether there were further differences within subgroups of community-onset BSIs. Methods: We analyzed CDC Emerging Infections Program active, population- and laboratory-based surveillance data during 2016–2019 for MSSA BSIs from 8 counties in 5 states. BSI cases were defined as isolation of MSSA from blood in a surveillance area resident. Cases were considered hospital onset (HO) if culture was obtained >3 days after hospital admission and healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO) if culture was obtained on or after day 3 of hospitalization and was associated with dialysis, hospitalization, surgery, or long-term care facility residence within 1 year prior or if a central venous catheter was present ≤2 days prior. Cases were otherwise considered community-associated (CA). Annual rates per 100,000 census population were calculated for each epidemiologic classification; rates of HACO cases among chronic dialysis patients per 100,000 dialysis patients were calculated using US Renal Data System data. Annual increases were modeled using negative binomial or Poisson regression and accounting for changes in the overall population age group, and sex. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: Overall, 8,344 MSSA BSI cases were reported. From 2016–2019 total MSSA BSI rates increased from 23.9 per 100,000 to 28.5 per 100,000 (6.6% per year; P < .01). MSSA BSI rates also increased significantly among all epidemiologic classes. HO cases increased from 2.5 per 100,000 to 3.2 per 100,000 (7.9% per year; P = .01). HACO cases increased from 12.7 per 100,000 to 14.7 per 100,000 (7.0% per year; P = .01). CA cases increased from 8.4 per 100,000 to 10.4 per 100,000 (6.7% per year; P < .01) (Fig. 1). Significant increases in MSSA BSI rates were also observed for nondialysis HACO cases (9.3 per 100,000 to 11.1 per 100,000; 7.8% per year; P < .01) but not dialysis HACO cases (1,823.2 per 100,000 to 1,857.4 per 100,000; 1.4% per year; P = .59). Healthcare risk factors for HACO cases were hospitalization in the previous year (82%), surgery (31%), dialysis (27%), and long-term care facility residence (19%). Conclusions: MSSA BSI rates increased from 2016–2019 overall, among all epidemiologic classes, and among nondialysis HACO cases. Efforts to prevent MSSA BSIs among individuals with healthcare risk factors, particularly those related to hospitalization, might have an impact on MSSA BSI rates.
To estimate population-based rates and to describe clinical characteristics of hospital-acquired (HA) influenza.
US Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) during 2011–2012 through 2018–2019 seasons.
Patients were identified through provider-initiated or facility-based testing. HA influenza was defined as a positive influenza test date and respiratory symptom onset >3 days after admission. Patients with positive test date >3 days after admission but missing respiratory symptom onset date were classified as possible HA influenza.
Among 94,158 influenza-associated hospitalizations, 353 (0.4%) had HA influenza. The overall adjusted rate of HA influenza was 0.4 per 100,000 persons. Among HA influenza cases, 50.7% were 65 years of age or older, and 52.0% of children and 95.7% of adults had underlying conditions; 44.9% overall had received influenza vaccine prior to hospitalization. Overall, 34.5% of HA cases received ICU care during hospitalization, 19.8% required mechanical ventilation, and 6.7% died. After including possible HA cases, prevalence among all influenza-associated hospitalizations increased to 1.3% and the adjusted rate increased to 1.5 per 100,000 persons.
Over 8 seasons, rates of HA influenza were low but were likely underestimated because testing was not systematic. A high proportion of patients with HA influenza were unvaccinated and had severe outcomes. Annual influenza vaccination and implementation of robust hospital infection control measures may help to prevent HA influenza and its impacts on patient outcomes and the healthcare system.
Background: Despite significant morbidity and mortality, estimates of the burden of healthcare-associated viral respiratory infections (HA-VRI) for noninfluenza infections are limited. Of the studies assessing the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), cases are typically classified as healthcare associated if a positive test result occurred after the first 3 days following admission, which may miss healthcare exposures prior to admission. Utilizing an expanded definition of healthcare-associated RSV, we assessed the estimates of disease prevalence. Methods: This study included laboratory-confirmed cases of RSV in adult and pediatric patients admitted to acute-care hospitals in a catchment area of 8 counties in Tennessee identified between October 1, 2016, and April 30, 2019. Surveillance information was abstracted from hospital and state laboratory databases, hospital infection control databases, reportable condition databases, and electronic health records as a part of the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network by the Emerging Infections Program. Cases were defined as healthcare-associated RSV if laboratory confirmation of infection occurred (1) on or after hospital day 4 (ie, “traditional definition”) or (2) between hospital day 0 and 3 in patients transferred from a chronic care facility or with a recent discharge from another acute-care facility in the 7 days preceding the current index admission (ie, “enhanced definition”). The proportion of laboratory-confirmed RSV designated as HA-VRI using both the traditional definition as well as with the added enhanced definition were compared. Results: We identified 900 cases of RSV in hospitalized patients over the study period. Using the traditional definition for HA-VRI, only 41 (4.6%) were deemed healthcare associated. Adding the cases identified using the enhanced definition, an additional 12 cases (1.3%) were noted in patients transferred from a chronic care facility for the current acute-care admission and 17 cases (1.9%) were noted in patients with a prior acute-care admission in the preceding 7 days. Using our expanded definition, the total proportion of healthcare-associated RSV in this cohort was 69 (7.7%) of 900 compared to 13.1% of cases for influenza (Figure 1). Although the burden of HA-VRI due to RSV was less than that of influenza, when stratified by age, the rate increased to 11.7% for those aged 50–64 years and to 10.1% for those aged ≥65 years (Figure 2). Conclusions: RSV infections are often not included in estimates of HA-VRI, but the proportion of cases that are healthcare associated are substantial. Typical surveillance methods likely underestimate the burden of disease related to RSV, especially for those aged ≥50 years.
Background: Healthcare-associated transmission of influenza leads to significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Most studies classify healthcare-associated viral respiratory infections (HA-VRI) as those with a positive test result after the first 3 days following admission, which does not account for healthcare exposures prior to admission. Utilizing an expanded definition of healthcare-associated influenza, we aimed to improve the estimates of disease prevalence on a population level. Methods: This study included laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza in adult and pediatric patients admitted to any acute-care hospital in a catchment area of 8 counties Tennessee identified between October 1, 2012, and April 30, 2019. Surveillance information was abstracted from hospital and state laboratory databases, hospital infection control practitioner databases, reportable condition databases, and electronic health records as a part of the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emerging Infections Program (EIP). Cases were defined as healthcare-associated influenza laboratory confirmation of infection occurred (1) on or after hospital day 4 (“traditional definition”), or (2) between hospital days 0 and 3 in patients transferred from a chronic care facility or with a recent discharge from another acute-care facility in the 7 days preceding the current index admission (ie, enhanced definition). The proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza designated as HA-VRI using both the traditional definition as well as with the added enhanced definition were compared. Data were imported into Stata software for analysis. Results: We identified 5,904 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza in hospitalized patients over the study period. Using the traditional definition for HA-VRI, only 147 (2.5%, seasonal range 1.3%–3.4%) were deemed healthcare associated (Figure 1). Adding the cases identified using the enhanced definition, an additional 317 (5.4%, range 2.3%–6.7%) cases were noted in patients transferred from a chronic care facility for the current acute-care admission and 336 cases (5.7%; range, 4.1%–7.4%) were noted in patients with a prior acute-care facility admission in the preceding 7 days. Using our expanded definition, the total proportion of healthcare-associated influenza in this cohort was 772 of 5,904 (13.1%; range, 10.6%–14.8%). Conclusion: HA-VRI due to influenza is an underrecognized infection in hospitalized patients. Limiting surveillance assessment of this important outcome to just those patients with a positive influenza test after hospital day 3 captured only 19% of possible healthcare-associated influenza infections across 7 influenza seasons. These results suggest that the traditionally used definitions of healthcare-associated influenza underestimate the true burden of cases.
Background: The CDC has performed surveillance for invasive Staphylococcus aureus (iSA) infections through the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) since 2004. SCCmec and spa typing for clonal complex (CC) assignment and genomic markers have been used to characterize isolates. In 2019, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of isolates began, allowing for high-resolution assessment of genomic diversity. Here, we evaluate the reliability of SCCmec typing, spa typing, and CC assignment using WGS data compared to traditional methods to ensure that backwards compatibility is maintained. Methods:S. aureus isolates were obtained from a convenience sample of iSA cases reported through the EIP surveillance system. Overall, 78 iSA isolates with diverse spa repeat patterns, CCs, SCCmec types, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were sequenced (MiSeq, Illumina). Real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing were used as the SCCmec and spa typing reference methods, respectively. spa-MLST mapping (Ridom SpaServer) served as the reference method for CC assignment. WGS assembly and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed using the CDC QuAISAR-H pipeline. WGS-based MLST CCs were assigned using eBURST and SCCmec types using SCCmecFinder. spa types were assigned from WGS assemblies using BioNumerics. For isolate subtyping, previously published and validated canonical single-nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNPs) as well as the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) virulence factor were assessed for all genome assemblies. Results: All isolates were assigned WGS-based spa types, which were 100% concordant (78 of 78) with Sanger-based spa typing. SCCmecFinder assigned 91% of isolates (71 of 78) SCCmec types, which were 100% concordant with reference method results. Also, 7 isolates had multiple cassettes predicted or an incomplete SCCmec region assembly. Using WGS data, 96% (75 of 78) of isolates were assigned CCs; 3 isolates had unknown sequence types that were single-locus variants of established sequence types. Overall, 70 isolates had CCs assigned by the reference method; 100% (70 of 70) concordance was observed with WGS-based CCs. Analysis of canSNPs placed 42% (33 of 78) of isolates into CC8, with 17 (52%) of these isolates classified as USA300. PVL and ACME were not accurate markers for inferring the USA300 subtype as 24% (4 of 17) of isolates did not contain these markers. Conclusions:S. aureus CCs, SCCmec, and spa types can be reliably determined using WGS. Incorporation of canSNP analysis represents a more efficient method for CC8 assignment than the use of genomic markers alone. WGS allows for the replacement of multiple typing methods for increased laboratory efficiency, while maintaining backward compatibility with historical typing nomenclature.
Most invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (iMRSA) infections have onset in the community but are associated with healthcare exposures. More than 25% of cases with healthcare exposure occur in nursing homes (NHs) where facility-specific iMRSA rates vary widely. We assessed associations between nursing home characteristics and iMRSA incidence rates to help target prevention efforts in NHs. Methods: We used active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance data collected through the Emerging Infections Program during 2011–2015 from 25 counties in 7 states. NH-onset cases were defined as isolation of MRSA from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident who was in a NH within 3 days before the index culture. We calculated MRSA incidence (cases per NH resident day) using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) skilled nursing facility cost reports and described variation in iMRSA incidence by NH. We used Poisson regression with backward selection, assessing variables for collinearity, to estimate adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for NH characteristics (obtained from the CMS minimum dataset) associated with iMRSA rates. Results: Of 590 surveillance area NHs included in analysis, 89 (15%) had no NH-onset iMRSA infections. Rates ranged from 0 to 23.4 infections per 100,000 resident days. Increased rate of NH-onset iMRSA infection occurred with increased percentage of residents in short stay ≤30 days (aRR, 1.09), exhibiting wounds or infection (surgical wound [aRR, 1.08]; vascular ulcer/foot infection [aRR, 1.09]; multidrug-resistant organism infection [aRR, 1.13]; receipt of antibiotics [aRR, 1.06]), using medical devices or invasive support (ostomy [aRR, 1.07]; dialysis [aRR, 1.07]; ventilator support [aRR, 1.17]), carrying neurologic diagnoses (cerebral palsy [aRR, 1.14]; brain injury [aRR, 1.1]), and demonstrating debility (requiring considerable assistance with bed mobility [aRR, 1.05]) (Table). iMRSA rates decreased with increased percentage of residents receiving influenza vaccination (aRR, 0.96) and with the presence of any patients in isolation for any active infection (aRR, 0.83). Conclusions: iMRSA incidence varies greatly across nursing homes, with many NH patient and facility characteristics associated with NH-onset iMRSA rate differences. Some associations (short stay, wounds and infection, medical device use and invasive support) suggest that targeted interventions utilizing known strategies to decrease transmission may help to reduce infection rates, while others (neurologic diagnoses, influenza vaccination, presence of patients in isolation) require further exploration to determine their role. These findings can help identify NHs in other areas more likely to have higher rates of NH-onset iMRSA who could benefit from interventions to reduce infection rates.
Background: Candidemia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although risk factors for candidemia and other bloodstream infections (BSIs) overlap, little is known about patient characteristics and the outcomes of polymicrobial infections. We used data from the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) candidemia surveillance to describe polymicrobial candidemia infections and to assess clinical differences compared with Candida-only BSIs. Methods: During January 2017–December 2017 active, population-based candidemia surveillance was conducted in 45 counties in 9 states covering ~6% of the US population through the CDC EIP. A case was defined as a blood culture with Candida spp in a surveillance-area resident; a blood culture >30 days from the initial culture was considered a second case. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted from medical records by trained EIP staff. We examined characteristics of polymicrobial cases, in which Candida and ≥1 non-Candida organism were isolated from a blood specimen on the same day, and compared these to Candida-only cases using logistic regression or t tests using SAS v 9.4 software. Results: Of the 1,221 candidemia cases identified during 2017, 215 (10.2%) were polymicrobial. Among polymicrobial cases, 50 (23%) involved ≥3 organisms. The most common non-Candida organisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 30, 14%), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 26, 12%), Enterococcus faecium (n = 17, 8%), and Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 15 each, 7%). Patients with polymicrobial cases were significantly younger than those with Candida-only cases (54.3 vs 60.7 years; P < .0004). Healthcare exposures commonly associated with candidemia like total parenteral nutrition (relative risk [RR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.60–1.13) and surgery (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.77–1.29) were similar between the 2 groups. Polymicrobial cases had shorter median time from admission to positive culture (1 vs 4 days, P < .001), were more commonly associated with injection drug use (RR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.46–2.61), and were more likely to be community onset-healthcare associated (RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.50–2.44). Polymicrobial cases were associated with shorter hospitalization (14 vs 17 days; P = .031), less ICU care (RR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.51–0.83), and lower mortality (RR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.50–0.92). Conclusions: One in 10 candidemia cases were polymicrobial, with nearly one-quarter of those involving ≥3 organisms. Lower mortality among polymicrobial cases is surprising but may reflect the younger age and lower severity of infection of this population. Greater injection drug use, central venous catheter use, and long-term care exposures among polymicrobial cases suggest that injection or catheter practices play a role in these infections and may guide prevention opportunities.
Background: Incidence of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated, community-onset (HACO) USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections has remained unchanged in recent years. Traditionally considered a CA strain, USA300 is increasingly associated with healthcare settings. We examined whether antimicrobial nonsusceptibility among USA300 strains could distinguish epidemiologic class (community vs hospital), and whether divergences in susceptibility were occurring over time. Methods: We used data on invasive MRSA infections from active, population, and laboratory-based surveillance during 2005–2016 from 11 counties in 3 states. Invasive cases were defined as MRSA isolation from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident. Cases were considered hospital-onset (HO) if the culture was obtained >3 days after hospitalization and HACO if ≥1 of the following risk factors was present: hospitalization, surgery, dialysis, or residence in a long-term care facility in the past year; or central vascular catheter ≤2 days before culture. Otherwise, cases were considered CA. Sites submitted a convenience sample of clinical MRSA isolates for molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis until 2008, when typing was inferred using a validated algorithm based on molecular characteristics. Reference broth microdilution was performed for 8 antimicrobials and interpreted based on CLSI interpretive criteria. We compared USA300 nonsusceptibility for HO and CA isolates. For antimicrobials with >5% nonsusceptibility and for which HO isolates had greater nonsusceptibility than CA isolates, we compared nonsusceptibility for HACO and CA and analyzed annual trends in nonsusceptibility within each epidemiologic class (ie, CA, HACO, and HO) using linear regression. Results: Of 17,947 MRSA cases during 2005–2016, isolates were available for 6,685 (37%), and 2,120 were USA300 (34% CA, 52% HACO, 14% HO). HO isolates had more nonsusceptibility than CA isolates to gentamicin (2.2% vs 0.6%; P = .03), levofloxacin (47.8% vs 39.7%; P = .02), rifampin (3.7 vs 1.1%; P = .01), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (3.4% vs 0.6%; P = .04). HACO isolates also had more nonsusceptibility than CA isolates to levofloxacin (50.9% vs 39.7%; P < .01). Levofloxacin nonsusceptibility increased during 2005–2016 for HACO and CA isolates (P < .01), but not among HO isolates (P = .36) (Fig. 1). Conclusions: Overall, nonsusceptibility across drugs cannot distinguish USA300 isolates causing HO versus CA disease. Although HO isolates had higher levofloxacin nonsusceptibility than CA and HACO isolates early on, USA300 MRSA HACO isolates now have levofloxacin nonsusceptibility most similar to that of HO isolates. Further study could help to explore whether increases in fluoroquinolone nonsusceptibility among CA and HACO cases may be contributing to the persistence of USA300 strains.
SHEA endorses adhering to the recommendations by the CDC and ACIP for immunizations of all children and adults. All persons providing clinical care should be familiar with these recommendations and should routinely assess immunization compliance of their patients and strongly recommend all routine immunizations to patients. All healthcare personnel (HCP) should be immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases as recommended by the CDC/ACIP (unless immunity is demonstrated by another recommended method). SHEA endorses the policy that immunization should be a condition of employment or functioning (students, contract workers, volunteers, etc) at a healthcare facility. Only recognized medical contraindications should be accepted for not receiving recommended immunizations.
The Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) investigated a hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak to identify risk factors for infection and make prevention recommendations.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) or patients with laboratory-confirmed acute HAV infection during October 1, 2018–January 10, 2019.
HCWs with suspected or confirmed hepatitis A infections were interviewed to assess their exposures and activities. Patient medical records and hospital administrative records were reviewed to identify common exposures. We conducted a site investigation to assess knowledge of infection control practices among HCWs. Serum specimens from ill persons were tested for HAV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped.
We identified 6 HCWs and 2 patients with laboratory-confirmed HAV infection. All cases likely resulted from exposure to a homeless patient with a history of recreational substance use and undiagnosed HAV infection. Breaches in hand hygiene and use of standard precautions were identified. HAV RNA was detected in 7 serum specimens and all belonged to an identical strain of HAV genotype 1b.
A hepatitis A outbreak among hospital patients and HCWs resulted from exposure to a single patient with undiagnosed HAV infection. Breakdowns in infection control practices contributed to the outbreak. The likelihood of nosocomial transmission can be reduced with proper hand hygiene, standard precautions, and routine disinfection. During community outbreaks, medical providers can better prevent ongoing transmission by including hepatitis A in the differential diagnosis among patients with a history of recreational substance use and homelessness.
Invasions can be genetically diverse, and that diversity may have implications for invasion management in terms of resistance or tolerance to control methods. We analyzed the population genetics of Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), an ecologically important and common invasive tree found in many western U.S. riparian areas. We found three cpDNA haplotypes and, using 11 microsatellite loci, identified three genetic clusters in the 460 plants from 46 populations in the western United States. We found high levels of polymorphism in the microsatellites (5 to 15 alleles per locus; 106 alleles total). Our native-range sampling was limited, and we did not find a genetic match for the most common cpDNA invasive haplotype or a strong confirmation of origin for the most common microsatellite genetic cluster. We did not find geographic population structure (isolation by distance) across the U.S. invasion, but we did identify invasive populations that had the most diversity, and we suggest these as choices for initial biological control–release monitoring. Accessions from each genetic cluster, which coarsely represent the range of genetic diversity found in the invasion, are now included in potential classical biological control agent efficacy testing.
Reports of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among chronic hemodialysis patients to 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems (National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event and Emerging Infections Program) were compared to evaluate completeness of reporting. Many methicillin-resistant S. aureus bloodstream infections identified in hospitals were not reported to National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):205–207
Gram-negative bacilli frequently cause epidemics in high-risk newborn intensive care units. Recently, an epidemic caused by a multiply-resistant K. pneumoniae, serotype 21, occurred in the Vanderbilt University intensive care nursery. The background of this outbreak included an increasing endemic nosocomial sepsis rate, operation of the facility in excess of rated capacity, and increasingly inadequate nurse-to-patient staffing ratios. The epidemic lasted 11 weeks; 26 (12%) of the 232 infants at risk in the unit became colonized. Five infants developed systemic illness and one died. Cohorting, reinforcement of strict handwashing and isolation procedures, and closure of the unit to outborn admissions resulted in rapid termination of the outbreak. Followup studies performed on infants colonized with the epidemic bacterium demonstrated persistent fecal shedding up to 13 months following discharge from the hospital. This epidemic had a detrimental influence on high-risk newborn and obstetric health care delivery in an area encompassing portions of three states. Under a system of progressively more sophisticated referral units, nosocomial infections occurring at a tertiary center can have an impact on other hospitals within the network.
To evaluate the impact of an institutional hand hygiene accountability program on healthcare personnel hand hygiene adherence.
Time-series design with correlation analysis.
Tertiary care academic medical center, including outpatient clinics and procedural areas.
Medical center healthcare personnel.
A comprehensive hand hygiene initiative was implemented in 2 major phases starting in July 2009. Key facets of the initiative included extensive project planning, leadership buy-in and goal setting, financial incentives linked to performance, and use of a system-wide shared accountability model. Adherence was measured by designated hand hygiene observers. Adherence rates were compared between baseline and implementation phases, and monthly hand hygiene adherence rates were correlated with monthly rates of device-associated infection.
A total of 109,988 observations were completed during the study period, with a sustained increase in hand hygiene adherence throughout each implementation phase (P<.0001) as well as from one phase to the next (P < .0001), such that adherence greater than 85% has been achieved since January 2011. Medical center departments were able to reclaim some rebate dollars allocated through a self-insurance trust, but during the study period, departments did not achieve full reimbursement. Hand hygiene adherence rates were inversely correlated with device-associated standardized infection ratios (R2 = 0.70).
Implementation of this multifaceted, observational hand hygiene program was associated with sustained improvement in hand hygiene adherence. The principles of this program could be applied to other medical centers pursuing improved hand hygiene adherence among healthcare personnel.
A retrospective, propensity-matched cohort study was conducted to determine the mortality rate in patients with healthcare-associated infection (HAI) due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. The 28-day mortality rate for patients with MDR A. baumannii HAI was not significantly different than that for patients with non-MDR A. baumannii HAI. The median length of hospital stay before diagnosis of HAI was 4.5 days longer for patients with MDR A. baumannii infection than for patients with non-MDR A. baumannii infection (P <.001).