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A large amount of data has been treated statistically to determine daily and long-range variations which occur when replicate determinations are made on low-alloy steel samples. The experiment reported here was designed and run to evaluate the results obtained using an RCA Siemens X-ray spectrograph. As part of a quality-control method for the analysis of low-alloy steels, it was desirable to know the confidence limits for within-day and day-to-day replication. This paper reviews the results of this study and represents an outline of future work planned.
Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) data are used to establish relationships among the degree of crystallinity, melting temperature and lamellar thickness for random copolymers of poly(β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-hydroxyvaierate) (PHB/V). The morphology of this isodimorphic system is best described by a two phase model consisting of crystalline and amorphous domains having density fluctuations within each domain. The Sanchez-Eby inclusion model is used to predict melting point depression in these materials and, combined with SAXS data, to gain insight into the degree of inclusion of hydroxy valerate units within the polyhydroxybutyrate crystalline domains.
To evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) at 2years.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine showed clinically significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale scores compared with placebo, and there were low rates of overall adverse events (AEs) and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration period and a long-term maintenance phase. Safety measures included incidence of AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and AEs leading to withdrawal, dose reduction, or dose suspension. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates (EAIRs; incidence/patient-years) were used to compare AE frequencies for long-term treatment with those for short-term treatment (ARM-TD and AIM-TD). This analysis reports results up to 2 years (Week106).
343 patients were enrolled (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 received deutetrabenazine). There were 331.4 patient-years of exposure in this analysis. Through Week 106, EAIRs of AEs were comparable to or lower than those observed with short-term deutetrabenazine and placebo, including AEs of interest (akathisia/restlessness [long-term EAIR: 0.02; short-term EAIR range: 0–0.25], anxiety [0.09; 0.13–0.21], depression [0.09; 0.04–0.13], diarrhea [0.06; 0.06–0.34], parkinsonism [0.01; 0–0.08], somnolence/sedation [0.09; 0.06–0.81], and suicidality [0.02; 0–0.13]). The frequency of SAEs (EAIR 0.15) was similar to those observed with short-term placebo (0.33) and deutetrabenazine (range 0.06–0.33) treatment. AEs leading to withdrawal (0.08), dose reduction (0.17), and dose suspension (0.06) were uncommon.
These results confirm the safety outcomes seen in the ARM-TD and AIM-TD parent studies, demonstrating that deutetrabenazine is well tolerated for long-term use in TD patients.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California,USA
Funding Acknowledgements: Funding: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel
To evaluate long-term efficacy of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) by examining response rates from baseline in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores. Preliminary results of the responder analysis are reported in this analysis.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, the odds of response to deutetrabenazine treatment were higher than the odds of response to placebo at all response levels, and there were low rates of overall adverse events and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration and a long-term maintenance phase. The cumulative proportion of AIMS responders from baseline was assessed. Response was defined as a percent improvement from baseline for each patient from 10% to 90% in 10% increments. AlMS score was assessed by local site ratings for this analysis.
343 patients enrolled in the extension study (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 patients received deutetrabenazine). At Week 54 (n=145; total daily dose [mean±standard error]: 38.1±0.9mg), 63% of patients receiving deutetrabenazine achieved ≥30% response, 48% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 26% achieved ≥70% response. At Week 80 (n=66; total daily dose: 38.6±1.1mg), 76% of patients achieved ≥30% response, 59% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 36% achieved ≥70% response. Treatment was generally well tolerated.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved response rates higher than those observed in positive short-term studies, indicating clinically meaningful long-term treatment benefit.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel.
Radiocarbon (14C or carbon-14, half-life 5730 yr) is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of a geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. In particular, the radiological impact of gaseous carbon-14 bearing species has been recognized as a potential issue. Irradiated steels are one of the main sources of carbon-14 in the United Kingdom’s radioactive waste inventory. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the chemical form(s) in which the carbon-14 will be released. The objective of the work was to measure the rate and speciation of carbon-14 release from irradiated 316L(N) stainless steel on leaching under high-pH anoxic conditions, representative of a cement-based near field for low-heat generating wastes. Periodic measurements of carbon-14 releases to both the gas phase and to solution were made in duplicate experiments over a period of up to 417 days. An initial fast release of carbon-14 from the surface of the steel is observed during the first week of leaching, followed by a drop in the rate of release at longer times. Carbon-14 is released primarily to the solution phase with differing fractions released to the gas phase in the two experiments: about 1% of the total release in one and 6% in the other. The predominant dissolved carbon-14 releases are in inorganic form (as 14C-carbonate) but also include organic species. The predominant gas-phase species are hydrocarbons with a smaller fraction of 14CO (which may include some volatile oxygen-containing carbon-species). The experiments are continuing, with final sampling and termination planned after leaching for a total of two years.
To evaluate probiotics for the primary prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among hospital inpatients.
A before-and-after quality improvement intervention comparing 12-month baseline and intervention periods.
A 694-bed teaching hospital.
We administered a multispecies probiotic comprising L. acidophilus (CL1285), L. casei (LBC80R), and L. rhamnosus (CLR2) to eligible antibiotic recipients within 12 hours of initial antibiotic receipt through 5 days after final dose. We excluded (1) all patients on neonatal, pediatric and oncology wards; (2) all individuals receiving perioperative prophylactic antibiotic recipients; (3) all those restricted from oral intake; and (4) those with pancreatitis, leukopenia, or posttransplant. We defined CDI by symptoms plus C. difficile toxin detection by polymerase chain reaction. Our primary outcome was hospital-onset CDI incidence on eligible hospital units, analyzed using segmented regression.
The study included 251 CDI episodes among 360,016 patient days during the baseline and intervention periods, and the incidence rate was 7.0 per 10,000 patient days. The incidence rate was similar during baseline and intervention periods (6.9 vs 7.0 per 10,000 patient days; P=.95). However, compared to the first 6 months of the intervention, we detected a significant decrease in CDI during the final 6 months (incidence rate ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4–0.9; P=.009). Testing intensity remained stable between the baseline and intervention periods: 19% versus 20% of stools tested were C. difficile positive by PCR, respectively. From medical record reviews, only 26% of eligible patients received a probiotic per the protocol.
Despite poor adherence to the protocol, there was a reduction in the incidence of CDI during the intervention, which was delayed ~6 months after introducing probiotic for primary prevention.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary movement disorder that is often irreversible, can affect any body region, and can be debilitating. In the ARM-TDand AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine treatment demonstrated statistically and clinically significant reductions in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores at Week 12 compared with placebo (primary endpoint).
To evaluate the efficacy of deutetrabenazine, as measured by the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale, in patients with TD from the pooled ARM-TDand AIM-TD (24 and 36 mg/day doses) data sets, as compared with the pooled placebo cohort.
ARM-TD and AIM-TD were 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies that evaluated the safety and efficacy of deutetrabenazine for thetreatment of TD. The key secondary endpoint of each study was the proportion of patients “much improved” or “very much improved” (treatment success) at Week 12 on theCGIC.
At Week 12, the odds of treatment success among patients treated with deutetrabenazine (n=152) was more than double that of patients given placebo (n=107; odds ratio: 2.12; P=0.005). In a categorical analysis of CGIC ratings, patients treated with deutetrabenazine showed greater improvement than patients given placebo (P=0.003). Patients treated with deutetrabenazine also had a significantly better treatment response than those given placebo (least-squares mean CGIC score treatment difference: –0.4; P=0.006).
Deutetrabenazine treatment led to statistically and clinically significant improvements in TD symptoms based on the CGIC result, suggesting that clinicians were able to recognize the benefit in patients treated with deutetrabenazine.
Presented at: The International Congress of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders; June 4–8, 2017; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
These studies were funded by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Petach Tikva, Israel.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine showed clinically significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores at Week 12 compared with placebo, and was generally well tolerated.
To evaluate the long-term safety/tolerability and efficacy of deutetrabenazine in patients with TD. Week 54 open-labelresults are reported in this interim analysis.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12 mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48 mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration period and a long-term maintenance phase. Safetymeasures included incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs), drug-related AEs, and AEs leading to withdrawal, dose reduction, or dose suspension. This analysis reports results up to Week 54.
304 patients enrolled in the extension study. There were 215 patient-years of exposure in this analysis, and exposure-adjusted incidence rates (EAIRs) of AEs (incidence/patient-years) were comparable to or lower than those observed with short-term deutetrabenazine treatment and placebo. The frequency of SAEs (EAIR 0.14) was similar to rates observed with short-termplacebo (EAIR 0.33) and deutetrabenazine (EAIR range 0.06–0.33) treatment. AEs leading to study discontinuation (EAIR 0.08), dose reduction (EAIR 0.17), and dose suspension (EAIR 0.09) were uncommon.
Long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine was generally safe and well tolerated in patients with TD, and did not result in cumulative toxicity.
Presented at: The American Psychiatric Association 2017 Annual Meeting; May 20–24, 2017; San Diego, California, USA.
This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Petach Tikva, Israel.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary movement disorder resulting from exposure to dopamine-receptor antagonists. In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine demonstrated significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores at Week 12 compared with placebo, and was generally well tolerated.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term deutetrabenazine therapy in patients with TD.
Patients with TD who completed the ARM-TD or AIM-TD studies were eligible to enter this open-label, single-arm, long-term safety study after they completed the 1-week washout period and final evaluation in the blinded portion of the trial. Efficacy endpoints included the change in AIMS score from baseline, and treatment success (defined as “much improved” or “very much improved”) on the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC). This analysis reports results up to Week 54.
304 patients enrolled in the extension study. At Week 54, the mean (standard error) change in AIMS score was –5.1 (0.52). After 6 weeks of deutetrabenazine treatment, the proportion of patients who achieved treatment success was 58% per the CGIC and 53% per the PGIC, and by Week 54 was 72% per the CGIC and 59% per the PGIC, thus demonstrating maintenance or enhancement of benefit over time. Deutetrabenazine was well tolerated for up to 54 weeks, and compared with the ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, no new safety signals were detected.
54 weeks of deutetrabenazine treatment was generally efficacious, safe, and well tolerated in patients with TD.
Presented at: The American Psychiatric Association 2017 Annual Meeting; May 20–24, 2017; San Diego, California, USA.
This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Petach Tikva, Israel.
The History, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) score is a decision aid designed to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with acute chest pain. It has been validated for ED use, but it has yet to be evaluated in a prehospital setting.
A prehospital modified HEART score can predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among undifferentiated chest pain patients transported to the ED.
A retrospective cohort study of patients with chest pain transported by two county-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies to a tertiary care center was conducted. Adults without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. Inter-facility transfers and those without a prehospital 12-lead ECG or an ED troponin measurement were excluded. Modified HEART scores were calculated by study investigators using a standardized data collection tool for each patient. All MACE (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or coronary revascularization) were determined by record review at 30 days. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPVs) for MACE at 30 days were calculated.
Over the study period, 794 patients met inclusion criteria. A MACE at 30 days was present in 10.7% (85/794) of patients with 12 deaths (1.5%), 66 MIs (8.3%), and 12 coronary revascularizations without MI (1.5%). The modified HEART score identified 33.2% (264/794) of patients as low risk. Among low-risk patients, 1.9% (5/264) had MACE (two MIs and three revascularizations without MI). The sensitivity and NPV for 30-day MACE was 94.1% (95% CI, 86.8-98.1) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.6-99.4), respectively.
Prehospital modified HEART scores have a high NPV for MACE at 30 days. A study in which prehospital providers prospectively apply this decision aid is warranted.
The Neotoma Paleoecology Database is a community-curated data resource that supports interdisciplinary global change research by enabling broad-scale studies of taxon and community diversity, distributions, and dynamics during the large environmental changes of the past. By consolidating many kinds of data into a common repository, Neotoma lowers costs of paleodata management, makes paleoecological data openly available, and offers a high-quality, curated resource. Neotoma’s distributed scientific governance model is flexible and scalable, with many open pathways for participation by new members, data contributors, stewards, and research communities. The Neotoma data model supports, or can be extended to support, any kind of paleoecological or paleoenvironmental data from sedimentary archives. Data additions to Neotoma are growing and now include >3.8 million observations, >17,000 datasets, and >9200 sites. Dataset types currently include fossil pollen, vertebrates, diatoms, ostracodes, macroinvertebrates, plant macrofossils, insects, testate amoebae, geochronological data, and the recently added organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and specimen-level data. Multiple avenues exist to obtain Neotoma data, including the Explorer map-based interface, an application programming interface, the neotoma R package, and digital object identifiers. As the volume and variety of scientific data grow, community-curated data resources such as Neotoma have become foundational infrastructure for big data science.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
The Yellow Chat Epthianura crocea is comprised of three disjunct subspecies. Subspecies E. c. macgregori (Capricorn Yellow Chat) is listed as Critically Endangered under the EPBC Act and has a distribution that also appears to be disjunct, with a limited geographic area of less than 7,000 ha. Some populations are threatened by rapid industrial development, and it is important for conservation of the subspecies to determine the extent to which the putative populations are connected. We used 14 microsatellite markers to measure genetic diversity and to determine the extent of gene flow between two disjunct populations at the northern and southern extremes of the subspecies’ range. No significant differences in genetic diversity (number of alleles and heterozygosity) were observed, but clear population structuring was apparent, with obvious differentiation between the northern and southern populations. The most likely explanation for reduced gene flow between the two populations is either the development of a geographic barrier as a consequence of shrinkage of the marine plains associated with the rise in sea levels following the last glacial maxima, or reduced connectivity across the largely unsuitable pasture and forest habitat that now separates the two populations, exacerbated by declining population size and fewer potential emigrants. Regardless of the mechanism, restricted gene flow between these two populations has important consequences for their ongoing conservation. The relative isolation of the smaller southern groups (the Fitzroy River delta and Curtis Island) from the much larger northern group (both sides of the Broad Sound) makes the southern population more vulnerable to local extinction. Conservation efforts should focus on nature refuge agreements with land owners agreeing to maintain favourable grazing management practices in perpetuity, particularly in the northern area where most chats occur. Supplemental exchanges of individuals from northern and southern populations should be explored as a way of increasing genetic diversity and reducing inbreeding.
This research aimed to develop a typology of agriculture in Timor-Leste using national census data at the village level. Although Timor-Leste is a relatively small nation, its varied topography contains a rich diversity in agricultural livelihoods, from coffee covered mountains, to dryland-swidden agriculture. Each of the livelihoods are very complex, with a single household often managing more than 10 crop and 4–5 animal species in very small holdings. Using census data from each village only, statistical clustering analysis was used to group villages with similar levels of participation in crop and livestock production. The clustered village groups were then mapped, and it was seen that villages in each cluster, occupied particular locations. Using expert knowledge about the locations of each cluster, livelihood zones based on a small number of rules were defined to mimic the output of the clustering. Seven livelihood zones were identified from mapping the livelihood systems. These included three zones with irrigation (rice-based), two highland zones (coffee-based) and two lowland zones based on rain-fed agriculture. Government and development agencies have endorsed the typology of livelihood zones, which is now in use for planning and decision-making. The technique of using national census data to define agricultural zones through statistical clustering can be replicated wherever there is reliable village-level census data.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
We have developed and tested a wide-field photometer to detect extrasolar planet transits from the South Pole. The discovery of transiting planets for which masses can be measured by radial velocity is vital to constrain the models of planet formation and evolution. Short of going to space, the South Pole is the best site from which to carry out a such a survey. Based on results from the Doppler velocity surveys and the Vulcan transit search, we expect to detect 10 to 15 transiting planets in two years of operation at the South Pole.
We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array’s receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.
We revisit the input–output mass budget of the high-elevation region of the Greenland ice sheet evaluated by the Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA). Our revised reference period (1961–90) mass balance of 54±48 Gt a–1 is substantially greater than the 0±21 Gt a–1 assessed by PARCA, but consistent with a recent, fully independent, input–output estimate of high-elevation mass balance (41±61 Gt a–1). Together these estimates infer a reference period high-elevation specific mass balance of 4.8±5.4 cm w.e. a–1. The probability density function (PDF) associated with this combined input–output estimate infers an 81% likelihood of high-elevation specific mass balance being positive (>0 cm w.e. a–1) during the reference period, and a 70% likelihood that specific balance was >2 cm w.e. a–1. Given that reference period accumulation is characteristic of centurial and millennial means, and that in situ mass-balance observations exhibit a dependence on surface slope rather than surface mass balance, we suggest that millennial-scale ice dynamics are the primary driver of subtle reference period high-elevation mass gain. Failure to acknowledge subtle reference period dynamic mass gain can result in underestimating recent dynamic mass loss by ~17%, and recent total Greenland mass loss by ~7%.