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Annual grass weeds reduce profits of wheat farmers in the Pacific Northwest. The very-long-chain fatty acid elongase (VLCFA)-inhibiting herbicides S-metolachlor and dimethenamid-P could expand options for control of annual grasses, but are not registered in wheat due to crop injury. Our studies evaluated a safener, fluxofenim, applied to wheat seed for protection of nineteen soft white winter wheat varieties from S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P and pyroxasulfone herbicides, investigated the response of six varieties (UI Sparrow, LWW 15-72223, UI Magic CL+, Brundage 96, UI Castle CL+ and UI Palouse CL+) to incremental doses of fluxofenim, established fluxofenim dose required to optimally protect the varieties from VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides, and assessed the impact of fluxofenim dose on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in three wheat varieties (UI Sparrow, Brundage 96 and UI Castle CL+). Fluxofenim increased the biomass of four varieties treated with S-metolachlor or dimethenamid-P herbicides and one variety treated with pyroxasulfone. Three varieties showed tolerance to the herbicides regardless of the fluxofenim treatment. Estimated fluxofenim doses resulting in 10% biomass reduction of wheat ranged from 0.55 g ai kg-1 seed to 1.23 g ai kg-1 seed. Fluxofenim doses resulting in 90% increased biomass to S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, and pyroxasulfone ranged from 0.07 to 0.55, 0.09 to 0.73, and 0.30 to 1.03 g ai kg-1 seed, respectively. Fluxofenim at 0.36 g ai kg-1 seed increased GST activity in UI Castle CL+, UI Sparrow and Brundage 96 by 58%, 30% and 38%, respectively. These results suggest that fluxofenim would not damage wheat seedlings up to 3x the rate labeled for sorghum, and fluxofenim protects soft white winter wheat varieties from S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P or pyroxasulfone injury at the herbicide rates evaluated.
We question whether the increasingly popular, radical idea of turning half the Earth into a network of protected areas is either feasible or just. We argue that this Half-Earth plan would have widespread negative consequences for human populations and would not meet its conservation objectives. It offers no agenda for managing biodiversity within a human half of Earth. We call instead for alternative radical action that is both more effective and more equitable, focused directly on the main drivers of biodiversity loss by shifting the global economy from its current foundation in growth while simultaneously redressing inequality.
Background: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) aims to teach people skills to help them self-manage their depression. Trial evidence shows that CBT is an effective treatment for depression and individuals may experience benefits long-term. However, there is little research about individuals’ continued use of CBT skills once treatment has finished. Aims: To explore whether individuals who had attended at least 12 sessions of CBT continued to use and value the CBT skills they had learnt during therapy. Method: Semi-structured interviews were held with participants from the CoBalT trial who had received CBT, approximately 4 years earlier. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Results: 20 participants were interviewed. Analysis of the interviews suggested that individuals who viewed CBT as a learning process, at the time of treatment, recalled and used specific skills to manage their depression once treatment had finished. In contrast, individuals who viewed CBT only as an opportunity to talk about their problems did not appear to utilize any of the CBT skills they had been taught and reported struggling to manage their depression once treatment had ended. Conclusions: Our findings suggest individuals may value and use CBT skills if they engage with CBT as a learning opportunity at the time of treatment. Our findings underline the importance of the educational model in CBT and the need to emphasize this to individuals receiving treatment.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
To analyze compliance with one aspect of the regulation of stormwater discharge, we estimate a random-utility model of the probability that a builder uses a silt fence to control sediments on a lot with a house under construction in an urbanizing county of South Carolina. The probability increases if the builder is responsible to the subdivision's developer or if a homeowners association exists. The probability also increases as the cost to install a silt fence decreases or the number of houses under construction per built house in a subdivision increases. The results can help county officials target inspection to improve compliance.
Discrete current switching is induced in carbon nanotubes by electron beam irradiation. Switching amplitudes of 3% to 6% are observed at room temperature. Switching is created by electron beam exposure with dosage as low as 1000 pC/cm. Relative switching amplitude remains constant as the bias voltage varies, suggesting that current fluctuation is dominated by mobility fluctuation. Changes in the noise power spectral density following electron beam exposure will be discussed.
It is crucial to understand the response reproducibility of on-line
continuous-flow respirometers applied as biological toxicity monitors to
alert plant operators to contamination in wastewater influent. Used as
upset early warning systems, on-line respirometers could identify toxic
waste streams that should be diverted from activated sludge treatment
systems. This study used a continuous flow-through respirometer
(Bioscan™) to examine the reproducibility in the respiration
response of activated sludge biomass from a local wastewater treatment
plant and a commercially available seed (POLYTOX®), when each was
exposed to a toxic pH 3.0 buffer solution. Respiration response is
characterized in this study as a change in dissolved oxygen concentration
over time in the respirometer effluent. This response was segregated into
groups, including within an inoculated population of a given seed source
(activated sludge biomass or POLYTOX®), between different inoculations
of the same seed source, and by the two different seed sources.
Reproducibility in the response of the Bioscan™ respirometer
was as high as 22% within populations, 23% between populations, and 29%
for the same population over time. In addition, time dependency in the
respirometer response to the toxin was examined. It was demonstrated that
response to the same toxic pulse varies between and within populations and
that reduced sensitivity of the microorganisms can occur if repeatedly
exposed to an individual toxin. A genetic DGGE analysis for one population
suggests that the observed reduction in sensitivity may be caused by
changes in species composition.
Twins can be used to investigate the biological basis for observed associations between birth weight and later disease risk, as they experience in utero growth restriction compared with singletons, which can differ in magnitude within twin pairs despite partial or total genetic identity. In the present study, sixty monozygotic and seventy-one dizygotic same-sex twin pairs aged 19–50 years and eighty-nine singleton controls matched for age, gestational age, sex, maternal age and parity were recruited from an obstetric database. Associations between fasting lipid levels and birth weight were assessed by linear regression with adjustment for possible confounding factors. Twins were significantly lighter at birth but were not significantly different in adult height, weight or lipid levels from the singleton controls. There was a significant inverse association between birth weight and both total and LDL-cholesterol levels among singleton controls (−0·53mmol/l per kg (95% CI −0·97, −0·09), P=0·02 and −0·39mmol/l per kg (95% CI −0·76, −0·02), P=0·04, respectively), but there was no significant association between birth weight and lipid levels in either unpaired or within-pair analysis of twins. The results suggest that the in utero growth restriction and early catch-up growth experienced by twins does not increase the risk of an atherogenic lipid profile in adult life.
Studies in singletons have found an association between birthweight and Type 2 diabetes in adult life. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this association could also be seen in twins. 59 monozygotic (MZ) and 69 dizygotic (DZ) same-sex twin pairs aged 19–50 years and 89 singleton controls matched for age, gestational age, gender, maternal age and parity were recruited from a local obstetric database. Associations between adult glucose, HbA1C and insulin levels and insulin resistance and birthweight were assessed by linear regression with adjustment for confounding variables. Twins were significantly lighter at birth than singleton controls, but there were no significant differences in adult weight, glucose, HbA1C and insulin levels or insulin resistance between twins and controls. The relationship between birthweight and fasting glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance was not significantly different from zero in either twins or controls, but birthweight was significantly negatively associated with HbA1C only in controls. There was no evidence of a difference between MZ and DZ twins in unpaired or within-pair analysis. These results provide little evidence that low birthweight in twins increases the risk of impaired glucose-insulin metabolism in young adults or that genetic factors can account for the association observed in singletons.