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Halauxifen-methyl is a new synthetic auxin herbicide for control of broadleaf weeds, including preplant applications for corn (Zea mays L.) or soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of halauxifen-methyl in comparison to the current auxin standards, 2,4-D and dicamba, on glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed (Erigeron canadensis L.) at different plant heights. In field experiments, a foliar application of halauxifen-methyl at the recommended use rate of 5 g ae ha−1 resulted in 81% control. Dicamba applied at 280 g ae ha−1 provided a comparable level of efficacy of 80%, while 2,4-D at 560 g ae ha−1 resulted in 49% control. The addition of glyphosate improved GR E. canadensis control with 2,4-D more than with halauxifen-methyl or dicamba, possibly due to the higher level of control observed with halauxifen-methyl or dicamba alone. Even though applied at 50 to 100 times lower application rates, the efficacy of halauxifen-methyl on E. canadensis was similar to dicamba and greater than 2,4-D. Thus, halauxifen-methyl should be an effective tool for management of GR E. canadensis before planting both conventional and herbicide-resistant soybean varieties, and it precludes the extended preplant application interval required for dicamba in some soybean management systems.
Knowledge of the effects of burial depth and burial duration on seed viability and, consequently, seedbank persistence of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) and waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] ecotypes can be used for the development of efficient weed management programs. This is of particular interest, given the great fecundity of both species and, consequently, their high seedbank replenishment potential. Seeds of both species collected from five different locations across the United States were investigated in seven states (sites) with different soil and climatic conditions. Seeds were placed at two depths (0 and 15 cm) for 3 yr. Each year, seeds were retrieved, and seed damage (shrunken, malformed, or broken) plus losses (deteriorated and futile germination) and viability were evaluated. Greater seed damage plus loss averaged across seed origin, burial depth, and year was recorded for lots tested at Illinois (51.3% and 51.8%) followed by Tennessee (40.5% and 45.1%) and Missouri (39.2% and 42%) for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. The site differences for seed persistence were probably due to higher volumetric water content at these sites. Rates of seed demise were directly proportional to burial depth (α=0.001), whereas the percentage of viable seeds recovered after 36 mo on the soil surface ranged from 4.1% to 4.3% compared with 5% to 5.3% at the 15-cm depth for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. Seed viability loss was greater in the seeds placed on the soil surface compared with the buried seeds. The greatest influences on seed viability were burial conditions and time and site-specific soil conditions, more so than geographical location. Thus, management of these weed species should focus on reducing seed shattering, enhancing seed removal from the soil surface, or adjusting tillage systems.
To evaluate probiotics for the primary prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among hospital inpatients.
A before-and-after quality improvement intervention comparing 12-month baseline and intervention periods.
A 694-bed teaching hospital.
We administered a multispecies probiotic comprising L. acidophilus (CL1285), L. casei (LBC80R), and L. rhamnosus (CLR2) to eligible antibiotic recipients within 12 hours of initial antibiotic receipt through 5 days after final dose. We excluded (1) all patients on neonatal, pediatric and oncology wards; (2) all individuals receiving perioperative prophylactic antibiotic recipients; (3) all those restricted from oral intake; and (4) those with pancreatitis, leukopenia, or posttransplant. We defined CDI by symptoms plus C. difficile toxin detection by polymerase chain reaction. Our primary outcome was hospital-onset CDI incidence on eligible hospital units, analyzed using segmented regression.
The study included 251 CDI episodes among 360,016 patient days during the baseline and intervention periods, and the incidence rate was 7.0 per 10,000 patient days. The incidence rate was similar during baseline and intervention periods (6.9 vs 7.0 per 10,000 patient days; P=.95). However, compared to the first 6 months of the intervention, we detected a significant decrease in CDI during the final 6 months (incidence rate ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4–0.9; P=.009). Testing intensity remained stable between the baseline and intervention periods: 19% versus 20% of stools tested were C. difficile positive by PCR, respectively. From medical record reviews, only 26% of eligible patients received a probiotic per the protocol.
Despite poor adherence to the protocol, there was a reduction in the incidence of CDI during the intervention, which was delayed ~6 months after introducing probiotic for primary prevention.
The history of school reform has continuously fascinated historians of education, but their study of the subject has acquired a new urgency in the last quarter of a century as national political discussions have given an increasingly important place to educational policy. The recent publication of Tinkering toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform (Harvard University Press, 1995), by David Tyack and Larry Cuban, offers the latest comprehensive study of the subject. We have invited four distinguished scholars to comment on the book. They are Robert L. Hampel of the University of Delaware, William R. Johnson of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, David N. Plank of Michigan State University, and Diane Ravitch of the Brookings Institute. Professors Tyack and Cuban have, in turn, agreed to respond to the comments.
From June 15 to 28, 1991 the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) observed the radio-loud quasar 3C 273. All four CGRO instruments detected radiation from this quasar in their relevant energy range (from 20 keV to 5 GeV). Simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous observations (spanning the time period May 27 – July 25, 1991) by instruments sensitive at other wavelengths have also been obtained. The data from all these observations spanning the frequency range from ∼ 109 Hz to ∼ 1026 Hz were collected and analysed. The resulting energy-density spectrum is shown in the figure below. It shows two maxima, one in the UV, another one at low-energy γ-rays which have nearly the same strength (the corresponding luminosities per decade of frequency for H0 = 60(km/s)/Mpc are 3.2·1046 erg/s and 2.7·1046 erg/s, respectively). A break of the spectrum at low-energy γ-rays is evident. From a detailed analysis a break energy of (2±1.5) MeV could be derived corresponding to a frequency of (4.8±3.6)·1020 Hz. The observed spectral break between X- and γ-rays is ∼ 0.8, much higher than the value of 0.5 predicted by some models. A more detailed paper on this topic is in preparation (Lichti et al.).
Fall-applied residual and spring preplant burn-down herbicide applications are typically used to control winter annual weeds and may also provide early-season residual control of summer annual weed species such as giant ragweed. Field experiments were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in southern Illinois to (1) assess the emergence pattern of giant ragweed, (2) evaluate the efficacy of several herbicides commonly used for soil-residual control of giant ragweed, and (3) investigate the optimal application timing of soil-residual herbicides for control of giant ragweed. Six herbicide treatments were applied at four application timings: early fall, late fall, early spring, and late spring. Giant ragweed first emerged in mid- and late-March in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The duration of emergence varied by year, with 95% of emergence complete in late May of 2008, but not until early July in 2007. Giant ragweed emergence occurred more quickly in plots that received a fall application of glyphosate + 2,4-D compared with the nontreated. Fall-applied residual herbicides did not reduce giant ragweed emergence in 2007 when compared with the nontreated, with the exception of chlorimuron + tribenuron applied in late fall. Giant ragweed control from early- and late-spring herbicide applications was variable by year. In 2007, saflufenacil (50 and 100 g ai ha−1) and simazine applied in early spring reduced giant ragweed densities by 95% or greater through mid-May; however, in 2008, early-spring applications failed to reduce giant ragweed emergence in mid-April. The only treatments that reduced giant ragweed densities by > 80% through early July were late-spring applications of chlorimuron + tribenuron or saflufenacil at 100 g ha−1. Thus, the emergence patterns of giant ragweed in southern Illinois dictates that best management with herbicides would include late-spring applications of soil-residual herbicides just before crop planting and most likely requires subsequent control with foliar or soil-residual herbicides after crop emergence.
To evaluate the impact of an institutional hand hygiene accountability program on healthcare personnel hand hygiene adherence.
Time-series design with correlation analysis.
Tertiary care academic medical center, including outpatient clinics and procedural areas.
Medical center healthcare personnel.
A comprehensive hand hygiene initiative was implemented in 2 major phases starting in July 2009. Key facets of the initiative included extensive project planning, leadership buy-in and goal setting, financial incentives linked to performance, and use of a system-wide shared accountability model. Adherence was measured by designated hand hygiene observers. Adherence rates were compared between baseline and implementation phases, and monthly hand hygiene adherence rates were correlated with monthly rates of device-associated infection.
A total of 109,988 observations were completed during the study period, with a sustained increase in hand hygiene adherence throughout each implementation phase (P<.0001) as well as from one phase to the next (P < .0001), such that adherence greater than 85% has been achieved since January 2011. Medical center departments were able to reclaim some rebate dollars allocated through a self-insurance trust, but during the study period, departments did not achieve full reimbursement. Hand hygiene adherence rates were inversely correlated with device-associated standardized infection ratios (R2 = 0.70).
Implementation of this multifaceted, observational hand hygiene program was associated with sustained improvement in hand hygiene adherence. The principles of this program could be applied to other medical centers pursuing improved hand hygiene adherence among healthcare personnel.
The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) group is a consortium of eight longitudinal twin studies established to explore the nature of social context effects and gene-environment interplay in late-life functioning. The resulting analysis of the combined data from over 17,500 participants aged 25–102 at baseline (including nearly 2,600 monogygotic and 4,300 dizygotic twin pairs and over 1,700 family members) aims to understand why early life adversity, and social factors such as isolation and loneliness, are associated with diverse outcomes including mortality, physical functioning (health, functional ability), and psychological functioning (well-being, cognition), particularly in later life.
Field studies were conducted in central Missouri and central Kansas to evaluate the crop tolerance and efficacy of various combinations of atrazine, flufenacet + isoxaflutole, flumetsulam + clopyralid, isoxaflutole, and S-metolachlor applied PPI or PRE in conventional-till corn. Application technique did not influence crop injury in Kansas. In Missouri, greater crop injury was observed with treatments containing isoxaflutole when applied PPI vs. PRE. Application technique influenced giant foxtail, ivyleaf morningglory, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, and common waterhemp control. In dry years, control of these weeds was usually either same or greater with PPI than it was with PRE treatments. In years with average to above average precipitation, isoxaflutole provided greater control as a PRE application than as a PPI application. Palmer amaranth and common waterhemp control was usually greater with atrazine, isoxaflutole, and S-metolachlor applied PRE than it was applied PPI. Differences in control of all weeds between PPI and PRE applications were less obvious with two or three herbicides compared with treatments with a single herbicide. In general, the corn yield was greater with most of the treatments having two, three, or four herbicides than it was with treatments having a single herbicide, which was due to better weed control with the tank-mixtreatments.
Factors resulting in high risk for cardiovascular disease have been well studied in high income countries, but have been less well researched in low/middle income countries. This is despite robust theoretical evidence of environmental transitions in such countries which could result in biological adaptations that lead to increased hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk. Data from the South African Birth to Twenty cohort, Bone Health sub-sample (n=358, 47% female), were used to model associations between household socioeconomic status (SES) in infancy, household/neighbourhood SES at age 16 years, and systolic blood pressure (multivariate linear regression) and risk for systolic pre-hypertension (binary logistic regression). Bivariate analyses revealed household/neighbourhood SES measures that were significantly associated with increased systolic blood pressure. These significant associations included improved household sanitation in infancy/16 years, caregiver owning the house in infancy and being in a higher tertile (higher SES) of indices measuring school problems/environment or neighbourhood services/problems/crime at 16 years of age. Multivariate analyses adjusted for sex, maternal age, birth weight, parity, smoking, term birth, height/body mass index at 16 years. In adjusted analyses, only one SES variable remained significant for females: those in the middle tertile of the crime prevention index had higher systolic blood pressure (β=3.52, SE=1.61) compared with the highest tertile (i.e. those with the highest crime prevention). In adjusted analyses, no SES variables were significantly associated with the systolic blood pressure of boys, or with the risk of systolic pre-hypertension in either sex. The lack of association between SES and systolic blood pressure/systolic pre-hypertension at age 16 years is consistent with other studies showing an equalization of adolescent health inequalities. Further testing of the association between SES and systolic blood pressure would be recommended in adulthood to see whether the lack of association persists.
We present a preliminary analysis of known planetary nebulae (PNe) in M31 that were observed in the first year of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury HST Multi-cycle program. We use the properties of this sample to discuss PNe from this new multi-band survey.