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On October 10, 2020, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Supportive Care Service hosted their first-ever United States (US) World Hospice and Palliative Care Day (WHPCD) Celebration. The purpose of this article is to describe the US inaugural event in alignment with the broader goals of WHPCD and provide lessons learned in anticipation of the second annual conference to be held on October 5–6, 2021.
Description of the inaugural event in the context of COVID-19 and WHPCD, co-planning conference team reflection, and attendee survey responses.
The Worldwide Hospice Palliative Care Alliance initially launched WHPCD in 2005 as an annual unified day of action to celebrate and support hospice and palliative care around the world. The US-based innovative virtual conference featured 23 interprofessional hospice and palliative care specialists and patient and family caregiver speakers across nine diverse sessions addressing priorities at the intersection of COVID-19, social injustice, and the global burden of serious health-related suffering. Two primary aims guided the event: community building and wisdom sharing. Nearly 270 registrants from at least 16 countries and one dozen states across the US joined the free program focused on both personal and professional development.
Significance of results
Unlike many other academic conferences and professional gatherings that were relegated to online forums due to pandemic-related restrictions, the US WHPCD Celebration was intentionally established to create a virtual coming together for collective reflection on the barriers and facilitators of palliative care delivery amid vast societal change. The goal to ensure a globally relevant and culturally inclusive agenda will continue to draw increased participation at an international level during future annual events. Finally, the transparent and respectful sharing of palliative care team experiences in the year preceding the conference established a safe environment for both individual expression and scholarly discussion.
Individuals with schizophrenia are more likely to smoke and less likely to quit smoking than those without schizophrenia. Because task persistence is lower in smokers with than without schizophrenia, it is possible that lower levels of task persistence may contribute to greater difficulties in quitting smoking observed among smokers with schizophrenia.
To develop a feasible and acceptable intervention for smokers with schizophrenia.
Participants (N = 24) attended eight weekly individual cognitive behavioral therapy sessions for tobacco use disorder with a focus on increasing task persistence and received 10 weeks of nicotine patch.
In total, 93.8% of participants rated the intervention as at least a 6 out of 7 regarding how ‘easy to understand’ it was and 81.3% rated the treatment as at least a 6 out of 7 regarding how helpful it was to them. A total of 62.5% attended at least six of the eight sessions and session attendance was positively related to nicotine dependence and age and negatively related to self-efficacy for quitting.
This intervention was feasible and acceptable to smokers with schizophrenia. Future research will examine questions appropriate for later stages of therapy development such as initial efficacy of the intervention and task persistence as a mediator of treatment outcome.
Studies have demonstrated that the effects of two well-known predictors of adolescent substance use, family monitoring and antisocial peers, are not static but change over the course of adolescence. Moreover, these effects may differ for different groups of youth. The current study uses time-varying effect modeling to examine the changes in the association between family monitoring and antisocial peers and marijuana use from ages 11 to 19, and to compare these associations by gender and levels of behavioral disinhibition. Data are drawn from the Raising Healthy Children study, a longitudinal panel of 1,040 youth. The strength of association between family monitoring and antisocial peers and marijuana use was mostly steady over adolescence, and was greater for girls than for boys. Differences in the strength of the association were also evident by levels of behavioral disinhibition: youth with lower levels of disinhibition were more susceptible to the influence of parents and peers. Stronger influence of family monitoring on girls and less disinhibited youth was most evident in middle adolescence, whereas the stronger effect of antisocial peers was significant during middle and late adolescence. Implications for the timing and targeting of marijuana preventive interventions are discussed.
Some primary care physicians provide less than optimal care for depression (Kessler et al., Journal of the American Medical Association 291, 2581–90, 2004). However, the literature is not unanimous on the best method to use in order to investigate this variation in care. To capture variations in physician behaviour and decision making in primary care settings, 32 interactive CD-ROM vignettes were constructed and tested.
Aim and method
The primary aim of this methods-focused paper was to review the extent to which our study method – an interactive CD-ROM patient vignette methodology – was effective in capturing variation in physician behaviour. Specifically, we examined the following questions: (a) Did the interactive CD-ROM technology work? (b) Did we create believable virtual patients? (c) Did the research protocol enable interviews (data collection) to be completed as planned? (d) To what extent was the targeted study sample size achieved? and (e) Did the study interview protocol generate valid and reliable quantitative data and rich, credible qualitative data?
Among a sample of 404 randomly selected primary care physicians, our voice-activated interactive methodology appeared to be effective. Specifically, our methodology – combining interactive virtual patient vignette technology, experimental design, and expansive open-ended interview protocol – generated valid explanations for variations in primary care physician practice patterns related to depression care.
Proffitt, Stefanucci, Banton, and Epstein (2003) reported a set of studies showing that the perceived distance to a target is influenced by the effort required to walk to its location. Hutchison and Loomis (H&L) reported an experiment that failed to find a significant influence of effort on indices of apparent distance. There were numerous important differences between the design and methods of H&L's study and those of Proffitt et al. Moreover, there are important theoretical reasons to believe that these differences were responsible for the different results. The theoretical motivation of H&L's studies was also brought into question.
To characterize red eye reactions occurring within 24 hours after receipt of units of leukocyte-reduced red blood cells, determine their etiology, and investigate their potential link to transfusion.
We conducted a survey of transfusion facilities nationwide to determine the scope and magnitude of the reactions; performed case-control and cohort studies among transfused patients at the facility where most reactions occurred; and performed animal experiments, using cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from leukocyte-reduction filters and filter precursors, to reproduce reactions.
From January 1, 1997, through January 15, 1998, we identified 159 reactions in 117 patients from 17 states. Reactions were characterized by conjunctival erythema or hemorrhage (in 100% of patients), eye pain (in 62%), photophobia (in 46%), and decreased visual acuity (in 32%). Symptom onset occurred 1-24 hours after initiation of transfusion and resolved within a median of 5 days. Reactions were associated with transfusion sessions that included units of red blood cells filtered with a specific brand of filter, the LeukoNet filter (HemaSure) (odds ratio, 100.4; P< .001). There was a dose-response relationship between the number of LeukoNet-filtered units transfused and the attack rate for reactions, ranging from 0.8% among sessions in which 1 unit was transfused to 27.3% among sessions in which 3 or more units were transfused (P< .001). A similar ocular syndrome was elicited in rabbits injected with cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from unused LeukoNet filters or filter precursors. No reactions were reported after LeukoNet filters were withdrawn from the market.
This transfusion-associated red eye syndrome was linked to a specific brand of leukocyte-reduction filter and likely resulted from cellulose acetate derivatives leached from the filter membrane.
While acknowledging that their design and methods were different from the original Proffitt, Stefanucci, Banton, and Epstein (2003) study, Hutchison and Loomis (H&L) continue to argue that their findings qualify our account of energetic influences on distance perception. This reply provides a brief and focused discussion of the methodological differences between their study and ours and why these differences were likely responsible for the different results. It is also argued that the measures employed by H&L are assessments of apparent location, not apparent distance.
Shepard has supposed that the mind is stocked with innate knowledge of the world and that this knowledge figures prominently in the way we see the world. According to him, this internal knowledge is the legacy of a process of internalization; a process of natural selection over the evolutionary history of the species. Shepard has developed his proposal most fully in his analysis of the relation between kinematic geometry and the shape of the motion path in apparent motion displays. We argue that Shepard has made a case for applying the principles of kinematic geometry to the perception of motion, but that he has not made the case for injecting these principles into the mind of the percipient. We offer a more modest interpretation of his important findings: that kinematic geometry may be a model of apparent motion. Inasmuch as our recommended interpretation does not lodge geometry in the mind of the percipient, the motivation of positing internalization, a process that moves kinematic geometry into the mind, is obviated. In our conclusion, we suggest that cognitive psychologists, in their embrace of internal mental universals and internalization may have been seduced by the siren call of metaphor.
Global and Regional Characteristics and Impacts of ENSO Variability
Germán Poveda, Postgrado en Recursos Hidráulicos, Universidad National de Colombia, Facultadde Minas. Carrera 80 Calle 65, Bloque M2-300 Medellín, Colombia,
Nicholas E. Graham, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, U.S.A.,
Paul R. Epstein, Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
William Rojas, Corporatión para Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB), Carrera 72 A No. 78 B 141, Medellím, Colombia,
Martha L. Quiñones,
Iván Darío Vélez, Programa de Control de Enfermedades Tropicales (PECET), Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 62 No. 52–19, Medellím, Colombia,
Willem J.M. Martens, International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Climatic factors are associated with the incidence of diverse vector-borne diseases (VBDs). Colombia, located in tropical South America, witnesses high precipitation rates and temperatures, varying with elevation over the Andes. We show how temperatures are linked to malaria incidence throughout the country, and we compare those results with those obtained via simple mathematical expressions that represent indices associated with malaria transmission as a function of temperature. Interannual climatic variability in tropical South America is strongly associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Most of the region, including Colombia, experiences prolonged dry periods and above normal air temperatures during El Niño, and generally opposite conditions during La Niña. Through correlation analysis, we show that during El Niño events there are outbreaks of malaria and dengue fever in Colombia. These outbreaks could be explained in terms of a decrease in precipitation and an increase in air temperature, which favor the ecological, biological, and entomological components of these diseases.
We illustrate the ability to predict malaria cases in Colombia by using an epidemiological model based on the concept of vectorial capacity (see Martens et al. 1997). This transmission potential model is driven with surface air temperatures derived from an atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM3 model, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology) with a spatial resolution of about 300 km. The malarial model produces peaks in Plasmodium vivax vectorial capacity during El Niño years and an upward trend with time, in agreement with the Colombian malarial historical record.
Pylyshyn uses constraints to solve many of the problems
associated with the inverse problem in vision. We are sympathetic to
such an approach, and indeed, we think that in many cases constraints
allow tract-able solutions to otherwise insoluble problems. We argue,
however, that Pylyshyn has been too quick to assume that certain
perceptual phenomena can be explained by appealing to constraints
embodied in the visual machinery. For several more complex perceptual
phenomena it is not clear how one proceeds to look for constraints
once simple constraints like rigidity have been abandoned.