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During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Reintroductions are used to re-establish populations of species within their indigenous range, but their outcomes are variable. A key decision when developing a reintroduction strategy is whether to include a temporary period of confinement prior to release. Pre-release confinement is primarily used for the purpose of quarantine or as a delayed-release tactic to influence the performance or behaviour of founders post-release. A common difference between these approaches is that quarantine tends to be conducted in ex situ captivity, whereas delayed releases tend to involve in situ confinement at the release site. Although these practices are commonly viewed independently, it may be possible for a single confinement period to be used for both purposes. We tested whether temporarily holding wild eastern bettongs Bettongia gaimardi in ex situ captivity for 95–345 days prior to release (delayed release) influenced their body mass, pouch occupancy or survival during the first 1.5 years post-release, compared to founders released without confinement (immediate release). Our results suggest that exposing founders to captivity did not alter their body mass or performance post-release, despite being heavier and having fewer pouch young when released. We conclude that, for this species, ex situ captivity does not represent a tactical opportunity to improve post-release performance but can be used for quarantine without affecting the probability of establishment.
Genetic and environmental contributions to preferences for rational and experiential thinking were examined in 100 pairs of monozygotic and 73 pairs of same-sex dizygotic Australian twins. Univariate analyses for experiential thinking and working memory capacity (WMC) revealed genetic effects accounted for 44% and 39% of the variability respectively, with non-shared environmental effects accounting for the balance. For rational thinking, the univariate models produced ambiguous results about the relative roles of heritability and shared environment, but a subsequent Cholesky analysis suggested genetic effects accounted for 34%, with the balance, 66%, explained by the non-shared environment. The Cholesky analysis revealed that shared genetic effects accounted for 60%, and non-shared environment accounted for 40% of the relationship between preference for rational thinking and WMC.
This paper describes the results of two seasons of excavation and associated palaeoenvironmental analyses of a wetland site on Beccles Marshes, Beccles, Suffolk. The site has been identified as a triple post alignment of oak timbers (0.6–2.0 m long), over 100 m in length, and 3–4 m wide, running north-west to south-east towards the River Waveney. It was constructed in a single phase which has been dated dendrochronologically to 75 BC, although discrete brushwood features identified as possible short trackways have been dated by radiocarbon to both before and after the alignment was built. It is unclear if the posts ever supported a superstructure but notches (‘halving lap joints’) in some of the posts appear to have held timbers to support the posts and/or aid in their insertion. In addition, fragments of both Iron Age and Romano-British pottery were recovered. A substantial assemblage of worked wooden remains appears to reflect the construction of the post row itself and perhaps the on-site clearance of floodplain vegetation. This assemblage also contains waste material derived from the reduction splitting of timbers larger than the posts of the alignment, but which have not been recovered from the site. Environmental analyses indicate that the current landscape context of the site with respect to the River Waveney is probably similar to that which pertained in prehistory. The coleoptera (beetle) record illustrates a series of changes in the on-site vegetation in the period before, during and after the main phase of human activity which may be related to a range of factors including floodplain hydrology and anthropogenic utilisation of Beccles Marshes. The possible form and function of the site is discussed in relation to the later prehistoric period in Suffolk.
Little is known about the performance of ultrasonic nebulizers during different ventilation patterns when these nebulizers are used to deliver drugs to intubated, ventilated patients. A method that enables the performance of an ultrasonic nebulizer to be evaluated is described. We used an in vitro model to examine the performance of the DeVilbiss Ultra-Neb 2000 ultrasonic nebulizer under positive pressure ventilation. Performance was measured at different rates of nebulization and under changing conditions of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), inspiratory flow rate, inspiratory time and minute volume. The volume of saline nebulized was unchanged by variations in positive end expiratory pressure from 0 to 5 cm to 10 cm H2O, in minute ventilation and in inspiratory flow rate. An increase in the inspiratory time resulted in an increase in the volume of saline nebulized and this volume was greater as the power setting of the nebulizer was increased. We conclude that ultrasonic nebulizers may be affected by different patterns of ventilation and that this simple in vitro assessment of nebulizer function in an intensive care setting may be of value prior to nebulizer use.
To determine the cause of clustered bacteremias occurring among chronic hemodialysis patients.
A retrospective investigation of clinical and laboratory records with direct observation of dialysis facilities and technique. Bacterial blood isolates were identified and compared with environmental isolates.
The 1 1-station chronic hemodialysis unit that serves approximately 50 patients in a 450-bed military hospital.
Hemodialysis unit patients with aerobic gram-negative bacillus or Enterococcus casseliflavus blood isolates between April 1988 and February 1990.
The recovery and species identification of the unique isolate, E casseliflavus, from 2 index cases of bacteremia in February 1990 helped identify the cluster and demonstrated its protracted course. Dialysis blood tubing was contaminated with ultrafiltrate waste during dialyzer setup.
Bacteremias were controlled by halting the practice of attaching the venous tubing directly to a waste container while priming the membrane, by emphasizing glove changes and handwashing after contact with ultrafiltrate waste and by daily decontamination of ultrafiltrate waste bags.
We recommend that other hemodialysis units institute these interventions.