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To assess whether disparities in energy consumption and insufficient energy intake in India have changed over time across socio-economic status (SES).
This cross-sectional, population-based survey study examines the relationship between several SES indicators (i.e. wealth, education, caste, occupation) and energy consumption in India at two time points almost 20 years apart. Household food intake in the last 30 d was assessed in 1993–94 and in 2011–12. Average dietary energy intake per person in the household (e.g. kilocalories) and whether the household consumed less than 80 % of the recommended energy intake (i.e. insufficient energy intake) were calculated. Linear and relative risk regression models were used to estimate the relationship between SES and average energy consumed per day per person and the relative risk of consuming an insufficient amount of energy.
Rural and urban areas across India.
A nationally representative sample of households.
Among rural households, there was a positive association between SES and energy intake across all four SES indicators during both survey years. Similar results were seen for energy insufficiency vis-à-vis recommended energy intake levels. Among urban households, wealth was associated with energy intake and insufficiency at both time points, but there was no educational patterning of energy insufficiency in 2011–12.
Results suggest little overall change in the SES patterning of energy consumption and percentage of households with insufficient energy intake from 1993–94 to 2011–12 in India. Policies in India need to improve energy intake among low-SES households, particularly in rural areas.
Some Socio-political Issues in Sustaining High Growth
William Joe, Population Research Centre, Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi,
Atish Kumar Dash, Centre for Economic Studies and Policies, Central University of South Bihar, Gaya,
Pradeep Agrawal, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi
Demographic transition is a process involving the transition from a young-aged population structure (high birth and death rates) to an old-aged population structure (low birth and death rates). Such shifts in population age structure have significant developmental implications for large and populous countries like India and China. With demographic transition, there is an increase in the share of working-age population, which subsequently lowers the dependency ratio (dependents to working-age population) and allows for acceleration in economic growth. Hence, the net growth benefits derived from an increased share of working-age population due to demographic transition is referred to as the demographic dividend (Gribble and Bremner, 2012).
The Chinese economy witnessed unparalleled economic growth during the transition phase. However, the demographic process will now contribute to the faster ageing of the Chinese population. Interestingly, India is currently in a phase where the population is relatively young, and it will witness continual decline in the share of dependents (children and elderly). This also provides an opportunity to harness the demographic dividend.
It should be emphasized that the notion of demographic dividend is not necessarily based on the concept of labour abundance (which India and China have), but is related essentially to the share of working-age population in total population and the nature of dependency profile. An economy with lower dependency burden will present itself with higher chances of economic growth, largely because a lower dependency burden allows for higher savings and investment in physical and human capital, contributing to sustained economic growth. In fact, it is estimated that nearly one-third of the economic miracle of East Asian countries (including China) can be attributed to the demographic dividend (Bloom and Williamson, 1998; Bloom and Finley, 2009). Similarly, other cross-country studies have observed a positive association between age-structure transition and economic growth (Behrman et al., 1999; Andersson, 2001; Bloom et al., 2003; Feng and Mason, 2005; Kelley and Schmidt, 2005; Bloom et al., 2006; Choudhry and Elhorst, 2010; Wei and Hao, 2010). Also, capital deepening and prudent fiscal management can ensure sustained developmental process when the phase of demographic dividend comes to an end (Mason and Lee, 2006).
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within CPR (ECPR) may improve survival for refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We developed a prehospital, emergency department (ED), and hospital-based clinical and educational protocol to improve the key variable of time-to-ECPR (TTE).
In a single urban health region we involved key prehospital, clinical, and administrative stakeholders over a 2-year period, to develop a regional ECPR program with destination to a single urban tertiary care hospital. We developed clear and reproducible inclusion criteria and processes, including measures of program efficiency. We conducted seminars and teaching modules to paramedics and hospital-based clinicians including monthly simulator sessions, and performed detailed reviews of each treated case in the form of report cards. In this before-and-after study we compared patients with ECPR attempted prior to, and after, protocol implementation. The primary outcome was TTE, defined as the time of initial professional CPR to establishment of extracorporeal circulation. We compared the median TTE for patients in the two groups using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.
Four patients were identified prior to the protocol and managed in an ad hoc basis; for nine patients the protocol was utilized. Overall favourable neurological outcomes among ECPR-treated patients were 27%. The median TTE was 136 minutes (IQR 98 - 196) in the pre-protocol group, and 60 minutes (IQR 49 - 81) minutes in the protocol group (p=0.0165).
An organized clinical and educational protocol to initiate ECPR for patients with OHCA is feasible and significantly reduces the key benchmark of time-to-ECPR flows.
Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).
By the turn of the twenty-first century, scholars had transformed our understanding of class, race, and ethnicity in the rise and demise of the US coal industry. Under the twin impact of the modern Black Freedom Movement and the rise of the New Labor History, studies of American labor and race relations fragmented during the late twentieth century. Following the lead of pioneering labor historian Herbert Gutman, one influential body of scholarship resuscitated the early history of the United Mine Workers of America and accented the emergence of remarkable forms of labor solidarity across the color line during the industrial era. Before this scholarship could gain a firm footing in the historiography of labor and working-class history, however, social activist and labor scholar Herbert Hill forcefully argued that emerging emphases on interracial working-class cooperation downplayed the persistence of racial divisions even during the most promising episodes of labor unity. In significant ways, the Hill−Gutman debate fueled the florescence of whiteness studies and the myriad ways that both capital and labor benefitted from a racially stratified workforce. Based upon this rapidly expanding historiography of coalminers in America, this essay explores how the overlapping experiences of black and white miners established the foundation for modes of cooperation as well as conflict, but the persistence of white supremacist ideology and social practices repeatedly undermined sometimes heroic movements to bridge the chasm between black and white workers.
The annealing response of amorphous Al based alloy samples were investigated to assess the role of the as-quenched state on primary crystallization of Al nanocrystals(nc). Continuous heating differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces of amorphous Al87Ni10Ce3 powders were compared to those from melt spun ribbon (MSR) to examine the effect of sample subdivision on primary crystallization. While the powders exhibited the same onset temperature as MSR, thermal cycling experiments show fine powder sizes reacting at the onset temperature and coarse powder sizes with the lowest melt quench rate transforming at the highest primary reaction temperature. In Al92Sm8 MSR, a kinetics analysis of Al nc distributions indicates a notable effect of the as-quenched state on primary crystallization during isothermal annealing. With Al88Y7Fe5 MSR intense deformation can induce thedevelopment of an Al nc distribution without thermal annealing. In each case examined, the results support the inclusion of quenched in clusters in the analysis of primary crystallization reactions.
Discrete current switching is induced in carbon nanotubes by electron beam irradiation. Switching amplitudes of 3% to 6% are observed at room temperature. Switching is created by electron beam exposure with dosage as low as 1000 pC/cm. Relative switching amplitude remains constant as the bias voltage varies, suggesting that current fluctuation is dominated by mobility fluctuation. Changes in the noise power spectral density following electron beam exposure will be discussed.
This paper aims to describe the training preparation for health visitors who took part in the intervention arm of a cluster randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of training for health visitors – the POstNatal Depression Economic evaluation and Randomised (the PoNDER) trial. A secondary aim is to make available, by electronic links, the training manuals developed for and used for the cognitive behavioural approach (CBA) and the person-centred approach (PCA) training for the health visitors. The paper is of relevance to health visitors, general practitioners, nurse practitioners, midwives, clinical psychologists, mental health nurses, community psychiatric nurses, counsellors, and service commissioners.
The trial clinical outcomes have been published, indicating the pragmatic effectiveness of the package of training for health visitors to identify depressive symptoms and provide a psychologically informed intervention. The training was associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms at six months postnatally among intervention group women and some evidence of a benefit for the intervention group for some of the secondary outcomes at 18 months follow-up.
The two experimental interventions examined in the PoNDER trial built upon promising work on the potential for psychological interventions to help women recover from postnatal depression as an alternative to pharmaceutical interventions and to address the limitations of previous research in the area.
The package of health visitor training comprised the development of clinical skills in assessing postnatal women and identifying depressive symptoms, and the delivery of a CBA or a PCA for eligible women. This was the largest trial a health visitor intervention and of postnatal depression ever conducted. We are aware of no other rigorously performed trial that has published details of an extensively tested training programme for the benefit of health-care professionals and clients.
In an attempt to establish the extent to which patients and doctors agree on the outcome of health care, the pre- and postoperative states of health of 388 men undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate for benign disease were studied. Generally, high levels of concordance (>70%) were obtained. The strongest agreement was for clearly defined events, such as episodes of acute retention (95%); the weakest agreement occurred over the most subjective symptoms, prognostic expectations, and ambiguous terms (around 60%). The level of agreement was not associated with any characteristics of the patient, surgeon, or treatment.
Throughout the years since 1983 in which military conflict between the Sri Lankan security forces and the Tamil militant groups has been the order of the day, we have witnessed a never-ending saga of a people forced into nomadic existence fleeing the areas of active conflict in search of a more secure and settled existence. Initial displacement of persons was a result of anti-Tamil campaigns in the southern parts of Sri Lanka in 1958, 1977 and 1978, which forced many Tamils to leave their homes in the Sinhala dominated parts of the country and move to the north and in the plantation areas in the late 1970s. Many of these people from the central highlands of Sri Lanka settled in the Vavuniya and Kilinochchi Districts of the Northern Province. Muslim and Sinhalese people living in Tamil majority areas have also been forced to leave due to threats against them.
[…] The question of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Sri Lanka is one of the main challenges for the humanitarian and human rights communities.
CATEGORIES OF IDPs IN SRI LANKA
The IDPs can at present be categorized under different headings to get a clearer understanding of the problem and the extent of resultant suffering, namely:
IDPs living in government controlled areas in the North and the East;
Internally displaced Tamils living in the North and East in territories held by the militants;
We examined nationally representative data from the 2002–2004 South Africa
Stress and Health Study, a national household probability sample of 4351
persons aged 18 years and older: 9.1% of respondents reported lifetime
suicide ideation, 3.8% a plan and 2.9% an attempt. Among four ethnic groups,
the Coloureda group had the highest lifetime prevalence for
attempts (7.1%). Those at higher risk of suicide attempts had one or more
Objective: Intraoperative ultrasound was introduced to evaluate the adequacy of repair after surgical repair of congenital cardiac malformations. Our purpose was to review the evolution of this technique at our centre. Methods: We evaluated all intraoperative ultrasound studies undertaken between 1997 and 2002, reviewing the data from 1997 through 2001 retrospectively, but undertaking a prospective audit of studies undertaken from 2002 onwards. In all, we carried out a total number of 639 intraoperative ultrasound studies, from a possible 2737 cardiac operations (23.3%), using the epicardal approach in 580 (90.7%), and transoesophageal ultrasound in the other 59 patients (9.3%). Median age was 0.6 years, with an interquartile range from 0.06 to 3.6 years. Results: The findings obtained using intraoperative ultrasound influenced the surgical management in 63 of the 639 patients (9.9%), suggesting the need for additional surgery in 26, adjustment of the band placed round the pulmonary trunk in 16, preoperative assessment of the cardiac malformation in 5, and confirming the need for prolonged support with cardiopulmonary bypass for impaired ventricular function in 16. There were 18 early reoperations, 5 of which may have been predicted by intraoperative ultrasound. Of the 183 studies reviewed prospectively in 2002, it was not possible to obtain the complete range of views in 8 (4.4%), while in 27 patients (14.7%), the postoperative findings using transthoracic interrogation differed from the findings obtained immediately following bypass. Conclusion: Intraoperative ultrasound is an important technique for monitoring the results of complex congenital cardiac surgery. The immediate recognition of significant lesions, together with multidisciplinary discussion, allows for improved management and prevention of early surgical reintervention.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from plant oils (α-linolenic acid; ALA) were as beneficial to cardiovascular health as the n-3 PUFA from the marine oils, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The workshop also aimed to establish priorities for future research. Dietary intake of ALA has been associated with a beneficial effect on CHD; however, the results from studies investigating the effects of ALA supplementation on CHD risk factors have proved equivocal. The studies presented as part of the present workshop suggested little, if any, benefit of ALA, relative to linoleic acid, on risk factors for cardiovascular disease; the effects observed with fish-oil supplementation were not replicated by ALA supplementation. There is a need, therefore, to first prove the efficacy of ALA supplementation on cardiovascular disease, before further investigating effects on cardiovascular risk factors. The workshop considered that a beneficial effect of ALA on the secondary prevention of CHD still needed to be established, and there was no reason to look further at existing CHD risk factors in relation to ALA supplementation. The workshop also highlighted the possibility of feeding livestock ALA-rich oils to provide a means of increasing the dietary intake in human consumers of EPA and DHA.
The growth, development, and reproductive potential of several populations of organic arsenical-susceptible (S) and -resistant (R) common cocklebur biotypes were compared under noncompetitive field conditions. Plant height, leaf area, aboveground dry weights, and relative growth rate (RGR) were measured periodically during the growing season. Days to flowering, bur dry weight, and number of burs per plant were also recorded. Arsenical S- and R-biotypes were similar in all measured parameters of growth, development, and reproductive potential. Populations within each biotype varied occasionally in plant height, leaf area, aboveground dry weights, and reproductive potential.