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We examined the association between perceived discrimination and the risk of cognitive impairment with no dementia (CIND) and Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) while considering the potential effects of nativity status.
A prospective analysis of discrimination and nativity status with dementia and cognitive impairment was conducted among Latinx adults aged 51 years and older who participated in the Health and Retirement Study.
A national representative sample.
A sample of 1,175 Latinx adults aged 51 years and older.
Demographics, cognitive functioning, perceived discrimination, and nativity status (US-born vs. non-US born) were assessed. Traditional survival analysis methods (Fine and gray models) were used to account for the semi-competing risk of death with up to 10 years of follow-up.
According to our results, neither everyday discrimination nor nativity status on their own had a statistically significant association with CIND/ADRD; however, non-US-born Latinx adults who reported no discrimination had a 42% lower risk of CIND/ADRD (SHR = 0.58 [0.41, 0.83], p = .003) than US-born adults.
These results highlight the need for healthcare providers to assess for discrimination and provide support and resources for those experiencing discrimination. It also highlights the need for better policies that address discrimination and reduce health disparities.
To determine associations of alcohol use with cognitive aging among middle-aged men.
1,608 male twins (mean 57 years at baseline) participated in up to three visits over 12 years, from 2003–2007 to 2016–2019. Participants were classified into six groups based on current and past self-reported alcohol use: lifetime abstainers, former drinkers, very light (1–4 drinks in past 14 days), light (5–14 drinks), moderate (15–28 drinks), and at-risk drinkers (>28 drinks in past 14 days). Linear mixed-effects regressions modeled cognitive trajectories by alcohol group, with time-based models evaluating rate of decline as a function of baseline alcohol use, and age-based models evaluating age-related differences in performance by current alcohol use. Analyses used standardized cognitive domain factor scores and adjusted for sociodemographic and health-related factors.
Performance decreased over time in all domains. Relative to very light drinkers, former drinkers showed worse verbal fluency performance, by –0.21 SD (95% CI –0.35, –0.07), and at-risk drinkers showed faster working memory decline, by 0.14 SD (95% CI 0.02, –0.20) per decade. There was no evidence of protective associations of light/moderate drinking on rate of decline. In age-based models, light drinkers displayed better memory performance at advanced ages than very light drinkers (+0.14 SD; 95% CI 0.02, 0.20 per 10-years older age); likely attributable to residual confounding or reverse association.
Alcohol consumption showed minimal associations with cognitive aging among middle-aged men. Stronger associations of alcohol with cognitive aging may become apparent at older ages, when cognitive abilities decline more rapidly.
Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive function in older adults. Although understudied in middle-aged adults, the relationship between alcohol and cognition may also be influenced by genetics such as the apolipoprotein (ApoE) ε4 allele, a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. We examined the relationship between alcohol consumption, ApoE genotype, and cognition in middle-aged adults and hypothesized that light and/or moderate drinkers (≤2 drinks per day) would show better cognitive performance than heavy drinkers or non-drinkers. Additionally, we hypothesized that the association between alcohol use and cognitive function would differ by ApoE genotype (ε4+ vs. ε4−).
Participants were 1266 men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA; M age = 56; range 51–60) who completed a neuropsychological battery assessing seven cognitive abilities: general cognitive ability (GCA), episodic memory, processing speed, executive function, abstract reasoning, verbal fluency, and visuospatial ability. Alcohol consumption was categorized into five groups: never, former, light, moderate, and heavy.
In fully adjusted models, there was no significant main effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive functions. However, there was a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and ApoE ε4 status for GCA and episodic memory, such that the relationship of alcohol consumption and cognition was stronger in ε4 carriers. The ε4+ heavy drinking subgroup had the poorest GCA and episodic memory.
Presence of the ε4 allele may increase vulnerability to the deleterious effects of heavy alcohol consumption. Beneficial effects of light or moderate alcohol consumption were not observed.
Consumers’ willingness to pay for postharvest-processed (PHP) raw oysters—oysters without health risks—is studied in experimental auction markets. The experimental design decomposes the effects of taste, objective risk information, and information on four PHP technologies on consumer valuations. Results show that relatively uninformed consumers are willing to pay equivalent amounts for PHP and traditional raw oysters. However, after a blind taste test, consumers are willing to pay a significant premium for traditional raw oysters, and the premium persists after objective information on risk and processing technologies is provided. The results are robust across PHP technologies.
This review brings together research findings on cervical relaxation in the ewe and its pharmacological stimulation for enhancement of the penetration needed for transcervical insemination and embryo transfer. On the basis that the success of artificial insemination is the percentage of ewes lambing, a review is made of recent research aimed at understanding and minimising the sub-lethal effects of freezing and thawing on the viability of spermatozoa, their membrane integrity and their ability to migrate through cervical mucus, as these characteristics have a major influence on fertility, particularly when semen is deposited, artificially, in the os cervix. Milestones of achievement are given for transcervical intrauterine insemination, embryo recovery and transfer and the birth of lambs of pre-determined sex, firstly following intracytoplasmic sperm injection, then laparoscopic intrauterine insemination using highly diluted flow-cytometrically sorted fresh semen and subsequently by os cervix insemination using sexed semen that had been frozen and thawed. Diversity of research endeavour (applied, cellular, molecular), research discipline (anatomy, histology, immunology, endocrinology) and research focus (cell, tissue, organ, whole animal) is embraced within the review as each has significant contributions to make in advancing recent scientific findings from the laboratory into robust on-farm transcervical insemination and embryo transfer techniques.
Théâtre du Soleil’s latest production, Le Dernier Caravansérail (The Last Caravanserai), staged the stories and experiences of immigrants, refugees, and asylum-seekers from around the world. In this article, William McEvoy argues that the company was motivated both by a political agenda to make migrants more visible and a concern to investigate the ethical implications of its own creative processes. This led to a potential conflict between representing migrants directly on stage and a performance that reflected the company’s worries about turning migrants’ traumatic narratives into theatre and spectacle. Focusing on the concept of balance in the production, the article shows how Théâtre du Soleil presented the ethical negotiations between creative self and represented other through exploring the links between text and performance, writing and the body, and manipulation and resistance. William McEvoy is a lecturer in the English Department at the University of Sussex, specializing in contemporary theatre and performance. He has published work on Peter Brook and Ariane Mnouchkine, and his current research deals with the shifting role of the text in experimental and physical theatre.
In a four-week, double-blind, clinical trial thirty-one patients with depressive neurosis were treated with viloxazine, doxepin, or placebo. There were no differences among the three groups in therapeutic effects. Many depressed out-patients improve on placebo. Viloxazine hydrochloride is one of a series of compounds developed to explore the central nervous system activity of the aryloxypropanolamine type of β-adreno-receptor antagonists. Initial clinical studies support the hypothesis that viloxazine has antidepressant properties in man (Bayliss et al, 1974; Bereen, 1973; Pichot et al, 1975; Tsegos and Ekdawi, 1974).
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