Water use by saltcedar, an invasive phreatophyte, is of significant concern in many riparian zones in the western United States. Diurnal groundwater fluctuations were analyzed to estimate evapotranspiration and water salvage (water available for other ecological functions) in saltcedar stands over a 6-yr period on a site along the Pecos River in Texas. Seasonal stand-level saltcedar water loss at an untreated control site ranged from 0.42 to 1.18 m/yr. Seasonal water salvage following application of imazapyr ranged from 31% 4 yr after treatment to 82% 2 yr after treatment. Significant water savings may be achieved by chemical saltcedar control, dependent upon water use by replacement vegetation and saltcedar regrowth. A regrowth management strategy is essential to maintain long-term water salvage.