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Knowledge of the effects of burial depth and burial duration on seed viability and, consequently, seedbank persistence of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) and waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] ecotypes can be used for the development of efficient weed management programs. This is of particular interest, given the great fecundity of both species and, consequently, their high seedbank replenishment potential. Seeds of both species collected from five different locations across the United States were investigated in seven states (sites) with different soil and climatic conditions. Seeds were placed at two depths (0 and 15 cm) for 3 yr. Each year, seeds were retrieved, and seed damage (shrunken, malformed, or broken) plus losses (deteriorated and futile germination) and viability were evaluated. Greater seed damage plus loss averaged across seed origin, burial depth, and year was recorded for lots tested at Illinois (51.3% and 51.8%) followed by Tennessee (40.5% and 45.1%) and Missouri (39.2% and 42%) for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. The site differences for seed persistence were probably due to higher volumetric water content at these sites. Rates of seed demise were directly proportional to burial depth (α=0.001), whereas the percentage of viable seeds recovered after 36 mo on the soil surface ranged from 4.1% to 4.3% compared with 5% to 5.3% at the 15-cm depth for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. Seed viability loss was greater in the seeds placed on the soil surface compared with the buried seeds. The greatest influences on seed viability were burial conditions and time and site-specific soil conditions, more so than geographical location. Thus, management of these weed species should focus on reducing seed shattering, enhancing seed removal from the soil surface, or adjusting tillage systems.
Dicamba-resistant soybean technology provides an additional site of action for POST control of herbicide-resistant broadleaf weeds in soybean but also raises concern of off-site movement and damage to sensitive crops in adjacent fields. Dicamba formulations approved for use on dicamba-resistant soybean require applicators to use nozzles producing large droplets to reduce the risk of spray-particle drift. The use of nozzles with relatively larger droplet spectra can reduce herbicide deposition on target weeds, especially if a filtering effect from the crop canopy occurs. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of broadcast nozzle design on the deposition and efficacy of 280 g ha−1 glyphosate plus 140 g ha−1 dicamba applied POST to four herbicide-resistant weed species. The TTI11004 nozzle, the original nozzle labeled for dicamba applications on dicamba-resistant soybean, reduced deposition coverage and density on spray cards compared with the TT11004 and XR11004 nozzle. The AIXR11004 nozzle produces a very coarse droplet spectrum and did not reduce coverage on spray cards, though it did reduce deposition density. Herbicide solution deposition onto Palmer amaranth, tall waterhemp, giant ragweed, and horseweed ranged from 0.41 to 0.52, 0.55 to 0.87, 0.49 to 0.58, and 0.38 to 0.41 µl cm−2, respectively. Nozzle design and droplet spectrum did not influence the deposition of herbicide solution onto the target weed, as all nozzles were equivalent for all species and site-years. Herbicide efficacy was not influenced by nozzle design, as weed control and plant height reduction were similar for all species. The results of this experiment show that the use of the TTI11004 nozzle for dicamba applications to dicamba-resistant soybean will provide acceptable herbicide deposition and efficacy when applied under the label requirements of weed height and carrier volume.
The introduction of 2,4-D–resistant soybean will provide an additional POST herbicide site of action for control of herbicide-resistant broadleaf weeds. The introduction of this technology also brings concern of off-site movement of 2,4-D onto susceptible crops such as sensitive soybean and tomato. The 2,4-D formulation approved for use in 2,4-D–resistant soybean restricts application of the herbicide to nozzles that produce very coarse to ultra-coarse droplet spectrums. The use of larger droplet spectrums for broadcast applications can reduce herbicide deposition onto target weeds and thus influence herbicide efficacy. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of nozzle design on herbicide deposition onto target plants and the resulting efficacy of a POST application of 280 g ha−1 glyphosate plus 280 g ha−1 2,4-D. The TTI11004 nozzle produced an ultra-coarse droplet spectrum and reduced coverage and deposition density on spray cards as compared with the XR11004 and TT11004 nozzles that produced medium droplet spectrums. The AIXR11004 nozzle also reduced deposition density on spray cards but did not reduce coverage. Herbicide solution deposition onto glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, tall waterhemp, giant ragweed, and horseweed ranged from 0.28 to 0.72 µl cm−2 and was not influenced by nozzle design. Herbicide efficacy was reduced by the TTI11004 nozzle on Palmer amaranth and horseweed compared with the AIXR11004, TT11004, and XR11004 nozzles when applications were made to either high densities of plants or plants exceeding the labeled height. The use of the AIXR11004 and TTI11004 nozzles that are listed as approved nozzles for glyphosate plus 2,4-D applications on 2,4-D–resistant soybean did not reduce herbicide deposition onto four of the most troublesome broadleaves and did not reduce herbicide efficacy when applied in conjunction with lower weed densities and smaller weeds.
To determine the impact of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) on patient behaviors following illness.
Using a computer algorithm, we searched the electronic medical records of 7 Chicago-area hospitals to identify patients with RCDI (2 episodes of CDI within 15 to 56 days of each other). RCDI was validated by medical record review. Patients were asked to complete a telephone survey. The survey included questions regarding general health, social isolation, symptom severity, emotional distress, and prevention behaviors.
In total, 119 patients completed the survey (32%). On average, respondents were 57.4 years old (standard deviation, 16.8); 57% were white, and ~50% reported hospitalization for CDI. At the time of their most recent illness, patients rated their diarrhea as high severity (58.5%) and their exhaustion as extreme (30.7%). Respondents indicated that they were very worried about getting sick again (41.5%) and about infecting others (31%). Almost 50% said that they have washed their hands more frequently (47%) and have increased their use of soap and water (45%) since their illness. Some of these patients (22%–32%) reported eating out less, avoiding certain medications and public areas, and increasing probiotic use. Most behavioral changes were unrelated to disease severity.
Having had RCDI appears to increase prevention-related behaviors in some patients. While some behaviors are appropriate (eg, handwashing), others are not supported by evidence of decreased risk and may negatively impact patient quality of life. Providers should discuss appropriate prevention behaviors with their patients and should clarify that other behaviors (eg, eating out less) will not affect their risk of future illness.
Giant ragweed is a highly competitive weed that continually threatens crop production systems due to evolved resistance to acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicides (ALS-R) and glyphosate (GR). Two biotypes of GR giant ragweed exist and are differentiated by their response to glyphosate, termed here as rapid response (RR) and non–rapid response (NRR). A comparison of data from surveys of Indiana crop fields done in 2006 and 2014 showed that GR giant ragweed has spread from 15% to 39% of Indiana counties and the NRR biotype is the most prevalent. A TaqMan® single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay was developed to identify ALS-R populations and revealed 47% of GR populations to be ALS-R as well. The magnitude of glyphosate resistance for NRR populations was 4.6 and 5.9 based on GR50 and LD50 estimates, respectively. For RR populations, these values were 7.8 to 9.2 for GR50 estimates and 19.3 to 22.3 for LD50 estimates. A novel use of the Imaging-PAM fluorometer was developed to discriminate RR plants by assessing photosystem II quantum yield across the entire leaf surface. H2O2 generation in leaves of glyphosate-treated plants was also measured by 3,3′-diaminobenzidine staining and quantified using imagery analysis software. Results show photo-oxidative stress of mature leaves is far greater and occurs more rapidly following glyphosate treatment in RR plants compared with NRR and glyphosate-susceptible plants and is positively associated with glyphosate dose. These results suggest that under continued glyphosate selection pressure, the RR biotype may surpass the NRR biotype as the predominant form of GR giant ragweed in Indiana due to a higher level of glyphosate resistance. Moreover, the differential photo-oxidative stress patterns in response to glyphosate provide evidence of different mechanisms of resistance present in RR and NRR biotypes.
The Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill developed by Ice Coring and Drilling Services under contract with the US National Science Foundation is an electromechanical ice-drill system designed to take 122mm ice cores to depths of 4000 m. The new drill system was field-tested near Summit camp in central Greenland during the spring/summer of 2006. Testing was conducted to verify the performance of the DISC drill system and its individual components and to determine the modifications required prior to the system’s planned deployment for coring at the WAIS Divide site in Antarctica in the following year. The experiments, results and the drill crew’s experiences with the DISC drill during testing are described and discussed.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
Although high dose n-3 PUFA supplementation reduces exercise- and hyperpnoea-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB/HIB), there are concurrent issues with cost, compliance and gastrointestinal discomfort. It is thus pertinent to establish the efficacy of lower n-3 PUFA doses. Eight male adults with asthma and HIB and eight controls without asthma were randomly supplemented with two n-3 PUFA doses (6·2 g/d (3·7 g EPA and 2·5 g DHA) and 3·1 g/d (1·8 g EPA and 1·3 g DHA)) and a placebo, each for 21 d followed by 14 d washout. A eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) challenge was performed before and after treatments. Outcome measures remained unchanged in the control group. In the HIB group, the peak fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after EVH at day 0 (−1005 (sd 520) ml, −30 (sd 18) %) was unchanged after placebo. The peak fall in FEV1 was similarly reduced from day 0 to day 21 of 6·2 g/d n-3 PUFA (−1000 (sd 460) ml, −29 (sd 17) % v. −690 (sd 460) ml, −20 (sd 15) %) and 3·1 g/d n-3 PUFA (−970 (sd 480) ml, −28 (sd 18) % v. −700 (sd 420) ml, −21 (sd 15) %) (P<0·001). Baseline fraction of exhaled nitric oxide was reduced by 24 % (P=0·020) and 31 % (P=0·018) after 6·2 and 3·1 g/d n-3 PUFA, respectively. Peak increases in 9α, 11β PGF2 after EVH were reduced by 65 % (P=0·009) and 56 % (P=0·041) after 6·2 and 3·1 g/d n-3 PUFA, respectively. In conclusion, 3·1 g/d n-3 PUFA supplementation attenuated HIB and markers of airway inflammation to a similar extent as a higher dose. Lower doses of n-3 PUFA thus represent a potentially beneficial adjunct treatment for adults with asthma and EIB.
The national discussion about the future of American education and the teaching profession continues with the 1986 publication of two major reports: A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the Twenty-first Century and Tomorrow's Teachers: A Report of the Holmes Group. These reports, by the Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy and by the Holmes Group, respectively, agree that the key to educational improvement is to create a career ladder for teachers which recognizes and rewards excellence, but they disagree over which group—practitioners or professors—we should look to for the advancement of professional knowledge and technique. The Carnegie Forum looks to the experience of outstanding teachers in the schools while the Holmes Group seeks to reassert the role of faculty in research universities in setting professional standards.
In 1873 John M. Kohler, an immigrant from western Austria, settled in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, a small town near the shores of Lake Michigan about forty miles north of Milwaukee. There he founded the Kohler Company. Initially the company manufactured agricultural implements, then expanded to the production of enameled kitchenwares, and finally enameled plumbing fixtures. The manufacture of agricultural implements and kitchenwares was early discontinued and today the company is widely known for the production of plumbing fixtures.
BY THE END of the nineteenth century a period of formal schooling had replaced apprenticeship to a practitioner as the primary method of professional training and certification for American lawyers and doctors. In their public pronouncements leaders of these professional groups gave essentially similar reasons for this important shift. Lawyers and doctors commonly urged the formation of professional schools because such institutions, they argued, would through the systematic instruction offered there inevitably raise the moral and intellectual tone of the entire profession. To group students together on a regular basis under the tutelage of the most prominent members of a profession seemed inherently superior to the apprenticeship arrangement which necessarily reflected the impact of a wide range of professional talent and ethics. Finally, some men also supported professional schools because they would provide institutional shelter to those professionals who wished to set the practice of the profession on a more scholarly basis.
The history of school reform has continuously fascinated historians of education, but their study of the subject has acquired a new urgency in the last quarter of a century as national political discussions have given an increasingly important place to educational policy. The recent publication of Tinkering toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform (Harvard University Press, 1995), by David Tyack and Larry Cuban, offers the latest comprehensive study of the subject. We have invited four distinguished scholars to comment on the book. They are Robert L. Hampel of the University of Delaware, William R. Johnson of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, David N. Plank of Michigan State University, and Diane Ravitch of the Brookings Institute. Professors Tyack and Cuban have, in turn, agreed to respond to the comments.
In 1892 J. M. Rice reported in The Forum his observations of American urban public schools. The first article in the series was subtitled: “Evils in Baltimore.” The article began with a recounting of an arithmetic lesson in an “advanced first grade.” This lesson, Rice wrote, “will indicate… in what a soul-inspiring manner from one-fourth to one-third of the time is spent in the average primary school of the city during the first two years of school life.”
Gut microbes have a substantial influence on systemic immune function and allergic sensitisation. Manipulation of the gut microbiome through prebiotics may provide a potential strategy to influence the immunopathology of asthma. This study investigated the effects of prebiotic Bimuno-galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) supplementation on hyperpnoea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB), a surrogate for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and airway inflammation. A total of ten adults with asthma and HIB and eight controls without asthma were randomised to receive 5·5 g/d of either B-GOS or placebo for 3 weeks separated by a 2-week washout period. The peak fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) following eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) defined HIB severity. Markers of airway inflammation were measured at baseline and after EVH. Pulmonary function remained unchanged in the control group. In the HIB group, the peak post-EVH fall in FEV1 at day 0 (−880 (sd 480) ml) was unchanged after placebo, but was attenuated by 40 % (−940 (sd 460) v. −570 (sd 310) ml, P=0·004) after B-GOS. In the HIB group, B-GOS reduced baseline chemokine CC ligand 17 (399 (sd 140) v. 323 (sd 144) pg/ml, P=0·005) and TNF-α (2·68 (sd 0·98) v. 2·18 (sd 0·59) pg/ml, P=0·040) and abolished the EVH-induced 29 % increase in TNF-α. Baseline C-reactive protein was reduced following B-GOS in HIB (2·46 (sd 1·14) v. 1·44 (sd 0·41) mg/l, P=0·015) and control (2·16 (sd 1·02) v. 1·47 (sd 0·33) mg/l, P=0·050) groups. Chemokine CC ligand 11 and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide remained unchanged. B-GOS supplementation attenuated airway hyper-responsiveness with concomitant reductions in markers of airway inflammation associated with HIB.
From June 15 to 28, 1991 the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) observed the radio-loud quasar 3C 273. All four CGRO instruments detected radiation from this quasar in their relevant energy range (from 20 keV to 5 GeV). Simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous observations (spanning the time period May 27 – July 25, 1991) by instruments sensitive at other wavelengths have also been obtained. The data from all these observations spanning the frequency range from ∼ 109 Hz to ∼ 1026 Hz were collected and analysed. The resulting energy-density spectrum is shown in the figure below. It shows two maxima, one in the UV, another one at low-energy γ-rays which have nearly the same strength (the corresponding luminosities per decade of frequency for H0 = 60(km/s)/Mpc are 3.2·1046 erg/s and 2.7·1046 erg/s, respectively). A break of the spectrum at low-energy γ-rays is evident. From a detailed analysis a break energy of (2±1.5) MeV could be derived corresponding to a frequency of (4.8±3.6)·1020 Hz. The observed spectral break between X- and γ-rays is ∼ 0.8, much higher than the value of 0.5 predicted by some models. A more detailed paper on this topic is in preparation (Lichti et al.).
The following list of dates contains all measurements made during 1973, ie, since our last list (R, 1973, v 15, p 451–468). We have installed this year a Nuclear Enterprises NIM system to be used with our 2.5L Oeschger-type proportional counter (Philips), in addition to our 6L and 1L proportional counters which have worked consistently with Beckman Lowbeta electronics. The Philips counter has been calibrated relative to the Beckman electronics and we are now calibrating it relative to the NIM system.