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Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
Our study compares adequacy of nutritional intakes among pregnant women with different prepregnancy BMI and explores associations between nutritional intakes during pregnancy and both prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG). We collected dietary information from a large cohort of pregnant Canadian women (n 861) using a 3-d food record. We estimated usual dietary intakes of energy (E), macronutrients and micronutrients using the National Cancer Institute method. We also performed Pearson’s correlations between nutritional intakes and both prepregnancy BMI and GWG. In all BMI categories, intakes considered suboptimal (by comparison with estimated average requirements) were noted for Fe, vitamin D, folate, vitamin B6, Mg, Zn, Ca and vitamin A. Total fat intakes were above the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) for 36 % of the women. A higher proportion of obese women had carbohydrate intakes (as %E) below the AMDR (v. normal-weight and overweight women; 19 v. 9 %) and Na intakes above the tolerable upper intake level (v. other BMI categories; 90 v. 77–78 %). In all BMI categories, median intakes of K and fibre were below adequate intake. Intakes of several nutrients (adjusted for energy) were correlated with BMI. Correlations were detected between energy-adjusted nutrient intakes and total GWG and were, for the most part, specific to certain BMI categories. Overweight and obese pregnant women appear to be the most nutritionally vulnerable. Nutrition interventions are needed to guide pregnant women toward their optimal GWG while also meeting their nutritional requirements.
Seminars in the Psychiatry of Learning Disabilities, 2nd edition is an informative and readable textbook that provides a comprehensive overview of the field in one volume. It is both a revision and an expansion of the first edition, published in 1997. The field of learning disability has advanced very rapidly, with changes in the climate of caring, diagnostic categories and concepts and our understanding of the diverse causes of learning disability. This second edition contains several new chapters incorporating accounts of the psychological treatment of behavioural problems, consent and capacity, the underlying causes of learning disability and molecular genetics. Existing challenges facing learning disability specialists are also highlighted, including physical health needs, communication between professionals and those with learning disabilities and the organisation of comprehensive health care. Ideal for those in specialist training, or those seeking a more general understanding of learning disabilities. Topics explained in accessible, tutorial-style chapters. Comprehensive coverage of the subject in a single volume.
Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) are responding to ocean–climate variability throughout the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) where some breeding colonies have declined by 80%. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers were used to understand historical population genetic structure and gene flow given relatively recent and continuing reductions in sea ice habitats and changes in numbers of breeding adults at colonies throughout the WAP. Genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure, genetic signatures of fluctuations in population demography and gene flow were assessed in four regional Adélie penguin colonies. The analyses indicated little genetic structure overall based on bi-parentally inherited microsatellite markers (FST =-0.006–0.004). No significant variance was observed in overall haplotype frequency (mtDNA ΦST =0.017; P=0.112). Some comparisons with Charcot Island were significant, suggestive of female-biased philopatry. Estimates of gene flow based on a two-population coalescent model were asymmetrical from the species’ regional core to its northern range. Breeding Adélie penguins of the WAP are a panmictic population and hold adequate genetic diversity and dispersal capacity to be resilient to environmental change.
This paper reports on the substantial improvement of specimen quality by use of a low voltage (0.05 to ~1 keV), small diameter (~1 μm), argon ion beam following initial preparation using conventional broad-beam ion milling or focused ion beam. The specimens show significant reductions in the amorphous layer thickness and implanted artifacts. The targeted ion milling controls the specimen thickness according to the needs of advanced aberration-corrected and/or analytical transmission electron microscopy applications.
Navigators help rural older adults with advanced illness and their families connect to needed resources, information, and people to improve their quality of life. This article describes the process used to engage experts – in rural aging, rural palliative care, and navigation – as well as rural community stakeholders to develop a conceptual definition of navigation and delineate navigation competencies for the care of this population. A discussion paper on the important considerations for navigation in this population was developed followed by a four-phased Delphi process with 30 expert panel members. Study results culminated in five general navigation competencies for health care providers caring for older rural persons and their families at end of life: provide patient/family screening; advocate for the patient/family; facilitate community connections; coordinate access to services and resources; and promote active engagement. Specific competencies were also developed. These competencies provide the foundation for research and curriculum development in navigation.
understand the relationship between supervisor and subordinate and the implicit and explicit expectations of this relationship?
clarify my manager’s performance expectations of me and the broader expectations of managers to obtain the best performance from each individual?
identify why some staff fall below expectations and determine the appropriate approaches to manage these issues?
develop skills in using frameworks to guide my behaviour and actions in holding staff to account?
adopt leadership styles that will be most effective in holding others to account?
In contemporary healthcare services, managers are required to create environments in which competing forces place significant demands on the system as well as individuals to contribute to productivity. Each employee is held accountable and responsible for their part in contributing to this productivity.
Often, people feel that being held to account is something negative that usually happens to them when things go wrong, rather than something they can utilise to ensure success (Smith, 2014). Holding to account can be difficult if the perceptions of the supervisor and subordinate are at odds. It could reasonably be expected that a nurse manager would be aware of their supervisor’s expectations and hold a shared perspective on performance accountabilities; however, this is not always the case. We cannot assume that people share the same understanding of what they are accountable for or the standards expected of them. Accountabilities need to be made explicit and clear.