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We investigated the physiology of two closely related albatross species relative to their breeding strategy: black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophris) breed annually, while grey-headed albatrosses (T. chrysostoma) breed biennially. From observations of breeding fate and blood samples collected at the end of breeding in one season and feather corticosterone levels (fCort) sampled at the beginning of the next breeding season, we found that in both species some post-breeding physiological parameters differed according to breeding outcome (successful, failed, deferred). Correlations between post-breeding physiology and fCort, and links to future breeding decisions, were examined. In black-browed albatrosses, post-breeding physiology and fCort were not significantly correlated, but fCort independently predicted breeding decision the next year, which we interpret as a possible migratory carry-over effect. In grey-headed albatrosses, post-breeding triglyceride levels were negatively correlated with fCort, but only in females, which we interpret as a potential cost of reproduction. However, this potential cost did not carry-over to future breeding in the grey-headed albatrosses. None of the variables predicted future breeding decisions. We suggest that biennial breeding in the grey-headed albatrosses may have evolved as a strategy to buffer against the apparent susceptibility of females to negative physiological costs of reproduction. Future studies are needed to confirm this.
Because horsenettle and tall ironweed are difficult to control in cool-season grass pastures, research was conducted in Tennessee and Kentucky in 2010 and 2011 to examine the efficacy of aminocyclopyrachlor on these weeds. Aminocyclopyrachlor was evaluated at 49 and 98 g ai ha−1 alone and in mixtures with 2,4-D amine at 371 and 742 g ae ha−1. Aminopyralid was also included as a comparison treatment at 88 g ai ha−1. Treatments were applied at three POST timings to horsenettle and two POST timings to tall ironweed. By 1 yr after treatment (YAT) horsenettle was controlled 74% with aminocyclopyrachlor plus 2,4-D applied late POST (LPOST) at 98 + 742 g ha−1. By 1 YAT, tall ironweed was controlled ≥ 93% by aminocyclopyrachlor applied early POST (EPOST) or LPOST, at rates as low as 49 g ha−1. Similar control was achieved with aminopyralid applied LPOST. Both aminocyclopyrachlor and aminopyralid were found to reduce horsenettle and tall ironweed biomass the following year. Moreover, all LPOST applications of aminocyclopyrachlor alone or in mixtures with 2,4-D prevented regrowth of tall ironweed at 1 YAT. Based on these studies, a LPOST herbicide application in August or September when soil moisture is adequate is recommended for control of horsenettle and tall ironweed in cool-season grass pastures.
We report on results from the Solar Eclipse Coronal Imaging System (SECIS), an instrument using fast CCD cameras designed to search for short-period modulations in visible-light emission from the corona during an eclipse or with a coronagraph. The instrument was successfully used during the total eclipse of 1999 August 11 from a site in Bulgaria. This paper summarizes both the instrument and preliminary results.
The cerebral mechanisms of traits associated with depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD) remain poorly understood.
Happy and sad emotion expressions were presented to DPRD and non-referred control (NC) subjects in an implicit event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design, and correlated with self report scales reflecting typical co-morbidities of DPRD: depression, dissociation, anxiety, somatization.
Significant differences between the slopes of the two groups were observed for somatization in the right temporal operculum (happy) and ventral striatum, bilaterally (sad). Discriminative regions for symptoms of depression were the right pulvinar (happy) and left amygdala (sad). For dissociation, discriminative regions were the left mesial inferior temporal gyrus (happy) and left supramarginal gyrus (sad). For state anxiety, discriminative regions were the left inferior frontal gyrus (happy) and parahippocampal gyrus (sad). For trait anxiety, discriminative regions were the right caudate head (happy) and left superior temporal gyrus (sad).
The ascertained brain regions are in line with previous findings for the respective traits. The findings suggest separate brain systems for each trait.
Our results do not justify any bias for a certain nosological category in DPRD.
Multilayered samples of Ti-Pd with linearly varying compositions were irradiated by Xe ions at 600 keV. The induced microstructures were studied by using transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering. Mixing was found to be complete over the entire composition range, resulting in amorphous or amorphous plus crystalline structures except at the palladium-rich end, where a crystalline Pd-Ti solid solution was obtained. This is consistent with the high equilibrium solubility of Ti in Pd. In addition, significant coarsening of the microstructure caused by irradiation was found in this solid solution region.
Friction measurements were carried out in air and water by using a polytetrafluoroethylene pin as a counterpart. In air the friction coefficient was independent of composition and microstructure after about 2000 passes. In water, however, after 600 passes the friction coefficient reached a steady-state value with a pronounced minimum over the amorphous region. This property was unchanged throughout the remaining 10000 passes.
Ballistic and spin coherent transport in single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are predicted to enable high sensitivity single-nanotube devices for strain and magnetic field sensing. Based upon these phenomena, electron beam lithography procedures have been developed to study the transport properties of purified HiPCO single walled carbon nanotubes for development into sensory materials for nondestructive evaluation. Purified nanotubes are dispersed in solvent suspension and then deposited on the device substrate before metallic contacts are defined and deposited through electron beam lithography. This procedure produces randomly dispersed ropes, typically 2 – 20 nm in diameter, of single walled carbon nanotubes. Transport and scanning probe microscopy studies have shown a good correlation between the junction resistance and tube density, alignment, and contact quality. In order to improve nanotubes at specific locations on the substrate surface. Lithographic techniques are used to define local areas where high frequency electric fields are to be concentrated. Application of the aligned with the electric field lines. A second electron beam lithography layer is then used to deposit metallic contacts across the aligned tubes. Experimental measurements are presented showing the increased tube alignment and improvement in the transport properties of the junctions.
The majority of high-efficiency space solar cells being produced today are based on multi-junction devices of lattice-matched III-V materials. An alternative which has been receiving an increasing amount of attention is the lattice mis-matched or metamorphic approach to multi-junction cell development. In the metamorphic triple junction cell under development by ERI and its partners, the InGaAs junction (bottom cell) of the three-cell stack is the current limiting entity, due to the current matching which must be maintained through the device. This limitation may be addressed through the incorporation of InAs quantum dot array into the depletion region of an InGaAs cell. The InAs quantum dots in the InGaAs cell will provide sub-gap absorption and thus improve its short circuit current. This cell could then be integrated into the three-cell stack to achieve a space solar cell whose efficiency exceeds current state-of-the-art standards. A theoretical estimate predicts that a InGaAlP(1.95eV)/InGaAsP(1.35 eV)/InGaAs(1.2 eV) triple junction cell incorporating quantum dots to improve the bottom cell current would have an efficiency exceeding 40%. In addition, theoretical estimates have demonstrated that the use of quantum dot structures may also hold other cell benefits such as improved temperature coefficients and better radiation tolerance, which are especially important for utilization in space. As a first step towards achieving that goal, we have initiated the development of InAs quantum dots on lattice-mismatched InGaAs (1.2 eV bandgap) grown epitaxially on GaAs by metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). These quantum dots have been characterized via photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A correlation exists between the quantum dot size and resulting optical band structure and can be controlled via the synthesis parameters. Quantum dots were incorporated into prototype InGaAs devices. A comparison of the resulting photovoltaic efficiency under simulated 1 sun intensity and air mass zero (AM0) illumination and spectral response demonstrated that an improvement in the long-wavelength photoconversion efficiency was achieved through the incorporation of the InAs quantum dots.
As Rhagodia preissii had shown significant in vitro anthelmintic activity in a previous study, we examined the effect of including this shrub in the diet of sheep infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Worm-infected merino wethers were grazed for 7 weeks on either R. preissii or annual pasture, and faecal egg counts (FECs) were conducted weekly. Plant material was collected weekly from eaten and uneaten plants, and analysed for levels of plant secondary metabolites (tannins, oxalates, saponins) and in vitro anthelmintic activity. While mean FECs were consistently lower in sheep grazing R. preissii compared to pasture (reductions of 20–74%), the differences were not significant. There was no relationship between grazing preference (eaten or uneaten) and in vitro anthelmintic activity of plant extracts. The levels of saponins and oxalates did not correlate with grazing preference or in vitro anthelmintic activity, while tannins were not responsible for the anthelmintic activity. While the identity of the grazing deterrent and in vitro anthelmintic compounds remain unknown, the presence of plants which were both highly preferred by the sheep and showed in vitro anthelmintic activity indicates a potential to develop the species as an anthelmintic shrub through selection of shrub populations dominated by such plants.
Plasmids belonging to the FIme incompatibility group were found in seven different serogroups of multiply antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) and living in south-east London. Although widespread in Salmonella spp., FIme plasmids have only previously been described in E. coli in a strain of serogroup O15 K52 H1 responsible for an extensive and protracted outbreak of invasive community-acquired infection in south-east London in 1986. Our findings suggest either a wider background occurrence of FIme plasmids in E. coli associated with UTI than previously reported or alternatively, the dissemination and subsequent molecular diversification of the FIme plasmid associated with the epidemic strain of serogroup O15 K52 H1.
Rabbit polyclonal hyperimmune antibodies to Yersinia pestis, and a mouse monoclonal antibody against the capsular antigen fraction 1 (F1) were compared in immunofluorescence (IF) tests. Fluorescent antibody conjugates were prepared from polyclonal antisera to four F1 positive Y. pestis strains; the conjugated antibody to strain A1122 gave the strongest IF staining of F1 positive and F1 negative Y. pestis strains. Indirect assays were rejected in favour of direct assays utilizing polyclonal and monoclonal reagents because the increased background staining reduced the effective contrast of bacterial visualisation. Polyclonal conjugates gave fairly homogeneous staining of Y. pestis bacterial populations, but in monoclonal assays a skew distribution of fluorescence intensity was observed, the majority of bacteria being poorly stained. The proportion of cells stained well by the monoclonal sufficed for easy identification of Y. pestis of the F1 positive phenotype however, and staining was not affected by washing the bacteria or treating them with formaldehyde. Y. pestis strains of the F1 positive genotype reacted with the monoclonal if bacteria were grown at 37 °C but not if the growth temperature was reduced to 25°C thus preventing capsule production. The polyclonal conjugate reacted with bacteria of these strains that had been grown at either temperature. Strains of F1 negative genotype grown at either temperature. Strains of F1 negative genotype grown at either temperature reacted with the polyclonal conjugate but not with the monoclonal. Cross reactions between the polyclonal reagents and Y. enterocolitica biovar 2, serovar O 8 could not be removed by selective absorption; however, the monoclonal antibody gave no cross reaction.
The F1 phenotypic status of bacterial preparations was verified by ELISA measurement of the fraction 1 antigen concentration. Antigen levels for F1 positive and F1 negative phenotypes differed by about three logs for suspensions of Y. pestis harvested from solid media.
The polyclonal and monoclonal direct IF tests applied to spleen and blood smears of laboratory mice infected with Y. pestis were able to differentiate between lethal infection with an F1 positive strain carrying all four classical virulence determinants, an F1 positive vaccine strain, and an F1 negative strain.
Depersonalisation disorder is characterised by emotion suppression, but the cerebral mechanisms of this symptom are not yet fully understood.
To compare brain activation and autonomic responses of individuals with the disorder and healthy controls.
Happy and sad emotion expressions in increasing intensities (neutral to intense) were presented in an implicit event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design with simultaneous measurement of autonomic responses.
Participants with depersonalisation disorder showed fMRI signal decreases, whereas the control group showed signal increases in response to emotion intensity increases in both happy and sad expressions. The analysis of evoked haemodynamic responses from regions exhibiting functional connectivity between central and autonomic nervous systems indicated that in depersonalisation disorder initial modulations of haemodynamic response occurred significantly earlier (2s post-stimulus) than in the control group (4–6s post-stimulus).
The results suggest that fMRI signal decreases are possible correlates of emotion suppression in depersonalisation disorder.