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We present a Newtonian, one-dimensional, differential analysis for capillary breakup rheometry (CBR) to determine the surface tension to viscosity ratio
. Our local differential analysis does not require specific assumptions for the axial force to preclude its measurement. Our analysis indicates that measuring gradients in filament curvature is necessary to accurately determine
when axial force is not measured. CBR experiments were performed on five silicone oils (
), three sample volumes, and three strains to evaluate the operating range of the differential analysis and compare its performance to that of a standard integral method from literature. We investigate the role of filament asymmetry, caused mainly by gravity, on the performance of the differential method for the range of conditions studied. Experimental and analytical details for resolving gradients of curvature are also given.
We summarize and add to the biostratigraphy and magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Washakie Formation, Washakie Basin, Wyoming. Previously the Washakie Formation (divided into the lower Kinney Rim Member and the upper Adobe Town Member) was thought to contain rocks of early Bridgerian through late Uintan age. Continuing collection efforts in the Washakie Basin by the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) allow us to revise the biochronologically determined age of the Washakie Formation to late Bridgerian through early Uintan age.
A late Bridgerian age for the poorly fossiliferous Kinney Rim Member of the Washakie Formation is indicated by the presence of Hyrachyus eximius (a taxon with a late Bridgerian first occurrence elsewhere). In addition, the following taxa are also known from the Kinney Rim Member: Peratherium cf. P. knighti, cf. Apatemys bellus, Hyopsodus sp., Orohippus sp., Mesatirhinus sp., Helaletes nanus, and Hyrachyus modestus (all known from the Bridgerian elsewhere, but none restricted to the late Bridgerian, except possibly Mesatirhinus). In addition, taxa restricted to the early Bridgerian of the Bridger Basin (e.g., Smilodectes) have not been recovered from the Washakie Formation, except for a possible new species of tillodont from the Kinney Rim Member.
An early Uintan age for the upper unit of the Adobe Town Member, the uppermost unit in the Washakie Formation, is indicated by the occurrence of Pareumys grangeri (restricted to the early Uintan elsewhere). In addition, Paramys compressidens and Epihippus gracilis (both known from the Uintan elsewhere, but neither restricted to the early Uintan) are also known from the upper unit.
The electronic structure of the prototypical quasi-one dimensional (1D) conductor K03MoO3 has been studied using high resolution photoemission spectroscopy. In particular, the electronic structure of defects was investigated in order to understand the mechanism for charge density wave pinning and destruction of the Peierls transition. Defects were found to radically alter the electronic structure close to the Fermi level (EF), thus strongly modifying the structure of the Fermi surface. While a low emission intensity at EF has been interpreted as evidence for a Luttinger liquid ground state in a ID metal, we show that non-stoichiometric surfaces lead to similar effects. The nature of the ground state is discussed in the context of these results.
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